August 14, 2007


SECURITY STRATEGY FOR CENTRAL AMERICA AND MEXICO

Considering:

The democratic security model established in the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security in Central America, a model based on the supremacy and strengthening of civil power, the reasonable balance of forces, the security of persons and of their property, the elimination of poverty and extreme poverty, the promotion of sustainable development, the protection of the environment, and the elimination of violence, corruption, impunity, terrorism, drug trafficking, and arms trafficking;

The increasingly transnational nature of organized crime activities and the absolute need to strengthen and fortify cooperation in this regard in the Region; and

Whereas:

On October 3, 2006, the summit of heads of state and government of the SICA member countries on the subject of security was held in Bosques de Zambrano, Francisco Morazán, Honduras, with the participation of the President-Elect of Mexico;

The Thirty-First Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, held in San Salvador on October 20, 2006, resulted in an agreement to the effect that Central America and the United Mexican States would continue their dialogues on security in the framework of the priorities indicated by the SICA Heads of State and Government and in accordance with the mechanisms agreed upon by the parties;

During the Ninth Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Tuxtla Dialogue and Consultation Mechanism, the leaders reiterated the commitment to strengthen cooperation in the area of security and the campaign against organized crime, for which purpose specific efforts have been undertaken via the establishment of secure channels for the exchange of information and strategies to help close off avenues to international crime and terrorism;

The Second Mexico-Central America Dialogue on Democratic Security, held in the framework of the Thirty-Second Meeting of the Central American Security Commission on May 15 and 16, 2007, in San Salvador, El Salvador, set the goals of coordinating efforts to combat narcotics trafficking, organized crime, maras and/or pandillas [gangs], and other goals identified as of mutual interest, in the context of respect for the sovereignty of states and international law;

The Governments of Central America and Mexico hereby decide to adopt the:

Security Strategy for Central America and Mexico

This Strategy is the basic instrument intended to be used, in a comprehensive manner, to guide the coordinated security actions to be adopted by the countries of the Region in the context of their respective legal systems.

In this regard, the Strategy establishes common objectives, action areas, and procedures to be followed to achieve the required levels of security for Central American citizens. Furthermore, it is an important tool in the quest to identify financial needs and to arrange for and obtain international financing and cooperation while presenting in a harmonized fashion the various efforts the Region is making in the area of security.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

To establish the components and activities necessary to strengthen the security of persons and their property in the Central American Region and Mexico, with a view to enabling our peoples to achieve human development objectives.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

1. To integrate the various efforts the Region is making in the area of security in order to harmonize them and achieve improved results;

2. To facilitate coordination and exchange of information and experiences among the various operating bodies and agencies of the Region to combat Regional crime activities more effectively;

3. To identify and arrange for financial, resource, and training needs required by the institutions responsible for overseeing security.

STRATEGY COMPONENTS

A. FIGHTING CRIME

I. ORGANIZED CRIME

1. UPDATE, COORDINATE, IMPLEMENT, AND FOLLOW UP ON THE REGIONAL PLAN TO COMBAT ORGANIZED CRIME AND ON THE VARIOUS OTHER PLANS IN EFFECT;

2. PROTECT VICTIMS OF HUMAN SMUGGLING AND/OR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS; AND

3. TAKE COORDINATED ACTIONS TO COMBAT VEHICLE THEFT.

II. COUNTERNARCOTICS EFFORTS

1. PROMOTE THE ADOPTION OF A MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON THE INTERDICTION AND INTERCEPTION OF NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING;

2. STRENGTHEN INFORMATION-EXCHANGE MECHANISMS;

3. PROMOTE NEGOTIATIONS TO FIND MECHANISMS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDS CONFISCATED FROM NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING, MONEY LAUNDERING, AND ORGANIZED CRIME ACTIVITIES;

4. COMBAT DIVERSION OF CHEMICAL PRECURSORS.

III. DEPORTEES WITH CRIMINAL RECORDS OR EX-CONVICTS

IV. GANGS [PANDILLAS]– TRANSNATIONAL ANTI-GANG CENTER (TAG)

V. HOMICIDE

VI. ILLICIT WEAPONS TRAFFICKING

VII. TERRORISM

VIII. CORRUPTION

IX. OTHER POLICE-RELATED ISSUES

1. POLICE ATTACHÉ OFFICES;

2. POLICE INTELLIGENCE;

3. USE OF THE INTERPOL I-24/7 SYSTEM;

4. TOURIST SECURITY; AND

5. POLICE BORDER SECURITY.

X. LEGAL ISSUES

1. PROMOTION OF THE DRAFT AGREEMENT ON CENTRAL AMERICAN COOPERATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS AND WITNESSES;

2. PROMOTION OF SPEEDY RATIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN TREATY ON ARREST WARRANTS AND SIMPLIFIED EXTRADITION PROCEDURES;

3. POSSIBILITY OF INCORPORATING “RED ALERT” INTO THE COUNTRIES’ INTERNAL LEGAL SYSTEMS;

4. USE OF TAPPING AND INTERCEPTION OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AS AN INVESTIGATIVE TOOL;

5. HARMONIZATION OF CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LEGISLATION.

XI. TRAINING

B. VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION AND REINTEGRATION

C. INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING: COORDINATION OF FOLLOW-UP OF REGIONAL STRATEGY.

STRATEGIC COMPONENTS

A. FIGHTING CRIME

I. ORGANIZED CRIME[1]

1. UPDATE, COORDINATE, IMPLEMENT, AND FOLLOW UP ON THE REGIONAL PLAN TO COMBAT ORGANIZED CRIME AND THE VARIOUS OTHER PLANS IN EFFECT;

OBJECTIVE:

Work in a coordinated fashion to combat organized crime activities.

SCOPE:

Strengthen cooperation and exchange of tactical and operational strategic information in efforts to combat the various trends in organized crime: goods smuggling; money laundering; narcotics activity; robbery of banks and of money/valuables transport vehicles; vehicle theft; illicit trafficking in cultural assets; kidnappings; illicit trafficking in weapons, ammunition, explosives, and similar articles; human smuggling and person trafficking, smuggling of migrants [trafico ilícito de migrantes—literally “illicit trafficking in migrants”]; terrorism, and gangs;

ACTIVITIES:

- Periodically review and update the Regional Plan to Combat Organized Crime implemented by the Commission of Police Chiefs of Central America, as well as the plans currently in effect on security, with the participation of the competent Mexican authorities;

- Integrate and harmonize the various plans in effect;

- Carry out the operational actions contained in the plans;

- Periodically submit to the Central American Security Commission and the Government of the Mexico reports on the results of implementation of these plans.

2. PROTECT VICTIMS OF HUMAN SMUGGLING AND/OR PERSON TRAFFICKING[2]

OBJECTIVE:

Provide victims of human smuggling and person trafficking with humanitarian assistance and humane treatment and prosecute and penalize human smugglers and person traffickers;

ACTIVITIES:

- Strengthen cooperation for the humane and respectful repatriation of victims of human smuggling and person trafficking;

- Establish procedures for repatriation of nationals found in another country of the Region;

- Establish temporary shelters;

- Amend pertinent crime legislation, especially that relating to handlers [benefactores] of the victims; and

- Make efforts to develop comprehensive care programs for trafficking victims;

- Promote the development and, where applicable, compatibility of the technological platforms for immigration control systems, as well as interconnection for the exchange of timely information among the competent authorities of the countries involved.

3. COORDINATE ACTIONS FOR COMBATING VEHICLE THEFT[3],[4]

OBJECTIVE:

Combat vehicle theft at the Regional level, promoting the prompt recovery and return of vehicles.

ACTIVITIES:

- Conduct operations on the roads and highways of Central America and Mexico in the countries’ respective jurisdictions in order to recover stolen vehicles;

- Expedite the return of the recovered vehicles to their owners or legal representatives;

- Make efforts to ensure that the countries that have not already done so implement the RECSI [Central American Network Information System for the location and recovery of stolen vehicles] system as soon as possible. Mexico will consider participating in this initiative;

II. EFFORTS TO COMBAT NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING

1. PROMOTE THE ADOPTION OF A MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON INTERDICTION AND INTERCEPTION OF INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING[5]

OBJECTIVE:

Establish and regulate procedures for coordination during the tracking, identification, interdiction, and interception on land, at sea, and in air, respectively, in cases where there is a reasonable suspicion that vessels or aircraft traveling through the territories of the respective countries are carrying drugs or engaging in any other offense under the laws of each country.

SCOPE:

Ensure the operational effectiveness and promptness of Regional efforts to combat narcotics trafficking while continuously safeguarding the sovereignty of the countries.

ACTIVITIES:

- Share the experiences each country has had regarding internal inter-agency cooperation;

- Agree on the procedure to be followed for tracking, identification, and interception on land, at sea, and in air;

- Adopt an operational coordination flow chart;

- Identify liaisons and contact points;

- Establish early warning mechanisms;

- Have in place properly encrypted means of communication that allow for real-time sharing of information;

- Request that the General Secretariat of SICA (SG-SICA) put together a multidisciplinary technical team with the participation of Mexico to draft a proposal for a memorandum of understanding on the uniform interdiction and interception of international narcotics trafficking, ensuring that international treaties on this subject are applied.

- 2. STRENGTHENING OF INFORMATION EXCHANGE MECHANISMS[6]

OBJECTIVE:

To strengthen the various information exchange mechanisms and generation of police intelligence to combat narcotics trafficking and other manifestations of transnational crime in the Region pursuant to the internal legislation of each country.

ACTIVITIES:

- Identify liaisons and contact points for the exchange of information and generation of police intelligence;

- Establish early warning mechanisms;

- Have in place properly encrypted means of communication that allow for real-time sharing of information;

- Expand Regional efforts for the fulfillment of the commitments assumed in the scope of the OAS/CICAD [Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission] Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism

3. PROMOTE NEGOTIATIONS TO SEEK MECHANISMS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF PROCEEDS CONFISCATED FROM NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING, MONEY LAUNDERING, OR ORGANIZED CRIME ACTIVITIES [7]

OBJECTIVE:

Support national and Regional institutions in their efforts to combat narcotics trafficking, money laundering, or organized crime activities through the establishment of transparent mechanisms that allow for the distribution of resources derived from coordinated operations in which there has been an exchange of information and police intelligence, pursuant to the internal legislation of each country.

ACTIVITIES:

- Adopt understandings or agreements that, under the terms of Article 5(5) of the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, permit the countries “on a regular or case-by-case basis,” to distribute proceeds or property confiscated “or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds or property, in accordance with its domestic law, administrative procedures.”

- Establish a working group to prepare a draft regional convention on the distribution of confiscated funds derived narcotics trafficking, money laundering, or organized crime activities.

4. EFFORTS TO COMBAT DIVERSION OF CHEMICAL PRECURSORS[8]

OBJECTIVE:

Address the diversion of chemical precursors and strengthen cooperative actions for tracking the illegal flow of such precursors.

ACTIVITIES:

- Expand and strengthen mechanisms for the exchange of relevant information to prevent the international diversion of chemical precursors;

- Accord special priority to the investigation and control of chemical precursors and the dismantling of illegal synthetic drug laboratories;

- Improve border, port, and airport surveillance of the movement of controlled products;

- Coordinate methods for oversight of controlled substances;

- Supplement actions already being implemented by the countries of the Region in international organizations such as OAS/CICAD and UN/UNODC [United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime].

III. DEPORTEES WITH CRIMINAL RECORDS OR EX-CONVICTS

OBJECTIVES

Promote the adoption of procedures for transparent, humane, orderly, and safe repatriation and/or deportation.

ACTIVITY

Establish a working sub-group composed of officials from agencies of competent jurisdiction for the purpose of addressing, inter alia, issues relating to the repatriation of ex-convicts.

IV. GANGS[9] ,[10]

TRANSNATIONAL ANTI-GANG CENTER (TAG)[11]

OBJECTIVE:

To establish a police system for the monitoring, analysis, and investigation of transnational criminal activities of gangs.

SCOPE:

Implement various measures geared to preventing the worsening of the problem of gangs in North and Central American.

ACTIVITIES

- Designate the TAG national liaison office;

- Compile, analyze, and dispatch information relating to transnational criminal activities of gangs;

- Conduct investigations of transnational criminal acts involving gangs;

- Identify the transnational crime patterns of gangs;

- Determine the levels of connection among the various gangs and the structures of national and transnational organized crime;

- Take steps to establish a regional data base on gangs;

- Form a working group for the design and establishment of the data base on gangs.

- V. HOMICIDE

- OBJECTIVE:

- Reduce homicide rates in the Region.

- ACTIVITIES:

- Strengthen the technological development of biometrics and ballistics data;

- Share experiences in the investigating and punishment of homicide; and

- Periodically conduct simultaneous operations to arrest homicide perpetrators in various countries of the Region.

VI. EFFORTS TO COMBAT ILLICIT WEAPONS TRAFFICKING

OBJECTIVES:

Take decisive action in the Region to combat illicit weapons trafficking, thus preventing the use of trafficked weapons for the commission of other crimes, particularly homicide.

ACTIVITIES:

- Ensure international treaties on this subject are enforced, in particular the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and other Related Materials (CIFTA);

- Establish a forum of competent central authorities of Central America and Mexico to promote common mechanisms for the effective control of this phenomenon;

- Adopt best practices at customs and borders to control weapons trafficking in the Region;

- Promote the establishment of a system for the exchange of information about legally registered firearms and of a regional registry of confiscated firearms;

- Strengthen the Central American project for the control of small and light weapons; and

- Promote compliance with the Code of Conduct of Central American States on the Transfer of Arms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Material.

VIII. TERRORISM[12]

OBJECTIVE:

Establish a system for the exchange of information and intelligence to help detect and assess risks and threats of a terrorist nature. Design a specific program to address and combat terrorism.

ACTIVITIES:

- Establish contact points and liaisons;

- Coordinate cooperation of experts for risk assessment;

- Establish early warning and early response mechanisms;

- Analyze national legal instruments. Define relevance and means of rendering them consistent with national constitutions and international treaties on this subject; and

- Establish a secure route for the reciprocal flow of information and intelligence.

VIII. CORRUPTION

OBJECTIVE:

Help eliminate all types of corruption in the Region at all levels.

ACTIVITIES:

- Design and establish regional programs and projects for legislative modernization and harmonization, investigation, education, and prevention with respect to corruption;

- Help publicize the provisions of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption and the United Nations Convention against Corruption;

- Take into account efforts already being made under both Conventions so that they may contribute to the implementation of a national strategy to combat corruption in each country of the Region;

- Follow up on commitments adopted for the implementation of the 2006 Guatemala declaration on corruption; and

- Strengthen international cooperation and exchange of legal information.

IX. OTHER POLICE-RELATED ISSUES

1. POLICE ATTACHÉ OFFICES[13], [14], [15]

OBJECTIVE:

Establish police attaché offices which can also serve as liaison and information-exchange units.

ACTIVITIES:

- Designate police attaché offices.

2. POLICE INTELLIGENCE[16], [17], [18]

OBJECTIVE:

Strengthen the regional police intelligence community.

ACTIVITIES:

- Develop a regional police intelligence model;

- Operate a police communication and intelligence network in real time;

- Strengthen liaisons for the dissemination of information.

3. USE OF INTERPOL I-24/7 SYSTEM[19], [20], [21]

OBJECTIVE:

Strengthen the use of the I-24/7 system by the countries of the Region for the secure, exchange of information in real time;

ACTIVITIES:

- Promote the connectivity of the countries of the Region and their specialized internal units with the I-24/7 system; and

- Supplement the I-24/7 with other platforms for the recording, investigation, and/or prevention of crime.

4. TOURIST SECURITY [22]

OBJECTIVE:

Strengthen tourist protection and security measures to make the Region a safe and reliable destination.

ACTIVITIES:

- Design a tourism police model for the Region involving the tourism sector and industry;

- Establish a Regional tourism security community;

- Adopt a Handbook of Good Police Practices on Tourism;

- Implement special instructions on tourist security; and

- Perform regional studies to identify critical areas among tourist destinations.

5. POLICE BORDER SECURITY[23]

OBJECTIVE:

To transform the border police models in order to facilitate Regional cooperation in efforts to combat organized crime;

ACTIVITIES:

- Carry out coordinated operations in the border areas of each country of the Region;

- Strengthen binational police efforts; and

- Establish police reference models at border posts and in border cities.

X. LEGAL ISSUES

1. DRAFT AGREEMENT ON CENTRAL AMERICAN COOPERATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS AND WITNESSES[24], [25], [26]

OBJECTIVE:

Ensure the active, secure, and conscious participation of persons having victim or witness status in a manner that will effectively contribute to judicial investigations and court proceedings.

ACTIVITIES:

- Conclude negotiations on, promote the adoption of, and ratify, this Agreement;

2. PROMOTION OF SPEEDY RATIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN TREATY ON ARREST WARRANTS AND SIMPLIFIED EXTRADITION PROCEDURES[27], [28], [29], [30], [31]

OBJECTIVE:

Prevent persons awaiting arrest, prosecution, or sentencing from taking refuge in the territories of other countries to evade justice in the country or countries in which they engaged in their crime(s).

ACTIVITIES:

- Obtain legislative ratification of this Treaty by the signatory countries.

3. POSSIBILITY OF INCORPORATING “RED ALERT” INTO COUNTRIES’ INTERNAL LEGAL SYSTEMS[32]

OBJECTIVE:

Use the international arrest warrant (red alert) against foreign fugitives who are discovered in any of the Central American INTERPOL-member countries

ACTITIVIES:

Incorporate red alert into internal legal systems as the equivalent of an international arrest warrant

4. USE OF TAPPING AND INTERCEPTION OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AS AN INVESTIGATIVE TOOL[33]

OBJECTIVE:

Use judicially authorized tapping and interception of telecommunications in the investigation of crime

ACTIVITIES:

- Urge the countries that do not yet have this tool to join in implementing it, where applicable, by making the appropriate legal modifications; and

- Develop capacity in this area, particularly for information analysts.

5. HARMONIZATION OF CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LEGISLATION

OBJECTIVE:

Facilitate the harmonized implementation of crime legislation in each of the countries of the Region.

ACTIVITIES:

- Perform comparative studies and systematize the implementation of crime legislation in each of the countries of the Region; and

- Promote regionalization of bilateral treaties in effect on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters and extradition while working toward the simplification and promptness of the procedures thereunder.

XI. TRAINING[34], [35], [36], [37], [38]

OBJECTIVE:

To raise the capacity of institutions to respond to threats to regional security

ACTVITIES:

- Strengthen the operation of the Central American Institute of Advanced Police Studies (ICESPO);

- Conduct training sessions and specialization courses in the following areas: police analysis and intelligence; criminal investigations; tactical and operative specialized units; and combating organized crime;

- Implement the training program offered by the Government of Mexico in: analysis of information in telephone tapping cases; investigation and control of chemical precursors; dismantling of synthetic drug laboratories; crisis management and efforts to combat kidnapping; improved control over the movement of controlled products at borders, ports, and airports; and suitable methods for oversight of controlled substances;

- Establish a joint program for specific training in the area of detection and assessment of terrorist risks, and of strategies and tactics to prevent and combat them;

- Strengthen criminal investigation to support the actions of public prosecutors’ offices in the effective administration of justice; and

- Strengthen the capacity of CICAD headquarters in Honduras[39]

B. VIOLENCE PREVENTION, AND REHABILITATION AND REINTEGRATION

OBJECTIVE:

Address factors that contribute to violence in the Region

ACTIVITIES:

- Strengthen the “Secure Central America” plan;

- Strengthen the pertinent public policies in each country and seek areas of common concern with a view to carrying out regional actions;

- Carry out a program for the exchange of pertinent experiences among bodies of experts in each country; and

- Analyze the issues faced in prisons and formulate programs and projects to improve conditions for prisoners.

C. INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING: COORDINATION OF FOLLOW-UP OF REGIONAL STRATEGY

OBJECTIVE:

Strengthen Central American institution building in the area of security

ACTIVITIES:

- Have in place a permanent body for the coordination and follow-up of the Regional Strategy as an integral part of the SICA General Secretariat, with the full participation of the attorneys general and police chiefs;

- Periodically evaluate efforts and results of the Regional Strategy in the areas of fighting crime, crime prevention, rehabilitation, and reintegration;

- Consolidate criminal statistics at the Central America-Mexico level, especially taking into account the statistics generated by the reports of the Police Chiefs of Central America, of the Mexico counterparts institutions, and the Central American Observatory Against Violence (OCAVI);

- Strengthen investigative police units, public prosecutors’ offices, and the various agencies engaged in criminal and forensic investigations, by endowing them with sufficient resources to improve results in the prosecution of crime;

- The possibility of establishing autonomous forensic and expert institutes will be considered;

- Consider the establishment of autonomous forensic institutes when possible.

San Salvador, August 14, 2007

[Annex]

Commission of Police Chiefs and Directors

of Central America and the Caribbean

Glossary of Criminal Justice Terminology

The following definitions shall apply for the Central American area:

1. Trafficking in illegal immigrants [trafico de inmigrantes ilegales][*]

(a) Trafficker in illegal immigrants: Person who either leads or arranges for the leading of one or more persons of any nationality or origin through national territories in order to bring them illegally into another State for any purpose.

(b) Illegal immigrants. Foreigners who enter a nation’s territory illegally for the purpose of remaining there or to transit on to a third country.

2. Terrorism. Crimes against public security, the security of the State, or constitutional order that employ different means (weapons, explosives, chemicals or biological warfare, etc.), causing large-scale devastation, or railway, maritime, and aviation disasters.

3. Kidnapping. [secuestro or plagio] Crime whereby a person deprives another of his freedom for the purpose of obtaining from him or a third party as the price for his release, money, goods, property, documents, etc., for the kidnapper or the person or persons he designates.

4. weapons Trafficking. This is defined as the illegal importation, exportation, procurement, sale, delivery, movement, or transfer and warehousing of firearms, munitions, explosives, and other related material from or through the territory of one State to that of another.

5. Trafficking in Cultural Property. This refers to the sale, export, holding, or transfer by any means of property considered cultural property without authorization of the State.

6. Money Laundering. This refers to steps taken to legitimize income or capital obtained though illicit activities or income or capital the possession of which is without an economic basis or legal means.

7. Bank Robbery. This refers to the robbery of money/valuables transport vehicles or of banking, financial, and similar institutions, employing the use of force or intimidation or force against persons or property.

8. smuggling. Refers to the introduction of products, merchandise, money, or any other tradable good from one State into another.

9. Vehicle theft:

(a) Carjacking. Refers to the illegal appropriation of any means of mechanized ground transport by use of force, violence, or intimidation.

(b) Vehicle Theft. Refers to the illegal appropriation of any means of mechanized ground transport without the authorization of its owner (does not entail the use of force, violence, or intimidation).

10. narcotics trafficking. Refers to all illicit activities associated with the production, processing, trade, distribution, use, possession, trafficking, warehousing, or transport of narcotics, psychotropic substances, or dangerous drugs and any other product considered as such by the technical and scientific organizations of the countries of Central America or by international agreements.

11. Homicide. Refers to the crime of killing a person.

12. Attempted Homicide. Refers to the fact that for reasons beyond the control of the perpetrator, a homicide did not occur.

13. Domestic Violence. Refers to any pattern of behavior associated with a situation in which unequal power is exercised, manifesting in the use of physical, psychological, parental, or sexual violence, or intimidation or persecution against any member of the family unit.

14. Rape (indecent assault). Whoever lies with, or has carnal access to, a person of either sex without their consent or when such person is either mentally challenged, unconscious, or otherwise unable to resist.

15. Attempted Rape. Refers to the fact that for reasons beyond the control of the perpetrator, a rape did not occur.

16. Abduction for purposes of sexual assault; and Statutory Rape [rapto y estupro].

(a) Abduction for purposes of sexual assault [rapto]. Refers to the crime committed when a person is removed or detained for sexual or indecent purposes by the use of force, intimidation, or deceit.

(b) Statutory Rape [estupro]. Refers to the crime of carnal knowledge through the use of deceit, abuse of confidence, hierarchy, or authority.

17. injury. Whoever causes harm affecting the bodily or mental wellbeing of another person.

18. Abortion. Is the death of the fetus at any point in pregnancy.

19. Suicide. Is the act whereby a person takes his own life.

20. Human Smuggling. Refers to the movement of people illegally from one State to another for a variety of purposes, using a series of methods and means for their transport.

21. Person Trafficking. Refers to promoting, facilitating, or furthering the entry or exit of persons from one State to another for sexual, labor, or any other illegal form of exploitation, by means of deceit, violence, abuse of authority, or intimidation, etc.

22. Trafficking in Minors. Refers to promoting, facilitating, or furthering the entry or exit of minors (children or adolescents) from one State to another for purposes of prostitution, servitude, the harvesting of organs, forced labor, pornography, satanic rituals, illegal adoption, etc., by means of deceit, violence, abuse of authority, or intimidation, etc.

23. Illegal Trafficking in Human Organs. Refers to facilitating, or furthering the entry or exit of human organs or persons to receive such organs or parts thereof, for purposes of transplanting them to another person by complex surgical procedures.

If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Comparative Table of National Security and Defense Budgets – Central America and Mexico

Country

Law & Order

National Police

Prison System

Ministry of Interior

Immigration

Offices of Public Prosecutors (Ministerio Público)

Offices of Attorneys General (Fiscalías)

Defense

Belize

16,500

3,229,854.50

32,500

163,792,650

288,535.50

22,923,241

Costa Rica

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

El Salvador

3,558,868

151,173,830

19,224,600

N/A

1,203,698

N/A

20,070,645

N/A

Guatemala

8,000,000

83,000,000

143,000,000

Honduras

119,127,101.58

94,436,705.26

21,052,831.58

75,476,084.74

Nicaragua*

49,871,006

5,900

4,637,659

4,141,102

7,670,591

38,646,353

Panama

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

Dom. Rep.

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

N/D

Mexico**

1,242,243,878

***101,308,974

****166,363,636

837,867,218

3,922,928,872

* Nicaragua’s figures were taken from the webpage of the Ministry of the Economy and Public Credit.
** Refers exclusively to the 2007 Federal Budget, published in the Official Gazette of December 28, 2006.
*** Refers exclusively to the 2007 Federal Budget assigned to the Center for Investigation and National Security (CISEN).
****Refers exclusively to the budget allocated to the National Immigration Institute, an agency of the Secretariat of the Interior.
N/A = not applicable.
N/D = no available data.


[1] Twenty-Fourth Central America Security Commission, Managua, June 17, 2002

[2] Thirty-Second Meeting of Central American Security commission, San Salvador, May 16, 2007

[3] Twentieth Special Meeting of the Commission of Police Chiefs of Central America and the Caribbean, March 28, 2007, Retalhuleu, Guatemala, March 28, 2007

[4] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[5] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[6] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[7] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[8] Thirty-Second Meeting of Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, May 16, 2007

[9] Twenty-Seventh Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, September 10, 2004

[10] Regional Plan Against Criminal Activity of Gangs, Tegucigalpa, January 15, 2004

[11] Third Anti-Gang Convention Meeting, San Salvador, April 24-16, 2007

[12] Central American Security Commission, Tegucigalpa, October 25, 2001

[13] Special Meeting of Heads of State, Zambrano, Honduras, October 3, 2006

[14] Thirty-First Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, October 20, 2006

[15] Border Security Meeting, Esquipulas, October 6, 2006

[16] Special Meeting of Heads of State, Zambrano, Honduras, October 3, 2006

[17] Thirty-First meeting of the Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, October 20, 2006

[18] Fifth Intelligence Community Meeting. Retalhuleu, Guatemala, March 27, 2007

[19] Special Meeting of Heads of State, Zambrano, Honduras, October 3, 2006

[20] Thirty-First meeting of the Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, October 20, 2006

[21] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[22] Thirtieth Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, Managua, November 8, 2005

[23] Thirtieth Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, Managua, November 8, 2005

[24] Special Meeting of Heads of State, Zambrano, Honduras, October 3, 2006

[25] Thirty-First Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, October 20, 2006

[26] Mexico will study the scope of this initiative and, as appropriate, may join it.

[27] Twenty-Seventh Regular Meeting of Heads of State, Leon, Nicaragua, December 2, 2005

[28] Twenty-Eighth Meeting of the Central American Security commission, San Salvador, September 10, 2004

[29] Twenty-Seventh Regular Meeting of Heads of State, Leon, Nicaragua, December 2, 2005

[30] Twenty-Eighth Meeting of the Central American Security commission, San Salvador, September 10, 2004

[31] Mexico would be willing to study the scope of this initiative and, as appropriate, join it.

[32] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[33] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[34] Twenty-Eighth Meeting of the Central American Security commission, San Salvador, September 10, 2004

[35] Twenty-Ninth Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, November 25, 2004

[36] Thirty-First Meeting of the Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, October 20, 2006

[37] Aide-Mémoire, Follow-up to Campeche Meeting, San Salvador, April 23, 2007

[38] Thirty-Second Meeting of Central American Security Commission, San Salvador, May 16, 2007

[39] Mexico will evaluate the prospect of participating in this initiative and contributing to its strengthening.

[*] Translator’s Note: The term used in the text is different: trafico ilícito de migrantes – smuggling of migrants.