International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2007
Report
September 18, 2007

Cambodia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Cambodia (GOC) will develop more effective narcotics interdiction institution, systems and initiatives.

Training and technical assistance will build the capacity of GOC counternarcotics institutions, lead to the development of more effective narcotics interdiction efforts, and increase the number of successful interdictions.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges to security and law enforcement for this Cambodia, in particular building the narcotics interdiction efforts and capacity of GOC's drug control agency (Peace and Security, 1.4.3.2 - Interdiction, Support Host Nation Operations).

Program Justification

Cambodia has experienced a significant increase in recent years in the amount of narcotics transiting from the Golden Triangle. The World Health Organization estimates that as many as 150,000 methamphetamine tablets enter Cambodia each day. Many of these are consumed domestically (as many as 50,000 per day in Phnom Penh alone), though some are also thought to be re-exported to Thailand and Vietnam. Cocaine use by wealthy Cambodians and foreigners in Cambodia is a relatively small but worrisome new phenomenon. Cocaine consumed in Southeast Asia originates in South America, particularly Peru and Colombia, and transits via human couriers on commercial air flights to regional narcotics distribution hubs in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Beijing, and Guangzhou. Recent reports indicate that Cambodia may be taking on a small but increasing role as a new trafficking route, with cocaine coming by air from Kuala Lumpur or Singapore, transiting via Phnom Penh, and arriving in Bangkok. Cambodia is not a producer of opiates; however, it serves as a transit route for heroin from Burma and Laos to international drug markets such as Vietnam, Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Australia. Heroin and methamphetamine enter Cambodia primarily through the northern provinces of Stung Treng and Preah Vihear, an area bordering Laos and Thailand. Larger shipments of heroin, methamphetamine and marijuana exit Cambodia concealed in shipping containers, speedboats and ocean-going vessels. Smaller quantities are also smuggled through Phnom Penh International Airport concealed in small briefcases, shoes, and on the bodies of individual travelers.

Cambodian law enforcement agencies suffer from limited resources, lack of training, and poor coordination. The National Authority for Combating Drugs (NACD), which was reorganized in 1999 and again in June 2006, has the potential to become an effective policy and coordination unit. With the backing of the Cambodian government, the UNODC launched in April 2001 a four-year project entitled "Strengthening the Secretariat of the NACD and the National Drug Control Program for Cambodia". This project seeks, inter alia, to establish the NACD as a functional government body able to undertake drug control planning, coordination, and operations. U.S. assistance will build on UNODC's efforts and continue to support NACD's efforts to become an effective drug control agency in Cambodia.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 will be the first year of funding for the narcotics interdiction program in Cambodia.

FY 2008 Program

Assistance will focus on training and technical assistance to build the capacity of GOC counternarcotics institutions.

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Cambodia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Narcotics Interdiction - - - - 200
Total - - - - 200

East Timor

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

1,485

---

1,010

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of East Timor (GOET) will develop an effective civilian-led national police service (PNTL) that is effective in enforcing law and order, promotes peace and stability within the country, is professional, and respects human rights.

Organizational management reform, curriculum reform, training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the PNTL. Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members to build the PNTL's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force. Coordination between the PNTL Professional Ethics Office, the Ministry of Interior's Office of the Inspector, and the GOET's Office of the Inspector General is firmly established. Allegations of police misconduct are promptly investigated and adjudicated.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key challenges to security and law enforcement for this developing country, focusing on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations. (FY 2008 Operations Plan's Peace & Security sub element 1.3.7).

Program Justification

East Timor is a small and newly independent nation whose government and people are eager for a close relationship with the United States. East Timor views the United States as an honest broker that can be trusted to balance the competing interests of other countries which, for reasons of history or geography, seek to influence the country politically and economically. Even more important, most Timorese leaders and citizens want for themselves, the region, and the world the same things Americans want: freedom, democracy, security, economic opportunity and stability.

East Timor has the potential to serve not only as a powerful advocate for the values it shares with the United States, but also as living proof that these values are just as important for developing nations as they are for the rest of the world. East Timor's potential will not be fulfilled, however, unless the Timorese state can continue to develop its capacity to govern effectively, to expand economically, to maintain law and order, to defend its borders, and to do all these things in ways that protect and promote human rights.

Although it is at peace with its large neighbors, Australia and Indonesia, East Timor continues to face threats to its peace and security. INL programs that provide training and support to the country's police will help East Timor manage these threats.

Program Accomplishments

Due to the civil upheaval in 2006, assistance was put on hold and the INL-funded program manager's contract was not renewed. A review by key regional players is underway, with the U.S. and Australia looking for areas in which to coordinate assistance.

FY 2008 Program

FY 2008 funds will be used to assist the GOET develop the PNTL, focusing on organizational management, curriculum development, training and technical assistance that will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the PNTL. Training and technical assistance will be provided to the rank and file members to build the PNTL's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force. These are necessary building blocks to create law enforcement capabilities necessary to preserve public order while respecting human rights and protect East Timor's borders. United States police assistance programs will be an important element in the process of ensuring that the fledgling PNTL becomes a professional force that will deal effectively with crimes while respecting the rights of citizens and dealing promptly and effectively with police misconduct, particularly when such misconduct violates human rights.

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East Timor
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Reform 1,485 - - - 810
Program Development and Support - - - - 200
Total 1,485 - - - 1,010

Indonesia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

4,950

4,700

10,050

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Indonesian National Police (POLRI) will continue its transformation into a skilled, professional, civilian-led police force predicated on respect for the rule of law, human rights and professionalism.

Performance indicators include the establishment of an internal disciplinary system; the institutionalization of anti-corruption practices and professional standards, the development, implementation, and integration of contemporary police investigative methods, policies, and standards of operations for the Criminal Investigations Division (CID) of the POLRI, including the Major Crimes Unit and the Economic and Special Crimes Unit, development of standard operating procedures for all major divisions of the POLRI commensurate with internationally accepted standards, and the completion of the Police Instructor Institute. Progress will also be indicated by increased public confidence in POLRI's ability to uphold the law as measured by governmental and/or NGO indices.

The Marine Police's ability to patrol ports, harbors and waterways will be improved.

Performance indicators will include the deployment of an additional squadron of the Marine Police Special Boat Unit (SBU), and the development of standard operations procedures and sustainable training capacity for maritime interdiction and security.

Indonesia will improve its legal framework to counter organized crimes and terrorism; will develop the competencies of investigators, prosecutors and judges to handle complex counter terrorism and other organized crimes cases; and establish a culture of institutional integrity within the law enforcement and criminal justice sectors.

Performance Indicators include the prosecution of significant cases by a task force on terrorism and transnational crimes within the Attorney General's Office, the enactment of witness protection procedures, the enactment of money laundering legislation to strengthen Indonesia's anti-money laundering (AML) regime, and the introduction in the Attorney General's Office of the recruitment, retention and operational policies to address corruption.

Indonesia's drug intelligence analysis and interdiction capacities will be strengthened.

Performance indicators will include an increase in the number of drug and contraband cases presented to the procuracy for prosecution by the Indonesian National Police Drug Enforcement Unit and the National Narcotics Board; the development of advanced investigative skills to interdict narcotics shipments, the dismantlement of clandestine drug labs, and the disruption of narcotics trafficking networks.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will advance the Secretary of State's Transformational Diplomacy goal for this developing country of helping to build and sustain a democratic, well-governed Indonesia that responds to the needs of its people and conduct itself responsibly in the international system. This will be done by focusing on law enforcement program (Peace & Security sub elements 1.1.3, 1.3.7, 1.3.8, 1.4.3, and 1.5.3), and its legal advisor program (Governing Justly & Democratically sub elements 2.1.3 and 2.1.5).

Program Justification

Indonesia is a key strategic partner in terms of fighting transnational criminal organizations and promoting regional stability. It is the largest Muslim country in the world. As an emerging democracy, Indonesia is an important nation in providing leadership to the Islamic world. Indonesia is also a center of criminal activity, such as cyber-crime, illegal migration and piracy, and home to terrorist groups, including Jemaah Islamiyah (JI). In its transition to democracy and facing an increasingly sophisticated criminal threat, the Government of Indonesia has recognized the need for institutional reform of its police organizations and within its criminal justice system.

For thirty-three years during the reign of authoritarian President Suharto and for two years under the leadership of President Habibie, the Indonesian National Police was a part of the armed forces of Indonesia. During those thirty-five years, the police definition of domestic security was, "Protection for the State (i.e., its elite) from its citizens." Until the democratic election of President Abdurahman Wahid in 2000, all but the most routine domestic security/public safety tasks were conducted by the Indonesian military (TNI) or the police paramilitary Mobile Brigade (BRIMOB), which had been trained to use military tactics to preserve law and order.

In 2000, President Wahid sought assistance from several international donors, among them the United States, Australia, Britain, Japan, and the Netherlands, to support Justice Sector reform, including police reform. The USG was willing to participate and provide substantial resources, but not until the police were formally separated from the Indonesian Armed Forces. On July 1 2000, President Wahid signed Presidential Decree 02/00, formally separating the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) from the TNI. USG assistance to support the decree commenced in August 2000.

Indonesia is a center of cyber-crime, and its social development is hindered by the prevalence of transnational criminal organizations. Communities handle village crimes within the community with their own sense of restorative justice due to either a lack of police responsiveness, lack of police presence, or incompetence. International narcotics trafficking is a serious and growing problem in Indonesia. Syndicated drug traffickers from countries in and beyond the region have targeted operations in Indonesia. Domestic availability and use of illicit narcotics are escalating. In addition, Indonesia is home to terrorist groups and has been the target of several deadly terrorist bombings. The skill level of POLRI must be enhanced to address effectively both criminal and terrorist activities and demonstrate its abilities to the public. Corruption is endemic in Indonesia, including within POLRI. The Police Assistance Program has made significant progress in establishing POLRI-wide mechanisms to root out corruption by developing a code of conduct and internal disciplinary system.

Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. The strategic importance of the Malacca Strait to global economic security makes it imperative that Indonesia has the capacity to monitor and police criminal activity along the maritime borders, which are largely unprotected. A comprehensive assessment of Marine Police capabilities and needs was conducted in January 2004. This assessment was used as a basis for implementing a program to address Indonesia's multi-jurisdictional maritime policies, responsibilities and complexities. Training, technical assistance, and equipment programs developed from the assessment will be enhanced using funding and continue until the Marine Police Directorate has the capacity to effectively fulfill its mission. Since POLRI was separated from the TNI in mid-2000, the Marine Police Directorate has lacked the training, equipment, and leadership to perform enforcement duties efficiently. The Marine Police will need to be modernized over the next several years. The Marine Police need a new strategic plan and modernization of current operational units. Marine Police personnel will require training as well as equipment and technical assistance to patrol ports and waterways effectively and to combat numerous forms of local and transnational crimes.

In addition, criminal justice sector reform is crucial to effective democratic reform and goes hand-in-hand with police reform. Creating an effective, well-trained police force based on democratic principles, community policing, and respect for rule of law and individual rights must be complemented by prosecutorial and judicial reform. Effective law enforcement efforts must culminate in bringing criminals to justice through an evidence-based system as opposed to the ineffective and abuse-prone inquisitorial system currently in place. USG efforts are in process to help with the significant paradigm shift required for this transition for police, prosecutors, and the court system. When cases are developed, prosecutors must be skilled in using evidence to try cases successfully, defense attorneys must know how to protect the rights of the accused, and judges must be personally above reproach and ensure a fair trial. Corruption must be rooted out at all levels of the system. If the judicial system is not reformed, police soon become demoralized, and the public loses confidence in the system.

To ensure that Indonesia's transition to democracy is meaningful and takes root within its institutions, the democratization and professional development of all levels and units of POLRI as well as the prosecutorial and judicial sectors must be realized. The Police Assistance Program, Marine Police development program, Drug Law Enforcement assistance, and Criminal Justice Sector Reform programs are designed to achieve those goals and objectives.

Program Accomplishments

The separation of the police and military into two distinct institutions and POLRI's transition to a civilian-controlled, democratic police force is a work-in-progress; yet, since the implementation of the Police Assistance Program in mid-2000, significant successes have been realized. POLRI reform and training have enhanced police investigative skills and police counternarcotics training and technical assistance have resulted in seizures of illicit narcotics and the closing of synthetic-drug production labs within Indonesia.

Reorganizing and reorienting POLRI is a substantial undertaking, requiring a change in the structure, culture, management style, and training of the entire 300,000 member national police force. FY 2008 funds would continue the Police Assistance Program (begun in 2000) by implementing programs to address management issues at the highest level. To date, such programs have been very well received and implemented by POLRI. Contemporaneously, a combination of technical assistance, training, and equipment donations have been provided to assist the police in handling civil disorder in a manner that maintained order while respecting human rights and the rule of law. As a result of this initiative, the POLRI made significant changes in their handling of demonstrations and were the recipients of laudatory comments from various members of the NGO community. Importantly, since this training took place there have been no reported civilian deaths related to the POLRI's handling of civil disturbances. INL continued to work with the POLRI Chief and officials at national and regional levels to continue the development and implementation of management plans that incorporate principles of leadership and management into the operation and administration of POLRI throughout Indonesia. Further, the program is developing managerial skills for mid-level officers. The program includes a media outreach project to share information with the public and build confidence in the police within the populace.

In conjunction with the State Department Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Anti-terrorism Training Assistance Program, INL's Police Assistance Program includes training and technical assistance projects to give POLRI officers and units enhanced technical and investigative capabilities needed to address specialized crimes and terrorist activities. The U.S. has already seen success from our training activities, as Indonesia has arrested over 130 terrorist suspects and successfully prosecuted over 100 terrorists. The U.S. has also provided forensics training and equipment, enabling both enhanced investigations and successful prosecutions. Drug enforcement training and drug forensic training and equipment are also contained within the program to ensure counternarcotics units can recognize illicit narcotics and discover and dismantle illicit drug labs.

There have been several areas of accomplishments of the Indonesia Police Assistance Program, including:

Transition to Democratic Policing

In order to better maximize the delivery and implementation the program concepts, as well as accentuate the POLRI ownership aspect, the project was modified to become a total train-the-trainer, curriculum and training integration initiative. The POLRI's decision to integrate these concepts into the organization's curricula had helped ensure the principles of the democratic policing are being taught throughout the police organization. This project has received consistent support from the heads of the Kopolri, GOI's National Center for Training and Education and the Human Resources Office. By having POLRI members provide the training exclusively there is a much greater likelihood individual members will accept and embrace these ideas and a much greater likelihood that the lessons and instruction will be sustainable after our project is completed. However, successes within this project have to be measured incrementally in light of the fact that total organizational transition and transformation will need to continue.

Civil Disturbance Management Project

The measurements of success for the Civil Disturbance Management project include: (1) an increase in the level of public confidence regarding POLRI performance during civil disturbances; (2) a substantial reduction in the number of civilians and police injured in disorderly or riotous demonstrations; and (3) a reduction in the amount of property loss during demonstrations. As a result of the training, POLRI personnel have effectively controlled large demonstrations and defused emotional situations to resolve conflicts peacefully. The Indonesian government, the general public, and the NGO community have recognized the success of the program. The program has made a major impact on POLRI leaders and police in improving their relations with the public. Prior to the training, POLRI had limited understanding of the concept of conflict avoidance or the continuum of force options.

Instructor Development Workshops (IDW)

This project was designed to strengthen the skills for Indonesian police instructors. Measurements of success for this project include: (1) an increase in the number of instructors who are able to demonstrate their knowledge of and ability to impart adult learning methodologies to students, and (2) to have the graduates of POLRI Training Schools demonstrate they are routinely performing the tenets of community policing learned in training. Over 249 POLRI instructors have successfully completed the IDW and have been observed successfully using their new training techniques. However, this encouraging statistic must be tempered by the fact that many instructors within the POLRI cadre have not yet received training in adult learning methodologies, nor does the POLRI currently have the requisite in investigations and other specialty areas to replicate qualitative USG-provided training and curriculum.

Cyber Crime Project

Indonesia's law enforcement has been provided with computer forensic capacities through specialized training and equipment donation. This highly successful initiative was developed to prevent, interdict and investigate cyber-crime. Now that the unit is operational, the cyber-crime unit has begun supporting regional requests for computer forensic analysis from other criminal investigatory units, including law enforcement units concentrating on bank fraud, anti-money laundering, and anti-terrorism units. The CCIU has recently been credited with developing critical evidence in recent high-profile counter-terrorism. INL has also provided funding for the development of the Cyber Crime Forensic Laboratory, the Cyber Crime Training Center at Megamandung (CID School) and the Child Exploitation Tracking system.

Marine Police Project

During this period we developed a two-year assistance plan to address and evaluate: Marine Police Headquarters; Marine Police Operational Commands and Units; Marine Police Training Center; and Ports and Waterways Security Stakeholders. A working group consisting of the Department of Justice's International Criminal Justice Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and Marine Police representatives was formed to plan an Operational Units Training Needs Survey.

Further, the program worked to coordinate with the Indonesian Maritime Committee Senior Technical Advisor for the National Planning Board for Security and Social Welfare (BAPPENAS). The BAPPENAS is responsible for debating and making recommendations to the national government on issues related to security and social welfare. The Planning Board has worked for over a year on a proposal to reinvent the Coordinating Agency for Maritime Security, BAKORKAMLA, which was created in 1971. On December 29, 2005, the POLRI signed into effect the restructured Coordinating Agency for Maritime Security, on which U.S. Embassy in Jakarta collaborated with the GOI to redevelop and actualize.

Additionally, the director of the Marine Police Training Center invited the USG to establish a permanent office at the school, which was done shortly thereafter. Marine Police Training Center instructors consult ICITAP Technical Advisors (TAs) on lesson plan development and instructional techniques. Additionally, ICITAP established the Marine Police Resource Center for training development, which has resulted in the Marine Police developing internal basic and in-service curriculum. ICITAP TAs are have completed the entire basic curriculum for Marine Police recruits, and the new curriculum is currently being infused into the basic training program. Commencing in late 2006, all instruction at the Marine Police Training Center will be delivered using lesson plans developed with skills taught by ICITAP. Five classrooms at the Marine Police Training Center were refurbished and outfitted, which significantly improved the teaching and learning and environment for staff and students ICITAP has also delivered Basic Criminal Investigations training to 107 MP officers that has resulted in an increase of over 300 percent in case loads in the last six months, and delivered internationally accepted non-lethal baton techniques training to a cadre of MP baton instructors that has been replicated and delivered to an additional 1,000 MP officers.

FY 2008 Program

The FY 2008 Police Assistance Program for Indonesia has three central components-(1) continue capacity building to support the POLRI Marine Police and Major Criminal Investigations Unit; (2) increasing illicit drug and contraband interdictions; and (3) the completion of the Police Instructor Institute. These are ongoing programs designed to create effective, democratic, civilian-led and skilled law enforcement institutions in Indonesia. The Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program, implemented in FY 2006, will continue to address the prosecutorial and judicial side of law enforcement democratization and reform. The Drug Law Enforcement program will focus on the prevention of the manufacture and shipment of synthetic drugs. Some assistance will be given to combating environmental crimes (e.g., illegal logging), and to maritime and border security management, forensics, and trafficking-in-persons.

Police Assistance Program

Funds will be used for POLRI technical assistance and training, including POLRI's Criminal Investigation Division's (CID) Major Crimes Unit and the Economic/Special Crimes Unit; equipment donation and technical assistance; training and technical assistance to judges to advance investigations and prosecutions of crimes, and enforcement of environmental laws; technical advisor to finalize the Police Instructor Institute in preparation for continued POLRI sustainability and final turnover; and classroom and training equipment such as computers and education materials.

Marine Police Development Program

Funds will be used to continue the development and deployment of the MP Special Boat Unit (SBU); to continue to provide advanced in-service training to commanders, first-line officers, and Marine Police trainers; to teach standard operating procedures; to provide investigative equipment; and to furnish intermittent technical advisors to implement training program addressing the capacity to patrol ports, harbors, and adjacent waterways. If given more FY 2008 funds, maritime security training, operational, and infrastructure development support efforts will focus on Central Sulawesi or Maluku islands. This area was chosen based on information received and analysis of transnational crime patterns.

Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program

Funds will be provided to support a Resident Legal Advisor to continue to assist the drafting team of the new criminal procedure code to move the Indonesian criminal justice system to a more adversarial, transparent and evidence-based system that promotes professional investigations involving real police/prosecutor cooperation and undercover investigative techniques, and uses adversarial and evidentiary trial principles that establish the neutrality of the judiciary and the equality of the parties; promote trial advocacy skills for prosecutors; provide substantive knowledge on counter terrorism, corruption, money laundering, cybercrime, witness protection, and Trafficking in Persons (TIP); provide drafting assistance for cybercrime and money laundering legislation; and assisting the Indonesian Attorney General's Office (AGO) in developing written professional conduct standards for prosecutors.

Counternarcotics Assistance Program

Funds will be used to provide counternarcotics and forensics training, leadership and management training, and instructor training, aimed at halting the flow of illegal drugs; prevent the manufacture and shipment of synthetic drugs through technical assistance on planning and operations, intelligence analysis, tactical instruction, interdiction skills training; equipment donation such as computers, and software to assist Jakarta narcotics units dismantle narcotics organizations; to offer a Tactical Instructor Program that will train 45 police instructors to teach the principles of tactical operations; and to provide train-the-trainer support to the Interdiction Task Force to address major ports of entry (air and seaport).

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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Indonesia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Support 3,950 - 3,110 - 6,675
Criminal Justice Reform Program 500 - 515 - 2,250
Interdiction 500 - 475 - 500
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - 450 - 415
Non-U.S. Personnel - - 40 - 60
ICASS Costs - - 80 - 100
Program Support - - 30 - 50
Sub-Total - - 600 - 625
Total 4,950 - 4,700 - 10,050

Laos

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

990

900

1,580

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Opium poppy cultivation in Laos is reduced and the ability of the Government of Laos to deter opium poppy cultivation is maintained.

Alternative development efforts in Phongsali, Luang Prabang and other poppy-growing provinces will help to provide access to markets, government services, food production and alternative income activities. The Lao-American Projects (LAP) in Luang Prabang and Phongsali will continue to support ongoing activities including detoxification, crop substitution, education outreach, vocational training, ecotourism development, and small infrastructure projects in select areas where cultivation is still a problem.

Drug addiction treatment will continue.

To combat abuse of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS), support will continue to the 100 bed ATS treatment center in Savannakhet, which is treating over 200 ATS addicts per year. Demand reduction education programs will continue in the form of public outreach.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges to security and law enforcement for this developing country, focusing on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations (Peace & Security sub element 1.3.7), Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods (Peace & Security sub element 1.4.2), Drug Demand Reduction (Peace & Security sub element 1.4.4) and Program Support (Peace & Security 1.4.5).

Program Justification

Laos is one of the world's least developed countries and the second largest producer of opium in Southeast Asia. Opium poppy is generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. Laos is one of the world's least developed countries, with an almost total lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. The few government services available in market centers are rudimentary by any standard. Human resource capacity is severely limited in all fields, including law enforcement.

Opium crop control projects have been highly successful, with an estimated 83 percent drop in the area under cultivation between 2004 and 2006. During the same period, production declined from an estimated 49 metric tons to only 8 � metric tons. INL development projects reduce the production, trafficking and abuse of illicit opium by detoxifying and vocationally training addicts and providing market-based income alternatives for farmers.

In recent years, the Government of Laos (GOL) has demonstrated a newfound seriousness toward the threat of illegal drugs. Increased seizures along with greater regional cooperation, particularly with the Royal Thai Government, demonstrate a GOL willingness to address its drug problem, but GOL officials readily express a need for assistance.

INL integrated rural development projects in Luang Prabang and Phongsali provinces, major opium-producing areas, are aimed at stemming production and trafficking of illicit opium, providing market-based income alternatives for opium poppy farmers, and raising awareness of and treatment for drug addiction.

The alternative development and crop substitution project will support a limited range of activities aimed at providing former poppy farmers with alternative crops and access to markets to replace income from opium cultivation. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. Government consistently show lower levels of opium cultivation.

In terms of demand reduction, Laos has the second highest opium addiction rate in the world; UNODC estimates that over 50 percent of the opium poppy grown is consumed locally, with most of the remainder exported to neighboring districts and provinces in Laos. In recent years, the GOL has become increasingly sensitive to the stigma of being a global leader in opium production, and officials are alarmed by the increase availability of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). The GOL has instituted tough measures for curbing illicit drugs, imposing the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes, and organizing a national campaign to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse among Lao youth. The demand reduction project supports on a limited scale Lao demand reduction and drug abuse education efforts. Increasingly, these must be tailored to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse.

INL law enforcement projects address this problem by providing capacity-building training and specialized police equipment appropriate for the local operational environment. Simultaneously, INL demand reduction projects support addiction treatment and drug education that will help to bring methamphetamine abuse under control.

Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia, and the nation does not currently possess the capability to effectively interdict precursor chemicals flowing out of China. Laos is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers who can easily exploit the countries' vulnerabilities. Law enforcement capabilities in Laos are both sub-standard and under-funded: more training and better coordination - as well as increased GOL support and international cooperation - are required to be effective against the major trafficking organizations active in Laos.

Program Accomplishments

Opium crop control projects have been highly successful, with an estimated 83 percent drop in the area under cultivation between 2004 and 2006. During the same period, production declined from an estimated 49 metric tons to only 8 � metric tons. Funds used in the Lao-American (LAP) integrated rural development activities in Phongsali and Luang Prabang provinces, two of the highest poppy cultivation areas in Laos, are clearly showing results.

The LAP in Luang Prabang supported infrastructure projects that included 94 kilometers of penetration road, three primary schools, three community centers, and 19 gravity-fed clean water systems. A community-based detoxification facility was established in 2004 and has to date successfully detoxified over 300 opium addicts in three phases. Pilot crop substitution projects are ongoing, and cattle banks are being established.

Despite a limited budget in 2006, the Lao-American Project in Phongsali pursued infrastructure, alternative development, and opium detoxification. Crops such as tea and galanga were expanded, a new crop of sticklack was introduced, and cash income earned for goats, green tea, galanga, and handicraft sales served as an inducement to permanently abandon poppy cultivation. The project expanded cattle, goat, and pig banks that assisted 140 families. With respect to opium detoxification, the LAP assisted 130 persons and continued social programs to prevent relapse.

In FY 2006, DEA reported some improved cooperation with Lao law enforcement agencies, especially customs. NAS currently supports seven Counter Narcotics Units (CNUs) which have demonstrated improved performance. More than 450 officials from the CNUs, Customs, and other agencies have received basic officer training and specialized training at ILEA Bangkok.

FY 2008 Program

Alternative Development/Crop Control

FY 2008 funds will assist the GOL to provide a number of villages in the poorest areas with a licit crop and alternative to poppy cultivation, a tactic that has proven to be highly successful. USG assistance is intended to build on this momentum in support of discouraging illicit crop cultivation. FY 2008 funding will provide limited support for rural development projects in Phongsali and Luang Prabang provinces, both major poppy-growing regions. Projects will continue to improve food production through the provision of agricultural inputs and training; deliver medical services to remote villages, and support educational programs that target villages in poppy-growing districts.

In LAP/Luang Prabang, FY 2008 funds will allow us to move ahead with alternative development activities such as sticklak production, livestock procurement, and training. In LAP/Phongsali, Phase II activities will include alternative cash crops, livestock purchases, agricultural training, and rice banks, all key to sustainable conversion to a legitimate economy.

Law Enforcement Assistance

FY 2008 funds will provide advice on organizational reform as well as modest equipment and administrative support to provincial Counternarcotics Units and Customs posts that furnish the majority of law enforcement to the critical region along the border Laos shares with Thailand, Burma, and China, where the flow of methamphetamine and heroin into Laos (primarily from Burma) is the worst, but also where it can most easily be interdicted. Assistance will include equipment purchases, such as personal protective gear, investigative tools, and basic communications equipment.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

FY 2008 Funds will be used for the support of the INL-funded ATS treatment center. In addition limited support will be provided for drug-awareness outreach.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Laos
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Interdiction 50 - 100 - 300
Crop Control/Alternative Development 440 - 189 - 500
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 25 - 100 - 100
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 315 - 270 - 350
Non-U.S. Personnel 15 - 50 - 50
ICASS Costs 120 - 140 - 210
Program Support 25 - 51 - 70
Sub-Total 475 - 511 - 680
Total 990 - 900 - 1,580

Malaysia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

800

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Strengthen the Government of Malaysia's (GOM) capacity to successfully address transnational organized crime.

Improved police-prosecutorial working relationships will be demonstrated through the establishment of joint task forces leading to successful case collaboration; increased capacity building among foreign border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges to detect, investigate, prosecute and prevent these crimes; an increase in the number of successful investigations and prosecutions of terrorist financing and money laundering cases; as well as the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards.

Develop an effective civilian-led police force in Malaysia.

Training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Malaysian Police. Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members will help improve the police's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key challenges to security and law enforcement in Malaysia, a sustaining country; specifically, to support strategic the U.S.-Malasian partnership by addressing security, counterterrorism, weapons of mass destruction and counternarcotics efforts. The Program will focus on law enforcement restructuring, reform and operations (Peace & Security sub element 1.3.7), as well as strengthening the government's capabilities in the fight against organized crime and terrorism (Peace & Security sub element 1.1.3).

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes.

Malaysia's financial sectors are vulnerable to abuse by narcotics traffickers, financiers of terrorism, and criminal elements. Malaysia's relatively lax customs inspection at ports of entry and free trade zones, and its offshore financial services center serve to increase its vulnerability. Though the GOM as part of ASEAN has established a "drug-free by 2015" policy, and cooperation with the U.S. on combating drug trafficking is excellent, Malaysia's proximity to the heroin production areas and methamphetamine labs of the Golden Triangle leads to smuggling across Malaysian borders, destined for Australia and other markets.

Enhancing the capacities of the law enforcement and criminal justice systems remains a top priority and is central to strengthening security. Malaysian law enforcement could benefit from an increase in resources and professionalism. Problems in the broader Malaysian criminal justice system that provide fertile ground for transnational criminal activity and terrorism need to be addressed by a long-term, comprehensive program of training and technical assistance in areas such as drafting laws, rules and regulations concerning criminal law and procedure; developing sustainable training programs; facilitating interagency and police-prosecutor cooperation; devising judicial administration and case management systems; and developing task force capability.

Program Accomplishments

Budget constraints for INL programs over the past few years limited the ability to initiate new programs. Nevertheless, INL was able to provide some assistance for Malaysia in the past. U.S. counternarcotics training continued in 2006 via the International Law Enforcement Academy in Bangkok and the "Baker-Mint" program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense; Baker-Mint aims to raise the operational skill level of local counter narcotics law enforcement officers. In September 2006, U.S. officials from the Department of Justice, DEA, and FBI presented a training workshop for Malaysian prosecutors on conspiracy prosecutions in an effort to enhance Malaysia's utilization of existing laws as a deterrent to organized crime.

FY 2008 Program

Law Enforcement Assistance

FY 2008 will be the first year of program funds for Malaysia. Funds will be used to assist Malaysia achieve sustainable improvements in the capacity of law enforcement institutions to combat illicit activities such as illegal migration and trafficking in persons, narcotics and other contraband; and to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. Assistance will develop long-term and sustainable civilian law enforcement capacity, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation, and support the Government's efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law. Funds will provide for training and technical assistance, with an emphasis on "train-the-trainer" courses.

Program Development and Support (PD&S):

These funds will provide resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of a permanently assigned U.S. direct-hire, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Malaysia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Reform - - - - 800
Total - - - - 800

Mongolia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

670

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Mongolia (GOM) will develop an effective civilian-led police force:

Training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Mongolian National Police, and improved criminal investigative skills among the rank and file. At all levels, it will promote integrity and professionalism. INL will work with U.S. law enforcement agencies to develop and implement a strategic policing reform plan.

The Mongolian criminal justice system will be strengthened and modernized toward greater impartiality, efficiency, and transparency.

Assistance will concentrate on conducting criminal investigations, combating financial crimes and counterfeiting, anti-smuggling, forensics, and professionalism. The program will promote better cooperation between police and prosecutors.

Transformational Diplomacy

Mongolia faces many development challenges in its transition to democracy and a market-oriented economy. Mongolia's continued democratic and economic success hinges on its ability to manage a series of "good governance" issues, including establishment of greater accountability, transparency and anti-corruption measures. Rule of law reform is absolutely critical. In addition, Mongolia must also be able to protect and maintain its own borders and cooperate with its neighbors and regional partners to combat transnational crime and terrorism. The proposed INL programs will support transformational diplomacy in many of these areas, especially policing reform and anti-corruption.

Program Justification

Mongolia's long unprotected borders with Russia and China are vulnerable to all types of illegal trade, including drug trafficking. Most smuggled drugs come from China. Border controls are very weak, and this is a GOM priority. U.S.-sponsored projects to promote cooperation among security forces and training are helping, but GOM security and border forces lack both the resources and technical combat smuggling; likewise, police and prosecutors lack the capacity to investigate and prosecute transnational crime. Widespread corruption within the police forces and other parts of government further hinder GOM efforts. The weakness of the legal system and financial structures - the absence of anti-money laundering and antiterrorist financing legislation - leaves Mongolia vulnerable to exploitation by drug traffickers and international criminal organizations, particularly those operating in China and Russia.

U.S. law enforcement assistance will focus on fostering the development of an impartial, efficient, and transparent law enforcement system. This year's assistance will concentrate on: conducting criminal investigations, combating financial crimes, interdicting illegal narcotics, and improving professionalism. Training in forensics and evidence gathering will bolster Mongolia's ability to conduct transparent criminal investigations. To aid Mongolia in inhibiting the use of its financial systems by terrorists and organized crime, the U.S. will provide supplemental training in detecting counterfeit currency and money laundering. The U.S. will also fund sending selected Mongolian law enforcement officers for advanced professional training at the International Law Enforcement Academy in Budapest to increase the knowledge and professionalism of Mongolian law enforcement organizations.

Program Accomplishments

U.S. government assistance in the past has been largely limited to some international visitor programs on transnational crime and counternarcotics and limited training by U.S. law enforcement agencies. A more robust program is clearly needed.

FY 2008 Program

The two major components to the FY 2008 program are Law Enforcement Support and Criminal Justice Reform. FY 2008 funds will be used to develop long-term and sustainable civilian law enforcement capacity, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation, and support GOM efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law.

Law Enforcement Support

Training and technical assistance provided to mid-level and senior managers will focus on sound management practices, strategic planning, promoting modern, civilian law enforcement practices through training of trainers, strategic planning, and combating corruption. Assistance to the rank and file members will help improve their criminal investigative skills, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force. Selected Mongolian law enforcement officers will be sent for advanced professional training at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest. INL will work with U.S. law enforcement agencies to develop and implement a strategic policing reform plan.

Criminal Justice Reform

The effectiveness of law enforcement's working relationship with the prosecutors continues to be an important component of this program. The FY 2008 program is designed to improve police-prosecutor cooperation to better manage crime scenes, preserve evidence and bring criminals to justice. Assistance will concentrate on: conducting criminal investigations, combating financial crimes, interdicting illegal narcotics, and improving professionalism. Training in forensics and evidence gathering will bolster Mongolia's ability to conduct transparent criminal investigations. An additional goal will be to improve police-prosecutorial working relationships and successful case collaboration. To aid Mongolia in inhibiting the use of its financial systems by terrorists and organized crime, and building on its membership in the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering, the U.S. will provide supplemental training in detecting counterfeit currency and money laundering. U.S. anti-corruption assistance will focus on education and civil society and development of new anti-corruption laws.

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Mongolia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Police Assistance Programs - - - - 300
Criminal Justice Reform Program - - - - 300
Program Development and Support 70
Sub-Total - - - - 670
Total - - - - 670

Philippines

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

1,980

1,900

1,150

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) will develop an effective civilian-led police force.

Training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Philippine National Police (PNP). Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members will help improve the PNP's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force.

The Philippine criminal justice system will be strengthened to successfully address transnational organized crime.

Improved police-prosecutorial working relationships will be demonstrated through the establishment of joint task forces leading to successful case collaboration.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds will further the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy objectives for this developing state. The INL program are focused on building the country's law enforcement community capacity and capabilities and to achieve its organizational transformation goals.

Program Justification

The Philippines, a Major Non-NATO Ally that straddles important air- and sea-lanes, is one of the region's most important partners in the Global War on Terror. Enhancing the capacities of the law enforcement and criminal justice systems remains a top priority and is central to strengthening mutual security.

Philippine law enforcement suffers from a lack of resources and professionalism, low capacity and ineffectiveness, corruption, and widespread behavior inconsistent with the rule of law. The result is a criminal justice system with minimal legitimacy that paves the way for the excesses of local political strongmen, former separatists turned bandits, traditional warlords, and militias.

Problems in the broader Philippine criminal justice system that provide fertile ground for transnational criminal activity and terrorism need to be addressed by a long-term, comprehensive program of training and technical assistance in areas such as drafting laws, rules and regulations concerning criminal law and procedure; developing sustainable training programs; facilitating interagency and police-prosecutor cooperation; devising judicial administration and case management systems; and developing task force capability.

During FY 2005, a USG Interagency team conducted a larger assessment of the PNP to determine overall capacity and organizational effectiveness. The assessment identified similar deficiencies articulated in the FY 2003 assessment, but also pinpointed weakness in the areas of budget, internal affairs, training, prison management and the general absence of links between police and prosecutors.

Cooperation received from the PNP leadership and INL program momentum and successes realized to date in the challenging southern area of the Philippines have now expanded into a more far reaching program of institutional development of both the PNP at the central level and the Philippine criminal justice system. A comprehensive assistance program is necessary to achieve long term and sustainable results. Addressing PNP's weaknesses at the central level will maximize efforts undertaken in the southern Philippines. The program will further enable the PNP to increase its competencies and capabilities in order to become a fully functional partner with other entities of the Philippine criminal justice system, and a stronger and effective partner with other international law enforcement entities, particularly U.S. law enforcement agencies.

In 2007, assistance will be given to PNP on the development of model police stations. The aim is to assist them with the establishment of ten model stations spread throughout the country. Once each station meets defined criteria, they will be eligible for a certificate of verification from Embassy Manila, signifying they have achieved certain training, policy implementation, and operational practice standards. Over the course of 2007, it is expected that USG sponsored training and advisement activities will reach approximately 750 PNP personnel that will cover a broad spectrum of topics, from fundamental courses concerned with human rights, rule of law issues and civil disturbance management to more advanced topics such as strategic planning, crime analysis, critical incident response, and financial planning.

Beyond the Model Police Station project, a number of targeted training courses will be provided to address Embassy defined needs. Additional Crime Scene Specialist courses will be conducted, with particular emphasis on the southern Philippines as well as courses related to extra judicial killing and witness protection will be delivered.

Program Accomplishments

In September 2003, a law enforcement training and technical assistance program was launched to focus primarily on Basilan and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), based on the assessment conducted by INL, ICITAP and OPDAT. The program focused primarily on the delivery of training courses in fundamental police tasks. Emphasis was also placed on providing training in the areas of contemporary police supervision.

A significant element of all the training provided has been an intensive instructor development component aimed at creating "train-the-trainer" capabilities that will strengthen institutional capacities through replication and sustainability. Lessons plans used for all of the courses were provided to the PNP and graduates of the instructor development courses were subsequently used to deliver the courses. The PNP has adopted the course lesson plans and integrated them into their existing investigative training curricula. This will guarantee the perpetuation of the skills as they are taught to future classes.

The Public Relations and Media Course presented to PNP commanders has become a requisite training course for all graduates of the PNP Academy before they are assigned to the field. To date, over 300 personnel have attended this course. This training has resulted in a more professional interaction between the PNP commanders and the media. Previously, many commanders simply refused to speak to the press or avoided attempting to develop a working relationship. This training has had a positive impact on the development of improved media relations.

The USG funded Crime Scene Courses have trained and equipped nearly 200 criminal investigators in the identification, preservation and collection of crime scene evidence. These investigators have returned to their respective station houses to utilize these skills to help investigate and solve a wide variety of crimes. These lesson plans have also been adopted by the PNP and made a permanent part of the PNP's investigative training curricula.

In November 2006, a two-week Crime Scene Specialist course was delivered in Zamboanga, producing 29 graduates. The PNP has conscientiously employed these graduates at high-profile crime scenes in Zamboanga and Jolo, and they were responsible for collecting evidence that led to the identification of the remains of Kadaffy Janjalani, and Abu Sulaiman, both on the FBI's Most Wanted Terrorist list. Assistance to the PNP Region IX Crime Laboratory was provided with the development of additional training materials. In January 2007, the lab trained 23 police first responders with a one-week course of instruction on basic crime scene protection and evidence collection. Over the months of February - March 2007, the lab is scheduled to train approximately 250 additional first responder personnel from outside PNP on the importance of crime scene preservation, through a two-day training course.

Overall to date, approximately 1,300 police officers and supervisors have been trained by the USG in the various courses offered. Students have included members of the PNP Criminal Investigation Unit, Forensics Unit, Crime Laboratory Unit, Special Action Force (Special Forces), Maritime Group, Airport Security Group, Public Safety College Staff, and Regional Academy Staff of the PNP.

FY 2008 Program

The two major components to the FY 2008 program are Law Enforcement Support and Administration of Justice. FY 2008 funds will be used to continue to develop long-term and sustainable civilian law enforcement capacity, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation, and support GRP efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law.

Law Enforcement Support

FY 2008 program will focus on providing resident technical advisors and training programs for targeted groups of law enforcement officers, prosecutors and jurists. Programs to improve the quality and transparency of civilian rule of law through assisting the PNP with strategic planning, competency-building, and sustainable training programs of PNP personnel will continue.

Administration of Justice

The effectiveness of law enforcement's working relationship with the prosecutors continues to be an important component of this program. The FY 2008 program is designed to improve police-prosecutor cooperation to better manage crime scenes, preserve evidence and bring criminals to justice. The strengthening of the working relationship between police and prosecutors through the implementation of policies and procedures - will require the police to consult with prosecutors during investigations - will further establish corruption-fighting mechanisms and initiate improvements in judicial administration and criminal case management. Funding will used to provide technical assistance and training.

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Philippines
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Support 1,000 - 1,500 - 950
Administration of Justice 350 - 300 - 0
Counternarcotics 150 - 100 - 200
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 330 - - - -
Non-U.S. Personnel 75 - - - -
ICASS Costs 70 - - - -
Program Support 5 - - - -
Sub-Total 480 - * - *
Total 1,980 - 1,900 - 1,150
* FY 2007 and FY 2008 PD&S costs will be covered with prior-year PD&S funds.

Thailand

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

990

900

2,300

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Build regional law enforcement capacity through comprehensive skill-building training for police and other law enforcement personnel. Enhance regional law enforcement cooperation and produce more effective coordination among countries in the region on efforts to prevent transnational crime, including drug trafficking, IPR violations, money laundering, terrorism, trafficking in persons, and other crimes.

Improve the Royal Thai Government (RTG) law enforcement ability to deter and investigate terrorist activity in the southern provinces by designing and conducting bilateral programs of technical assistance and supervisory training using U.S. and regional experts. Build Royal Thai Police and Ministry of Justice forensic science crime solving capabilities, which are also directly applicable to successfully combating terrorist activity.

Promote the integrity of and improve the effectiveness, fairness, accountability and transparency of the Thai judicial system through training, seminars and conferences with internationally renowned jurists and scholars.

Heighten respect for the rule of law and due process, as well as urge timely and committed investigation of extra-judicial killings or other abuses in measures to suppress drug trafficking. Promote professional expertise and experience of U.S. enforcement and criminal justice institutions among Thai legislators, political and opinion leaders, and criminal justice system practitioners. Promote public ethics, transparency and internal oversight to enable RTG institutions within the justice system to reduce tolerance for public corruption and to investigate and prosecute public corruption cases.

Promote Thai criminal laws that facilitate investigation and prosecution of corruption cases. Deliver comprehensive training programs of comparative ethics for members of the judiciary, lawyers and prosecutors in order to prevent, identify and punish public corruption, and to promote integrity among public officials.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges to security and law enforcement for this developing country, focusing on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations (Peace & Security sub element 1.3.7.).

Program Justification

Thailand is victim to a variety of transnational crime conducted by criminal organizations, including trafficking in narcotics, weapons and persons. The country has achieved significant success in its comprehensive, long-term strategies against illegal drug abuse, trafficking, and production; however, its criminal laws, criminal justice institutions, and regulatory and investigative capabilities require improvement in order to respond more effectively to transnational and organized crime in the 21st century. The corrosive effects of public corruption further impair effective RTG response to these threats.

The RTG considers illegal drug trafficking and abuse as one of its most serious national security problems. The use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) creates serious public health and social problems, and requires modification and expansion of demand reduction programs that were originally tailored for heroin abuse. A national campaign in 2003 to suppress the drug trade had some success, but was also criticized for serious human rights abuses. Thailand has been a leader in programs for prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Its effort to reduce and eliminate opium poppy cultivation and heroin production is one of the most successful in the world. U.S. drug control assistance to Thailand dates to the 1970s, but is being gradually phased out in recognition of the success against opium production and in response to evolving patterns of international drug smuggling. After decades on the list of Major Narcotics Producing and Trafficking Countries, Thailand was removed from the list in September 2004.

The RTG is making a systematic effort to review its criminal justice system and to develop and implement new or modified substantive and procedural criminal laws, procedures and practices that respond appropriately to organized and transnational crime, and implement obligations of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Drug Trafficking, the 2000 Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), and the 2003 Convention Against Corruption.

Thailand is a regional leader in international cooperation against drugs and transnational crime. It has agreements for cooperation with the United States, its neighbors and others, and takes a leading role in regional and multilateral drug and crime control organizations. Under a bilateral agreement concluded in 1998, the RTG and USG jointly operate the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Bangkok, which has thus far provided training to 4,500 law enforcement officials from Southeast Asia and China.

As traditional forms of U.S. Department of State counter narcotics assistance are reduced, "value-added" assistance by the United States in fighting corruption and other areas will remain crucial elements in Thailand's efforts to reform and modernize law enforcement institutions.

Program Accomplishments

Despite the political uncertainties caused by the September 2006 coup, INL-funded programs have supported a wide range of activities that have resulted in tangible accomplishments. For the eighth consecutive year, the opium poppy crop in 2006 remained below 1,000 hectares. Thailand's evolution from a major source country for opium to a net importer of heroin constitutes a significant strategic success and was a factor in removing Thailand from the list of major narcotics producing or trafficking countries in 2004.

With U.S. support and encouragement, Thailand is in the process of amending many of its basic narcotics and other substantive and procedural criminal laws. During 2006, Thailand continued to employ legal authorities authorizing use of wiretap evidence in drug investigations and allowing reduction of sentences for convicted drug offenders who cooperate with prosecutors and investigators. Legislation on plea-bargaining in criminal cases, controlled deliveries, establishment of a witness protection program and other improvements in substantive and procedural criminal law remain under active discussion and consideration by various Thai legal institutions and the Parliament. Thailand is a signatory to both the UN Convention Against Corruption and the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Convention. The Thai Criminal Law Institute expanded its ongoing review of criminal laws to include the Convention Against Corruption.

INL-funded programs contributed materially to Thai law enforcement agencies' ability to conduct investigations by providing equipment, training and institutional building blocks that expand Thai counter narcotics professionalism. However, in 2003 INL suspended most forms of counternarcotics assistance and training to the Thai Provincial Police due to reports of police involvement in unexplained killings of drug suspects during the government's anti-drug campaign. That suspension remains in place pending investigations of the killings, including prosecution of anyone found responsible for wrongful extra-judicial killings. (No FY 2007 funds were provided to Provincial Police absent such investigations; drug law enforcement funding will support counternarcotics assistance to other Thai law enforcement agencies.)

Thailand continues to play a leading regional role in counter narcotics and fighting other transnational criminal threats. The RTG has cooperated with China, Burma, and other nations on significant drug investigations, resulting in numerous seizures of significant quantities of heroin and methamphetamine tablets. Thailand participated in several regional conferences on the suppression of precursor chemicals in 2005. Thailand has encouraged China and India to take stronger action to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine. Thailand increased counternarcotics cooperation with Burma, and continued its pilot alternative development projects in Burma, based on its own successful experience. Thailand plays a leading role in the UN-sponsored ACCORD plan of action designed to promote regional cooperation on drug and crime control efforts. Thailand also continued to demonstrate regional and international leadership in law enforcement affairs. With INL support, the RTG-affiliated Royal Projects Foundation began in 2005 to provide alternative crop development assistance to Burma an Afghanistan, and is looking at assisting Columbia.

Thailand's regional efforts at border interdiction and law enforcement coordination include improved policing of the Thai-Lao borders in the north and northeast regions of the country. Markedly improved cross-border operational communications along the Mekong River has developed within the past year, fostered in part by the inauguration of scheduled joint Lao-Thai river patrols using U.S. Government-purchased boats and other non-lethal equipment. Lao and Thai border law enforcement authorities now benefit from improved contacts and better communications tools, including cellular telephones and handheld radios that facilitate cross-border operational communications.

FY 2008 Program

The FY 2008 program will include continuing support to the RTG's criminal investigative agency, the Department of Special Investigations (DSI), which is responsible for investigating significant, non-drug transnational and organized crime. FY 2008 funding will be used to offer training courses and technical assistance with organizational development by U.S. federal law enforcement agencies including the FBI and the Department of Justice (ICITAP). The continued development of the DSI will enable more focused investigations by the Thai law enforcement community, thereby facilitating the solving of crimes that affect U.S. business and national interests, such as intellectual property rights infringement, cyber crime, and financial crime.

FY 2008 funds will help build subregional multilateral projects with the Thai and neighboring countries, build capacity for dealing with new cross-border threats resulting from liberalized regional trade and globalization, and continue support for projects like the Thai-Lao joint cooperation to interdict narcotics trafficking along the Mekong River. The nearly completed north-south highway connecting Thailand to China, and the nearly completed east-west highway connecting Thailand with Vietnam via Laos will raise exponentially the volume of licit and illicit trafficking in goods and services as well as migration, thus posing threats as well as benefits to Thailand and neighboring nations.

With FY 2008 funds, OPDAT and ABA will continue projects designed to further support RTG efforts to fight corruption within the criminal justice system-particularly within the judiciary-by developing and conducting seminars and workshops throughout Thailand for sitting judges, prosecutors and public/private attorneys, as well as funding training visits by U.S. judicial experts. Specific goals are to improve understanding of comparative ethics regimes, encourage development of solutions to judicial misconduct and improve professional ethics education and training in Thai judicial institutions as these institutions evolve following the September 2006 coup.

Expansion and refinement of regional programs at ILEA Bangkok will continue, as well as development of bilateral programs to Thai law enforcement agencies that will both further U.S. interests in combating transnational criminal activity as well as threats to Thai security that are posed by the continuing terrorist incidents in southern provinces.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for law enforcement, judicial assistance, counternarcotics and anticrime training program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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Thailand
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Support 990 - 900 - 2,300
Total 990 - 900 - 2,300

Vietnam

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Vietnam (GVN) willstrengthen its abilities to improve border security.

Training and technical assistance will focus on the interception of contraband at border points and to create highly specialized contraband enforcement teams to enforce restrictions on international passengers and cargo.

The GVN will improve its abilities to restrict the contraception of narcotics.

Basic training and technical assistance in counternarcotics will advance Vietnam's narcotics interdiction capabilities.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds for a counternarcotics program in Vietnam support and further the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals for this developing state. Funding a border control program will benefit not only the GVN, but the surrounding countries and U.S. national security interests in denying safe havens and transit routes for terrorists and traffickers in illicit goods and in persons.

Program Justification

Vietnam is located close to drug-producing countries and has limited capacity to combat drug trafficking. Therefore, Vietnamese border security plays an integral part in U.S. efforts to thwart traffickers in illicit goods and in persons. The vulnerability and lack of trained law enforcement officers make this a threat in the region. The GVN recognizes the need for assistance to improve their law enforcement's capacity to control its borders and intercept narcotics and other contraband. In 2003 GVN signed a Letter of Agreement (LOA) that focused on assistance to improve the effectiveness of Vietnam's counternarcotics efforts. This meant that a Contraband Enforcement Team (CET) would provide training, customized for the international airport environment and to be delivered in three phases.

During Phase I, five Vietnamese officers from border control and civil aviation security agencies traveled to the U.S. to observe a successful CET team in an airport operational environment. In Phase II, three Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers comprised an airport CET training team and delivered a specialized course in Hanoi to 24 officers from 3 major geographic regions in Vietnam. For Phase III, one CET international instructor remained in Vietnam for three additional days to reinforce lessons learned during Phase II in an airport operational environment. In 2004, a country assessment was conducted and Post recommended additional training. The plan included training and equipment deliveries over the medium term. Training will consist of three additional iterations of CET training for seaport officers in Haiphong, DaNang, and Ho Chi Minh City. The program will include appropriate equipment, such as basic inspection tools and test kits, to support program objectives.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 represents a new request and requirement for INL. In the past, INL received Asia Regional funds in FY 2004 to support the Contraband Enforcement Team training conducted by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) focusing on interception of contraband at border points and basic and targeted DEA counternarcotics training to improve Vietnam's narcotics interdiction capabilities. FY 2008 will continue to fund these two programs.

FY 2008 Program

The major components to the FY 2008 program are counternarcotics training with the U.S. DEA and CBP. The bilateral FY 2008 funds will be used to continue training that focus on interception of contraband at border points and training to improve Vietnam's narcotics interdiction capabilities.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Vietnam
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Narcotics Interdiction - - - - 200
Eradication - - - - -
Institutional Development - - - - -
Sub Total 0 - 0 - 200
Administration of Justice 0 - 0 - 0
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 0 - 0 - 0
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - -
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - -
ICASS Costs - - - - -
Program Support - - - - -
Sub-Total 0 - 0 - 0
Total 0 - 0 - 200

East Asia and Pacific Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

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280

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The U.S.-Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) partnership will collaborate on developing a regionally coordinated trafficking interdiction strategy and operations for member nations to meet ASEAN's goal of becoming drug-free by 2015.

The U.S. will fund an UNODC study of illicit synthetic drug trafficking, documenting the degree and growth of non-opiate illicit drugs, their production methods and sites, distribution channels, and consumption. This study will include recommendations on how ASEAN members can collaborate on a response. The ASEAN Secretariat and ASEAN member countries in conjunction with the U.S. will then use the recommendations in the study to coordinate sub-regional efforts and assistance. USG assistance will include participating in the provision of assistance and training. Training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and operational capabilities along the Mekong River, the China-Thailand Highway, and the Thailand-Vietnam Highway, as well as sea lane and air traffic in Maritime South East Asia.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will be used to advance border security and counternarcotics coordination and operations (Peace and Security sub element 1.4.3) for ASEAN-member developing and transforming countries.

Program Justification

The United States and ASEAN have formed a partnership to address common issues. At the ministerial in 2006, the U.S. Secretary of State committed the USG to assisting ASEAN in the latter's goal to become drug-free by 2015.

Program Accomplishments

This program is new. The USG has contacted the ASEAN Secretariat to propose the funding of the UNODC study, and expects to follow up with assistance and training coordinated with ASEAN members countries to implement the study's recommendations.

FY 2008 Program

The major component to the FY2008 program will be the funding and assistance to the UNODC study, with recommendations for consideration by the ASEAN member states' Heads of Law Enforcement Agencies.

If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.
If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

East Asia Pacific Regional
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Interdiction - - - - 280
Total - - - - 280

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