U.S. Department of State

Europe and Central Asia

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I. Summary

Drug trafficking remains a significant issue for Albania. Organized crime uses Albania as a transit point for drug smuggling due to its strategic location, weak police and judicial systems, and lax border controls. The most common illegal drugs are heroin, cocaine and marijuana. Heroin is typically routed through the "Balkans Route" of Turkey-Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania, and on to Italy and Greece. Although Albania is not a major transit country for drugs coming into the United States, it remains a country of concern to the U.S. Drug abuse is a growing problem, but remains on a small scale compared with Western Europe. Statistics continue to be unreliable on drug trafficking or use, and the public is generally unaware of the problems associated with drugs.

The Government of Albania (GOA), largely in response to international pressure and assistance, has been confronting criminal elements more aggressively. This continues to be an uphill battle because of lack of resources and corruption in Albania. The government established an antidrug unit in 1998 under the Ministry of Public Order and, in 1999, drafted legislation calling for national coordination to combat drugs and improve investigations of drug-related crimes. Albania is not a party to the UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

The government is continuing its efforts to build security and stability throughout Albania. Police professionalism has increased, especially among units that defend public order. The judiciary is engaged in improving the legal system with technical assistance from the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Justice Department, though it remains weak and subject to corruption. The current government of Prime Minister Ilir Meta has been in power since October 1999, and has begun to implement commitments to crack down on organized crime. The Albanian military and police work closely with the Italian police and coastal patrol organizations to shut down smuggling runs of illegal immigrants, drugs and other contraband across the Adriatic to Italy. In November 2000, the government mounted an antitrafficking initiative, Operation Eagle, that increased cooperation with these organizations, particularly in the port city of Vlore, a known trafficking center in drugs, illegal migrants, weapons and other contraband.

Plagued by severe unemployment, crime, and lack of infrastructure, the Albanian public focuses little public attention or debate on the problem of drug abuse. There are no independent organizations that compile data on drug use in Albania, nor are significant government assets dedicated to tracking the problem. But Albania is experiencing an upsurge in drug abuse by younger Albanians. Heroin and marijuana are abused; cocaine is also available, but is expensive, and this fact restricts its use. Heroin is imported from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, but originates in Afghanistan; marijuana is produced domestically. Local addicts also use a powerful synthetic morphine called pethidine. The limited press and media coverage on the subject speculates that drug use, especially among adolescents in cities, is on the rise. There are no special treatment centers for drug addicts.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. In 1998, the Ministry of Public Order opened an antidrug unit, which remains understaffed and lacking basic equipment. In 1999, the government drafted two laws that derive partially from the 1998 UN Drug Convention. These laws call for national coordination of policies regarding use and trafficking of narcotics as well as establishing a framework to improve criminal investigations in drug-related cases. As of December 2000, no date was set for parliament to consider these drafts. The government is also taking an active role with its Balkan neighbors bilaterally and in regional initiatives to combat organized crime. Albania is a participant in the Stability Pact and the Southeast European Cooperation Initiative (SECI).

Accomplishments. Although antidrug authorities do not have the capacity to determine crop sizes and yields, they estimate that police destroyed more than 256,000 marijuana plants in the first 11 months of 2000, believed to be more than 50 percent of the total harvest.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Authorities report that in 2000, police arrested 640 persons for drug trafficking, four of them foreign citizens (one American, two Turks, and one Greek). The police seized 23.5 kilograms of heroin, 28 kilograms of cocaine, and over two liters of hashish oil. Asset seizure was legalized as an anti-smuggling weapon in 1998, when legislation was passed that allows for the seizure and sale of boats used for smuggling. In August 2000, Parliament passed a new Anti-Speedboat law that enables police to seize speedboats used in illegal trafficking, including drugs, not only at sea, as was the case in the past, but on land as well.

Illicit Cultivation and Production. With the exception of cannabis, Albania is not known as a major producer of illicit drugs. According to authorities of the Ministry of Public Order's antidrug unit, in 2000, cannabis is the only drug grown and produced in Albania, and is typically for consumption or sale in Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, and Italy. Metric ton quantities of Albanian marijuana have been seized in Greece and Italy. The Ministry of Public Order reported that police forces destroyed cannabis plants in 41 villages, mostly in southern Albania. The ministry also reported a new trend(s): the growing of red poppies and cannabis in Northern Albania.

Precursor Chemical Control. Albania is not a producer of significant qualities of precursor chemicals. Albanian law does not address precursor chemicals.

Distribution. Corruption among police and magistrates hampers efforts to crack down on drug distribution, though distribution is less of a problem than transit of illegal narcotics for international trafficking. However, police efforts to combat distribution may be increasingly effective since the government now has greater authority over areas previously out of their control.

Sale, Transport, and Financing. Organized crime plays a significant role in drug trafficking, including the facilitation of sales, financial arrangements, and smuggling. The government, in cooperation with Italian authorities, has made some progress in interdicting narcotics smugglers at sea.

Drug flow/Transit. Heroin and cocaine are the main drugs that transit Albania. Authorities report that heroin typically follows through the "Balkan Route," while traffickers ship cocaine by air from the U.S. and Latin America, with a stop in Albania, and then on to Western Europe.

Agreements and Treaties. The United States has an extradition treaty with Albania that entered into force on November 13, 1935. As stated earlier, Albania is not a party to any of the UN Drug Conventions. Albania signed the U.N Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

Demand Reduction. Drug abuse is a comparatively new problem in Albania and the government and Albanian society have been slow to address it. Local and national authorities do not believe the problem is particularly widespread, owing both to traditional cultural norms and low levels of discretionary income.

Corruption. Corruption remains a deeply entrenched problem. Low salaries and social acceptance of graft make it difficult to combat corruption among police, magistrates, and border officials. In 2000, the Ministry of Public Order established an Anti-Organized Crime directorate with technical assistance provided by the U.S. Department of Justice's ICITAP and OPDAT with funding by the Department of State's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL).

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation. The GOA continues to welcome assistance from the United States and Western Europe. The U.S. is intensifying its activities in the areas of public order and legal reform with expanded programming and additional staff members at the U.S. mission in Tirana. Additional U.S. advisors will work with the Ministry of Public Order to support efforts to fight organized crime and trafficking in 2001. Other USG, EU, and international programs include support for Albanian customs reform and enhanced border controls, continued judicial training, efforts to improve cooperation between police and prosecutors, and anticorruption programs. The U.S. continues to offer Department of Justice/ICITAP police training programs and OPDAT training and technical assistance for prosecutors.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to push the Albanian government to encourage progress on illegal drug trafficking and use law enforcement assistance efficiently, and support legal reform. The U.S. assistance will increase in 2001 to provide additional guidance and training to law enforcement and judiciary bodies, including the planned posting of two additional ICITAP experts to help establish the Ministry of Public Order's Organized Crime Unit. EU and international efforts will provide the GOA with additional support.


I. Summary

Armenia is not a major drug producing country, and domestic consumption is relatively small. The Government of Armenia (GOAM), however, recognizing its potential as a transit route for international narcotics shipments, is working to improve its interdiction ability. The Armenian parliament is presently considering legislation, which would strengthen the Interior Ministry's mandate to combat drug trafficking. Because of limited government resources, however, counternarcotics programs emphasize prevention with little funding for treatment. Armenia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. It is expected that in January or February 2001 Armenia will sign an Agreement on Collaboration of Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Illegal Trafficking of Narcotic, Psychotropic and Precursor Substances.

II. Status of Country

Because of its geographical position, Armenia has the potential to become a significant transit point for international drug trafficking. Armenia is presently a secondary trafficking route for drugs because of limited transport between it and neighboring countries. However, according to the Ministry of Interior, transit through Armenia is increasing. The Interior Ministry estimates that 75 percent of all opiates in Armenia are being smuggled from Iran, constituting about 50 percent of all narcotics smuggled into Armenia. Armenia's borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey remain closed due to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, but when these borders open, drug transiting could increase significantly. The GOAM's immediate concern is to prepare its law enforcement capabilities for this situation.

Drug abuse is not a serious problem in Armenia. The local market for narcotics, according to the Interior Ministry, is not large and the main drugs of choice are opium and cannabis. Heroin first appeared in the Armenian drug market in 1996 and since then there has been a small upward trend in heroin sales.

The number of substance abusers has been on the rise over the past three years. The average age of users has gone from 35 to 25 in recent years. The Ministry of Interior has reported an increase in drug use among 15 to 17 year olds, which may be explained in part by increased use of narcotics in cafes and nightclubs and a rise in prostitution. The rising number of persons who have tested HIV positive, generally associated with drug use, has also become a concern. It is estimated that the number of drug abusers in Armenia exceeds 10,000, of that number 50 percent report consuming opiates. The average cost of treatment for one drug addict to the state is USD250.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The newly drafted General Section of the Criminal Code has passed all three parliamentary readings and it is currently waiting Presidential approval. This section includes a draft law on narcotic drugs, prepared by the Interior Ministry, pertaining specifically to psychotropic substances and includes provisions that would give the Ministry a clear mandate as the lead agency for combating drug trafficking. The Interior Ministry has also drafted a decree for the establishment of a joint committee to update the classification of drugs and to introduce stricter control over licit production, sale, and distribution of pharmaceutical drugs of a psychotropic nature.

Accomplishments. According to both the Ministry of Interior and the Office of the Prosecutor General (OPG), during the first nine months of 2000, there have been 789 incidents of crime associated with illegal trafficking in drugs registered, compared with 1062 for the same period of the previous year. This constitutes a decrease by 273 incidents or 25.7 percent. To date according to the OPG, 54.0kg of narcotic substances have been confiscated, against 43.1kg for the same period last year. The OPG explains this trend as a result of a more active approach to uncovering criminals involved in the sale of narcotics.

According to the Office of the Prosecutor General domestic production, such as wild hemp, is grown primarily in the Provinces of Ararat and Gegharkunik, and to a lesser extent in the Provinces of Armavir, Lori, and Syunik. Importation of drugs to Armenia originates mainly from Russia, Iran and Turkey for Heroin; Russia, Iran, Ukraine and Asian Countries for Opiates; and Iran for Marijuana. Motor vehicles are the main mode of transportation, though other means such as planes are used as well.

Law Enforcement Efforts. In 1999, the Interior Ministry began to deploy joint teams of Armenian police and customs representatives at each customs post and checkpoint. The Ministry obtained fifteen drug-sniffer dogs from Western Europe for this purpose. Based on the Embassy's periodic review, initially the canine program was deemed a success, but training of the dogs has not been adequately maintained and they are not exercised on a regular basis, resulting in less effective skills of the dogs in the program.

Corruption. There were no cases reported of government officials being involved in drug-related corruption in 2000. However, corruption remains endemic in Armenia.

Agreements and Treaties. Armenia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Armenia is a signatory to the 1992 Kiev and 1996 Dushanbe narcotics control assistance agreements of the NIS countries. In 1999, Armenia, Georgia, and Iran signed a trilateral agreement on cooperation to combat drug trafficking. Armenia has also signed bilateral agreements on cooperation against illicit traffic in narcotics and psychotropic substances with the Customs Service of Turkmenistan, Customs Committee of Georgia, and the Customs Committee of Tajikistan. The OPG expects that in January/February 2001 Armenia will sign an Agreement on Collaboration of Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States in Combating Illegal Trafficking of Narcotic, Psychotropic and Precursor Substances.

Cultivation and Production. Cannabis (hemp) and opium poppy grow wild in northern areas of Armenia, particularly in the Lake Sevan basin and in some mountainous areas. No illicit laboratories producing synthetic drugs were discovered in Armenia in 2000.

Drug Flow/Transit. Transit of illegal drugs is recognized as the most serious concern for the GOAM, however, no estimates of the total amount of drugs transported through Armenia are available. The main drug routes run from Iran, to Russia and Ukraine and almost all heroin brought to Armenia originates from those countries.

Demand Reduction. Drug abuse is one of the most serious concerns of health authorities, due to poor financing, a lack of communication with remote rural areas, and a lack of interest in "preventative actions" on the part of local NGOs.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Cooperation was established between the U.S. and Armenian law enforcement agencies in a number of areas. Armenian officials have participated in U.S.-funded training sessions both in Armenia and at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary. Armenian police officers and border guards have attended training on investigative techniques, forensic techniques, crisis management, domestic violence, and internal controls. Members of the legal sector have attended training on drafting legislation, prosecutorial functions, judicial reform, and public corruption. The Armenians have teamed up with U.S. advisors to work on launching a program that will combats money laundering and economic crimes for Armenian law enforcement officers and judges.

The Road Ahead. The U.S.G. will continue working with the Armenian government to improve training of both their law enforcement and rule of law sectors. There are plans to provide much needed equipment that will enhance training in every area of concern. The Armenian government has agreed to continue its cooperation with neighboring countries in a regional effort to control drug trafficking through the Caucasus.


I. Summary

Throughout 2000, Austria remained primarily a transit country for drug trafficking from the Balkans to Western European markets. Organized drug trafficking is carried out largely by non-Austrian criminal groups. Austrian authorities have expressed concern over the continued rise of organized crime, which they attribute predominantly to Mafia-type gangs from Russia and other former East Bloc countries. Production or cultivation of illegal substances in Austria remains insignificant. The law enforcement community believes the expanded investigative tools, contained in several recently passed laws, give them the means to fight organized crime. Austria made combating narcotrafficking a priority during its OSCE chairmanship in 2000. Cooperation with U.S. authorities is excellent. Austria has been a party to the 1971 and 1988 UN drug conventions since 1997.

II. Status of Country

Production of illicit drugs in Austria continues to be marginal, but Austria remains a transit country for drugs that organized crime syndicates transport along the major European drug routes. Seizures of heroin rose to 200 kilograms by November 2000 from 118.213 kilograms in 1999. Seizures of MDMA ("ecstasy") also rose significantly in 2000. The number of drug-related deaths rose to 215 in 2000 from 174 in 1999. Unofficial estimates place drug-related crime at about 30 percent of all offenses. Most organized drug crime can be traced back to perpetrators in the NIS (Newly Independent States). Austria heeded a European court decision and abolished anonymous passbook savings accounts in 2000, further hindering money-laundering possibilities. This move also halted a related Financial Action Task Force (FATF) initiative to suspend Austria's membership for noncompliance. Complementary legal measures in 2000 served to close remaining loopholes for unmonitored transactions.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The new center-right coalition government (OVP/FPO), installed in February 2000, has sought minor changes in Austria's liberal drug policies. Its policy objectives include measures to reduce the decreed "limit quantities" (e.g. 20 grams for cannabis THC), over which drug use becomes a crime. One part of the government has called for increases of the existing range of punishments for drug dealers. Drug experts have termed these steps a move toward a more "repressive" drug policy, while the opposition Social Democrats and Greens continue to favor total decriminalization of cannabis. The Government of Austria's strategy at the same time includes a commitment to intensify drug prevention education. Existing legislation, last overhauled in the 1998 Narcotic Substances Act, focuses on therapy for drug users and foresees severe penalties for drug dealers. While drug dealers may face up to 20 years in prison, first-time users of cannabis may avoid criminal proceedings if they agree to therapy.

Austrian investigators maintain that a 1998 law directed against organized crime, which allows technical surveillance of persons "strongly suspected" of having committed "crimes punishable up to 10 years," has helped them arrest a large number of drug dealers since its passage. A related investigative tool, the "Police Powers Law," was amended in 2000 by the new government. It authorizes investigators to collect and analyze information about likely extremist/terrorist groups without judicial approval and prior to the establishment of "substantiated suspicion."

Accomplishments. With the help of new legal tools and the support of the DEA Office at the U.S. Embassy in Vienna, police seized 104 kilograms of heroin at Vienna's Schwechat Airport in June 2000. This and most other drugs seized in Austria in 2000 entered Austria by way of the Balkan route. In May 2000, authorities seized 1,170 kilograms of cannabis at the border crossing from Slovenia. Authorities believe the absence of major cocaine seizures at Vienna's Airport, a traditional cocaine transit port, could be attributed to a redirection of drug-smuggling routes. In the fall of 2000, Austrian authorities arrested members of an Austrian-Polish drug ring, whom they accused of producing and selling illicit drugs (including 120,000 ecstasy tablets) worth $670 million. In December 2000, Austrian authorities destroyed a drug-ring in the state of Styria, arresting 16 suspected drug dealers. Also in December 2000, Austrian authorities, in cooperation with the DEA, seized 10.5 kilograms of heroin from a Polish, Russian, and German drug ring. Overall, authorities estimate that one out of two criminal offenses in Austria is drug-related.

In 1999, authorities registered 17,597 cases of domestic drug-related criminal offenses, compared to 16,624 for the previous year; 2000 figures are not yet available. (Fifteen cases involved U.S. citizens). No major changes in these figures are expected for 2000. According to a 1998 study, the country spent about $135 million annually (i.e., 0.27 percent of total budget outlays that year) to combat illegal drugs. Two-thirds of this amount went into law enforcement efforts.

International Policy. As chair of the OSCE in 2000, Austria worked diligently to make the fight against drug trafficking one of the priorities of its term. During its term as OSCE Chief, Austria sponsored an antidrug summit in Tashkent/Uzbekistan in October 2000. Austria continues to cooperate within EU fora, to prioritize social and health policy measures and to urge inclusion of NGOs at the planning stages of the EU's antidrug strategy plans. Overall, Austrian authorities routinely stress the need for increased international cooperation in view of the growing internationalization of the drug trafficking cartels. The central narcotics bureau participated in a reciprocal exchange program for improving investigative procedures with officials in Slovakia, FYROM (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), and Slovenia.

Austria has legislation allowing freezing and forfeiture of assets. Criminal courts are responsible for tracing and seizing assets. Austria has not enacted laws for sharing seized narcotics assets with other governments; however, mutual legal assistance treaties can be used as an alternative vehicle to accomplish equitable distribution of forfeited assets. In the first 11 months of 2000, $10.7 million were frozen, of which $7.7 million were due to one case.

Law Enforcement Efforts. As of November 1, 2000, law enforcement authorities had registered a marked rise in heroin seizures (200 kilograms by the end of November 2000) and a notable drop of cocaine seizures at Vienna's Schwechat Airport. In 1999, authorities seized 99.140 kilograms of cocaine, an increase from the 62.377 kilograms seized in 1998. Of all drug offenses in 1999, 386 were related to illegal possession of psychotropic substances, mainly in the form of controlled substance medications. No offenses were registered in 1999 regarding precursor materials. The overall number of illicit drug abusers is believed to have remained stable, although no exact figures exist. In 2000, as in previous years, there were approximately 15,000 to 20,000 drug users in Austria. By October 2000 authorities had registered 215 cases of suspected drug-related deaths, an increase over the 174 drug-related deaths reported in 1999.

Corruption. Austria ratified the OECD Antibribery Convention in 1999. The GOA's public corruption laws recognize and punish the abuse of power by a public official. Austria has eliminated tax deductibility of bribes and any gray market payments. There are no cases pending at the moment which involve any bribery of foreign public officials. According to a December 2000 Interior Ministry report, use of corruption by NIS-based organized crime gangs constitutes a rising threat. In reaction, Austrian authorities have increased their efforts to prevent and fight corruption since 1999. For this purpose, an ad hoc panel was established in the Interior Ministry that is charged with designing counter strategies. The U.S. is not aware of any high-level Austrian government officials' involvement in drug-related corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. The U.S.-Austrian Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, signed in 1995, was ratified by the Austrian Parliament in June 1998 and entered into force on August 1, 1998. An updated U.S.-Austrian extradition treaty became effective in January 2000. It replaced a 1930 extradition treaty with Austria and a 1934 supplementary extradition convention. The new treaty is a modern dual criminality treaty, i.e., it no longer lists specific extraditable offenses, but makes extraditable all criminal offenses that are prosecuted in both countries and carry a penalty of more than one year or a residual penalty of more than three months.

Vienna is the seat of UNDCP, and Austria is a "major donor" to the UNDCP. As in past years, it has pledged ATS 6.88 million ($460,000) each year for 2000 and 2001. In 1998, Austria became a full member of the Schengen process, to eliminate passport control and visas for internal travel among European member states. It has invested an equivalent of $250 million for Schengen-related measures since. Vienna is a co-sponsor of the "UN-Vienna Civil Society Award," a USD 100,000 prize given to individuals and organizations fighting drug abuse and organized crime. In 2000 the UN and Austria awarded the prize to organizations from Colombia, Chad, and Thailand, as well as to the late British drug expert Roger Lewis. On December 12, 2000, Austria signed the UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention and its protocols, and urged "swift ratification of the document by all signatory parties."

Cultivation. The U.S. is not aware of any significant cultivation or production of illicit drugs in Austria. Austria recorded no domestic cultivation of coca, opium, or cannabis in 1999.

Drug Flow/Transit. Most drugs enter Austria by way of the Balkan Route from Southwest Asia. The illicit trade is carried out mainly by Turkish groups, but also by Albanian traffickers based in southern Yugoslavia, followed by nationals of countries of the former Yugoslavia. The Slovak capital of Bratislava remained a temporary heroin depository for traffickers. Cocaine continues to be smuggled by couriers of South American drug cartels, to some extent also by African traffickers and, most recently, by Caribbean-based Austrian nationals. South American drug cartels increasingly use Central and Eastern European airports, including Austria's. Since 1999, Croatian cocaine traffickers with links to South American cartels have become more prominent in Austria.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Austrian authorities have traditionally viewed drug addiction as a disease rather than a crime, a fact reflected in rather liberal drug legislation last amended in 1998, and in related court decisions. Experts predict that legislative plans by the new center-right coalition will redress what some perceive as an excessively tolerant philosophy. Existing antidrug plans on the federal and state level pursue a "balanced, comprehensive and integrative" approach, with special emphasis on the prevention of social marginalization of drug addicts. Demand reduction puts emphasis on primary prevention, drug treatment and counseling, as well as "harm reduction," i.e., medically supervised availability of narcotics to recalcitrant abusers. The use of heroin for claimed therapeutic purposes is generally not allowed.

Drug education starts at the pre-school level. It extends to apprenticeship institutions and includes out-of-school youth programs. The government and local authorities routinely sponsor "educational campaigns" inside and outside school, e.g. mass media campaigns. Austria has syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention. New AIDS cases declined in 1999 and 2000, while the spread of Hepatitis B and C remains a relatively new challenge. There is a growing trend toward diversification in substitution treatment (methadone, prolonged action morphine, and buprenorphine), which has been in place for over a decade. The city of Vienna has been considering the use of cannabis for medical purposes, but has been unable so far to put a pertinent legal framework in place.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Although Austria has no specific bilateral narcotics agreement with the U.S., Austrian cooperation with U.S. investigative efforts is excellent. U.S.-Austrian negotiations on the establishment of an Interior Ministry liaison office at the Austrian Embassy in Washington, D.C. continued in 2000. The office would handle bilateral issues involving all forms of crime, including illegal narcotics. In July 2000, the Austrian chief of narcotics participated in the "Club Drugs Conference," sponsored by the DEA, which discussed ways to combat synthetic drugs. In August 2000, Austrian Interior Minister Strasser discussed cooperation on law enforcement issues in Washington with officials from U.S. agencies, including the DEA, FBI, CIA, the State Department, and with U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to support Austrian efforts to create more effective tools for law enforcement, as well as to work with Austria within the context of U.S.-EU initiatives, the UN and the OSCE, promoting among Austrian officials a better understanding of U.S. drug policy will remain a priority.


I. Summary

Azerbaijan is located along a drug transit route running from Afghanistan and Central Asia west into Western Europe, and from Iran north into Russia and west into Western Europe. Consumption and cultivation of narcotics are at low, but levels of use are increasing. During 2000, the main drugs seized were opium and cannabis. Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act has precluded the funding of U.S. counternarcotics assistance. Azerbaijan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Azerbaijan's main narcotics problem is the increased transit of drugs through its territory resulting from the disruption of the "Balkan route" due to regional ethnic conflicts in several countries of the former Yugoslavia. Narcotics from Afghanistan and South Asia enter from Iran or cross the Caspian Sea from Central Asia and continue on to markets in Russia and Europe. Azerbaijan shares a 700-km frontier with Iran, but its border control forces are insufficiently trained and equipped to patrol it effectively. Iranian and other traffickers are exploiting this situation. Domestic consumption is growing with over 13,500 persons registered in hospitals for drug abuse in Azerbaijan. The actual level of drug abuse is estimated to be many times higher. Government authorities suspect that persons displaced by the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict have been drawn into drug trafficking out of economic necessity. The Government of Azerbaijan (GOAJ) continues to claim that the Armenian occupied areas of Azerbaijan are used for drug cultivation. The GOAJ also maintains that narcotics are transported across the approximately 100 km of Azerbaijan's border with Iran that is under the control of Armenian/Nagorno-Karabakh forces.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The "State Committee on Drug Control" headed by Deputy Prime Minister Ali Hasanov, continues to lead antinarcotics policy initiatives. This Committee is responsible for the implementation of the United Nations General Assembly resolutions relating to drug control. The Ministry of Internal Affairs has continued their program in the southern portion of the country, along the border with Iran, that organizes local counternarcotics police officials to work closely together across local jurisdictions.

Accomplishments. A new criminal code entered into force in September.

Law Enforcement Efforts. There were 2,061 drug-related arrests during the first ten months of 2000. Police lack basic equipment and have little experience in modern counternarcotics methods. Border control capabilities on the border with Iran and maritime border units are inadequate to prevent narcotics smuggling. This year customs officials seized and destroyed a large shipment of opium poppy seeds that originated in Afghanistan.

Corruption. Corruption permeates the public and private sectors. Government officials including the President and Prime Minister have remarked on the gravity of the problem. Current legislation has proven inadequate to address police and judicial corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. Azerbaijan has no narcotics-related agreements or treaties with the U.S. and no extradition agreement. Azerbaijan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug convention, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1961 Single Convention. Azerbaijan signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and Accompanying Protocols in December, 2000.

Cultivation and Production. Cannabis and poppy were cultivated illegally, mostly in southern Azerbaijan. During the first ten months of 2000, law enforcement authorities discovered and destroyed about 388 tons of cannabis and about 45 kilograms of potential opium gum, which were under cultivation.

Drug Flow/Transit. Narcotics traffickers seem to rely on familiar transit routes. Opium and poppy straw originating in Afghanistan and South Asia transit through Azerbaijan from Iran, or from Central Asia across the Caspian Sea. Drugs are also smuggled through Azerbaijan to Russia, then on to Central and Western Europe. Azerbaijan cooperates with Black Sea and Caspian Sea states in tracking and interdicting narcotics shipments, especially morphine base and heroin. Caspian Sea cooperation includes efforts to interdict narcotics transported across the Caspian Sea by ferry. Law enforcement officials report they have received good cooperation from Russia, but have encountered considerable reluctance from Iran to assist in counternarcotics efforts.

Demand Reduction. Opium and cannabis products are the most commonly used drugs. The government of Azerbaijan has begun education initiatives directed at curbing domestic drug consumption.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. Law enforcement exchange of information with Azerbaijan has increased in 2000. Counternarcotics programs are severely limited because section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibits assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. Three Azerbaijan government officials participated, at their own expense, in a regional U.S. training program in Georgia.

The Road Ahead. Without establishment of legal authority to allow the U.S. to provide counternarcotics assistance to the government of Azerbaijan, a key strategic partner in improving regional stability in the Caucasus, nothing more than piecemeal, bilateral cooperation between the two countries will be possible.


I. Summary

Belarus' economic, political, and geographical situation increases its potential of becoming a major drug transit and production site. Deteriorating economic conditions and a sharp drop in real wages continue to dislocate many workers. The sentiment that wealth can and should be acquired by any means possible is growing. The Belarusian government currently lacks both the legislative framework and the financial resources to combat drug trafficking.

II. Status of Country

Belarus' location between Russia and the West, combined with its good rail and road transportation system, and a customs union with Russia that eliminated internal boarders between the two countries, add to Belarus' potential as a narcotics transit corridor.

According to Ministry of Health data, the number of officially registered drug addicts totals 5000, with an estimated 700 to 800 new registrants per year. These numbers do not take into account non-registered addicts who are estimated to exceed these numbers by a factor of ten. Most addicts use products made of opium poppy, oil poppy or marijuana. However, synthetic drugs such as barbiturates, heroin, cocaine, and other drugs are being used in increasing quantities. There is a growing market for low-quality brown heroin.

III. Country Actions Against Narcotics in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Belarusian President Lukashenko has taken steps to strengthen the state's capacity to fight organized crime and drug trafficking. In Lukashenko's presidential decree 21, of 1997, he directed the police to intensify their efforts to combating organized crime and their enterprises. There were no significant policy initiatives in 2000.

Accomplishments. In June 1995 an interagency commission for combating crimes and drug abuse was established. This commission is charged with coordinating the activities of various Belarusian agencies, as well as, state committees, public associations, and international organizations.

Law Enforcement Efforts. A considerable number of crimes recorded over the last two years are related to smuggling. These crimes included: stealing narcotic and addictive substances; organizing or maintaining drug dens for using drugs; and forging medical documents with the aim of procuring drugs. The Minsk office of the UN High Commission for Refugees has indicated that illegal immigrants in Belarus, attempting to travel to the west, often finance their trips through narcotics smuggling.

Responsibility for investigating and discovering narcotics- related crime is divided among the ministry of internal affairs, KGB, customs committee, border guards and ministry of health. Even with many agencies responsible for drug interdiction, resources are scarce and officers are spread thin because of other non-drug-related responsibilities.

Corruption. Belarus also faces many of the same organized crime problems that plague other countries of the Former Soviet Union. The absence of Belarusian laws on organized crime allows lead syndicates to use Belarus for not only drug production and trafficking, but also other drug related crimes such as money laundering.

Agreements and Treaties. Belarus is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 Single Convention and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Belarus is a member of INTERPOL, hosting a department of 12 persons dealing with issues of crime that transcend national borders. In addition, Belarus has joined regional efforts at law enforcement cooperation and has also signed bilateral agreements on cooperation against organized crime and drug trafficking, such as the 1993 on Drug Control Assistance Agreement with Italy and inter-state treaties with Lithuania and China. Currently, there are plans to sign similar agreements with Austria, Bulgaria, Sweden and Germany. Belarus signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its accompanying Protocols in December, 2000.

Cultivation and Production. Opium poppy straw and marijuana are produced in Belarus mainly for domestic consumption. Belarus does not cultivate narcotics, but the country has major chemical production facilities and has all the resources necessary for the production of synthetic narcotics. The laboratory and technical capabilities are in place while much of the industrial plants are lying idle. There is no legislation or regulations dealing with precursor chemicals. Law enforcement is not trained in the detection of drug making facilities and does not have a ready list of indicators of clandestine production of synthetics. Unfortunately, control of precursor chemicals is not an issue that appears to be on the agenda of policy makers or even law enforcement officials, and the chemical industry is left to police itself. Since most precursor chemicals are highly regulated, Belarusian authorities believe that they do not have a serious problem.

Drug Flow/Transit. Belarus is growing in importance as a transit country. Good rail and road connections running east to west and north to south are used to transport narcotics from areas such as Ukraine, Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Russia to Western Europe. In addition, incidents of drug transportation destined for Poland and Germany have increased dramatically as a result of the customs union that eliminated internal borders between Belarus and Russia.

Demand Reduction. Belarus has not formulated a national drug abuse prevention strategy and only limited efforts are devoted to preventative and educational programs. Instead, the main emphasis is put on treatment and social rehabilitation of current drug addiction problems. Treatment for drug addicts is generally performed in psychiatric hospitals, either through arrest or self-enrollment. The emphasis of all Belarusian programs is to achieve detoxification and physical stabilization. Knowledge is lacking on how to further assist addicts with psychological counseling and social rehabilitation.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Initiatives. Counternarcotics programs are prohibited by section 907 of the Freedom Support Act, which prohibits assistance to the Government of Belarus. This policy of selective engagement has resulted in the USG not providing support to GOB police agencies since February 1997.

The Road Ahead. Without legal authority to provide U.S. counternarcotics assistance to the government of Belarus, the U.S. is only able to engage in piecemeal humanitarian bilateral assistance.


I. Summary

The Kingdom of Belgium has not been a significant producer of narcotics or precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics. However, police report that through November 2000, ten amphetamine or ecstasy labs have been seized compared to only four in all of 1999. Police also report a recent increase in cannabis cultivation. Belgium is a major trader in chemicals and is frequently used as a transit country for precursor chemicals destined for South America. Narcotics traffickers continue to exploit Belgium's large port facilities, transportation infrastructure, and central location in Western Europe for transshipment of illicit drugs. The increase in the incidence of trafficking in MDMA/ecstasy, which began in 1999, continued unabated in 2000. Belgium's contribution to the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP) budget rose to $451,000 in 2000. Belgium is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Belgium has not been a significant producer of illicit narcotics or precursor chemicals. Recent developments, however, are cause for concern. Police seized ten amphetamine or ecstasy laboratories in 2000, compared to only four in 1999. Authorities suspect that Dutch synthetic drug producers are periodically shifting operations over the border from the Netherlands in order to avoid mounting law enforcement pressure there. Cannabis resin, also called hashish, is the most widely distributed and used illicit substance in Belgium, but heroin abuse produces the most important health and social problems, including drug-related crime. Belgian police recognize the growing threat posed by trafficking in MDMA/ecstasy.

Heroin trafficking into Belgium is in the hands of Turkish trafficking groups who dominate the Balkan transportation route. Turkey is both a major heroin processing country and a major heroin transit country, particularly for heroin destined for Europe. Authorities estimate that 75 to 80 percent of the Belgian heroin market is controlled by these Turkish groups. Additionally, Belgium is an important transit route for heroin destined to other European markets, but not the U.S.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. In 1998, the government adopted a plan to re-organize the police forces. At the federal level, the Gendarmerie and the judicial police will be integrated into a federal police force in charge of major criminal investigations, including significant national and international narcotics investigations. At the local level, the Gendarmerie and the municipal police will be merged. The reorganization includes the creation of an anticorruption service for the federal police. The plan will combine approximately 17,000 members of the Gendarmerie, 1,200 members of the judicial police force, and 19,000 local and municipal police. Integration on the federal level is scheduled for January 1, 2001 when national agencies of the judicial police and the Gendarmerie will be merged. Local integration will follow later in the year.

A new state security plan, announced in June, included the creation of a special working group, under the auspices of the Ministry of Health, to devise a new Drug Control Strategy for Belgium. This working group, composed of representatives of all interested ministries, was expected to announce its findings in November 2000. However, discussions were continuing in December 2000 and the final report was delayed until early in 2001.

Accomplishments. In 1999 parliament passed an organized crime law that defines a "criminal organization" and criminalizes membership in such an organization. Individuals can be extradited or tried based solely on their membership in a criminal organization. The legislation endorses the use of undercover operations and wiretaps by law enforcement agents.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Belgian law enforcement authorities pro-actively investigate individuals and organizations involved in illegal narcotics trafficking into and through Belgium. The law enforcement efforts of the Gendarmerie currently focus on major trafficking organizations; particularly those involved in trafficking of heroin, cocaine and, most recently, those involved in MDMA or ecstasy.

Belgium is also one of the preferred transit routes for organizations trafficking ecstasy to the United States, although there is no evidence that ecstasy entering the U.S. from Belgium is in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the U.S. Most of the ecstasy trafficked through Belgium originates in the Netherlands. Recently, special units have been established within the Gendarmerie to specifically investigate ecstasy trafficking organizations. Ecstasy seizures have increased dramatically. Dutch trafficking organizations commonly use Brussels' Zaventem airport as a transit point for drug couriers en route to the United States. Ecstasy seizures at Zaventem increased from 132,000 tablets in 1998 to 296,000 in 1999. Arrests increased from six in 1998 to 24 in 1999.

Interdiction efforts by Belgian customs authorities at Antwerp and Zeebrugge lack sufficient resources and manpower. Customs officials report that a five-man team of inspectors is responsible for all port activities involving drugs. Officials report that 3,000-4,000 containers are loaded and unloaded at the port of Antwerp on a daily basis. The inspection team has the capacity to search five to ten containers per week. In addition to containerized freight, customs also reports increased activity involving the ships' crew members. This entails the smuggling of smaller quantities of drugs by individual crew members and larger operations where crew members arrange to off-load large amounts of drugs from the ship before it reaches the dock.

Interdiction efforts by police and customs increased significantly in 2000. Customs officials seized an increasing number of packages destined for the U.S. from express mail companies and the Belgian postal service. For the first time, police at Zaventem airport initiated enforcement operations targeting outbound flights to the United States in response to the increasing number of couriers transporting (primarily) ecstasy to U.S. cities. The U.S. has no evidence that ecstasy entering the U.S. from Belgium is in quantities sufficient to have a significant impact on the U.S. Belgian customs officials at the port of Antwerp remain proactive and responsive to information concerning suspected drug shipments secreted on vessels or in containerized freight.

Belgian law on asset confiscation was expanded through national legislation adopted July 17, 1990, which allows for confiscation of proceeds of a crime, including investment income from crime proceeds and assets purchased with criminal proceeds. These measures complement Article 42 of the Criminal Code that defines confiscation. If the goods subject to confiscation cannot be located, a judge may assess their value and order confiscation of equivalent assets. This practice is known as "confiscation by equivalent."

Asset seizure legislation was expanded in May 1997 to provide procedures for the seizure of real estate and to provided a legal basis to freeze assets pending the outcome of a criminal investigation. The 1997 law also permits the Belgian judiciary to execute foreign judgments regarding seizure and confiscation of assets derived from drug trafficking or money laundering. Since the assets seizure legislation was implemented in 1990, judges have most frequently used "confiscation by equivalent" procedures. Since 1990, judges have used the confiscation procedure in 330 cases, involving an estimated illegal profit of more than $155.5 million.

Corruption. Corruption is not judged a problem within the narcotics units of the law enforcement agencies. Legal measures exist to combat and punish corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. Belgium is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Belgium is also a party to the 1961 Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In December 2000 Belgium signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols. The U.S. and Belgium have an extradition treaty, as well as a new mutual legal assistance treaty entered into force in January 2000. Belgium and the United States are in the process of finalizing a Memorandum of Understanding to formalize Belgian participation in the Caribbean Maritime Counterdrug Initiative. Final approval is expected in early 2001.

In 2000, Belgium entered into a bilateral police cooperation agreement with Poland. This agreement is comprehensive in nature and includes the framework/guidelines for cooperation on narcotics matters. Negotiations for a bilateral police cooperation agreement are also underway with Slovakia.

The Belgian Ministry of Justice maintains drug liaison offices in 13 foreign cities with territorial competence for 33 countries. The drug liaison offices in Bangkok, Bogota, The Hague, Istanbul, Madrid, Moscow, Paris, Rabat, Rome, Vienna, Warsaw, Washington, and Wiesbaden are staffed by either judicial police or Gendarmerie officers. In 2000, new liaison officers were assigned to Morocco (Rabat) and Bucharest.

Belgium is a member of several international antidrug organizations, including the heads of European Narcotics Law Enforcement Agencies (HONLEA), the European Committee to Combat Drugs (CELAD), and the Dublin Group. Belgium is a member of the major donors group of the UNDCP. Belgium ratified the Europol convention in June 1998.

Cultivation/Production. Police have noted an increase in production of amphetamines and ecstasy, primarily in illegal laboratories on the Belgium/Netherlands border. These laboratories are linked to criminal organizations that distribute the drugs within Europe and to the United States—most frequently through the cities of New York, Miami, Los Angeles and Orlando, Florida. Authorities have also reported an increase in the cultivation of cannabis, primarily in greenhouses but also in hydroponic facilities.

Drug Flow/Transit. Belgium remains an important transit point for drug traffickers because of its port facilities (Antwerp is Europe's second busiest port), airports, excellent road connections to neighboring countries, and central geographic location. Most illicit drugs pass through Belgium via the ports of Antwerp and Zeebrugge; across the border from the Netherlands; or through Brussels Zaventem airport. Smuggling routes change constantly, but Belgian authorities believe an increasing number of heroin shipments arrive from Central Asia via Turkey. Belgian customs reports that the heroin is most probably concealed in containerized freight in relatively small quantities of 10-15 kilograms. Customs reports that because Antwerp is considered a "free trade zone," traffickers know that inspections of containerized freight are minimal. These shipments take one of two trafficking routes: in northern Europe through Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria or in southern Europe through Italy. Cannabis sold in Belgium originates in Morocco, Latin America, and Southeast Asia and arrives via land, air, and sea routes.

Express mail companies in and around Brussels are commonly used by trafficking organizations to smuggle ecstasy tablets into the United States. The express mail method of transport is particularly popular with import organizations in Los Angeles, New York, and Florida. Recently, Dutch groups have begun utilizing the Belgian postal system to send packages containing drugs to U.S. destinations. Israeli criminal organizations continue to play a prominent role in the transportation of ecstasy from producers in the Netherlands and Belgium to distributors in the United States. Belgian authorities are cooperating with U.S. law enforcement agencies to disrupt this transit route.

Demand Reduction. Belgium has an active antidrug educational program that targets the country's youth. The regional governments (Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels) now administer such programs. The programs include education campaigns, drug hotlines, HIV and hepatitis prevention programs, detoxification programs, and a pilot program for "drug-free" prison sections. The Belgian system contrasts with the U.S. approach in that Belgium directs and targets its programs at individuals who influence young people versus young people themselves. Teachers, coaches, clergy, and the like are thought to be better suited to deliver the antidrug message to the target audience because they already are known and respected by the young people.

Belgium recently participated in a training program with the U.S.-based DARE program. DARE officials traveled to Belgium to sponsor a "train the trainers" project. Belgian based trainers are now qualified to teach the DARE program to other demand reduction officers in Europe.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Cooperation between the United States and Belgium continues to be excellent with an increasing number of joint investigations. This has resulted in an increase in the number of International Controlled Drug Deliveries (ICDs) facilitated by DEA between Belgium and the United States. These ICDs have been particularly effective in combating ecstasy trafficking between the two countries.

The DEA and the FBI enjoy close and effective cooperation with the judicial police and the Gendarmerie. U.S. law enforcement agencies represented in Brussels enjoy excellent working relationships with offices of the Belgian national magistrates and prosecutors.

The Brussels DEA country office and the Belgian Gendarmerie regularly exchange intelligence information concerning trends and techniques employed by ecstasy trafficking organizations operating between Belgium and the United States. This exchange of information (including arrest and seizure statistics) enables both countries to anticipate emerging patterns of drug transportation. Belgian police have recently initiated an intelligence program targeting outbound commercial flights from Belgium to the United States.

The Road Ahead. The United States looks forward to continued close cooperation with Belgium in combating illicit drug trafficking and drug-related crime, and to continued Belgian participation in multilateral counternarcotics fora such as the Dublin Group.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

I. Summary

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) remains a small but growing market for drug consumption and is emerging as a regional hub for narcotics transshipment. Despite increasing inter-entity law enforcement cooperation, gradual improvements in oversight of the financial sector, and several major drug seizures, local authorities are still politically divided, law enforcement efforts still poorly coordinated, and the justice system still antiquated and inadequate. The narcotics trade remains an integral part of the influence of the foreign and domestic organized crime figures and the ethnic extremists who operate with the tacit acceptance—if not active collusion—of corrupt public officials. Minimal border and customs controls, grave flaws in the regulatory structure, and the absence of political will have left few practical impediments to narcotics trafficking and related crimes through Bosnia. Bosnia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, and is attempting to forge ties with regional and international law enforcement agencies.

II. Status of the Country

Bosnia occupies a strategic position along the historic Balkan smuggling routes between heroin processing centers in Turkey and markets in Western Europe. Although Bosnia is not a major transit country for drugs coming to the United States, it remains a country of concern to the U.S. Narcotics trafficking emerged as a serious problem during the Bosnian conflict, both as a reflection of the general breakdown of law and order and as a means for the warring parties to generate revenue. Bosnian authorities at the state, entity, and cantonal level have been unable to stem the continued transit of illegal aliens, black market commodities (especially cigarettes), and narcotics since the conclusion of the Dayton Accords. Traffickers have capitalized in particular on minimal border controls, an inefficient judicial system, widespread public sector corruption, and poor coordination between law enforcement agencies.

Although domestic production is limited to small-time cannabis cultivation, local authorities - particularly those in Sarajevo canton - are concerned that the "foreign influence" of Bosnia's large international community and the impact of rapid urbanization and high unemployment will contribute to the development of a domestic market for narcotics consumption.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Although Bosnia has neither a national police force nor a national counternarcotics strategy, the initial deployment of the State Border Service (SBS) in June has markedly improved controls at a limited number of international crossing points. Telephone hotlines, local press coverage, and public relations efforts organized by the international community have focused public attention on smuggling and black-marketeering. Foreign donors continue to provide law enforcement assistance training to Bosnian authorities both on a bilateral basis and through international agencies. The USG's bilateral law enforcement assistance program continues to emphasize counternarcotics and task force training.

Accomplishments. Under close supervision by the international community, Bosnian law enforcement agencies have taken initial steps toward substantive cooperation on the counternarcotics front, most notably with the recent formation of an inter-entity joint task force. The Federation (one of two "entities" created by Dayton, the other entity being the "Republika Srpska" or "RS") Interior Ministry is finalizing plans to establish branch offices in each canton, an initiative which will greatly increase its ability to more aggressively pursue its mandate as the lead counternarcotics agency in the Federation.

Despite these isolated initiatives, however, neither the RS nor the Federation has made significant progress in addressing the sclerotic legal environment that allows criminals to act with virtual impunity. Neither entity has vigorously pursued new legislation to reinforce existing asset seizure/forfeiture or money-laundering statutes. Law enforcement cooperation is primarily informal and ad hoc. Mutual legal assistance is severely limited by the judicial bureaucracy, and serious legal and bureaucratic obstacles to the extradition of Bosnian citizens remain in place. The conclusion of a bilateral border-control agreement with Croatia, upgrades in Bosnia's INTERPOL office and more active participation in regional fora such as the Southeast Europe Cooperation Initiative (SECI) may presage improvements in these areas.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Law enforcement efforts improved in 2000, but remain inadequate given the level of narcotics trafficking. Police counternarcotics operations in the Federation have resulted in 394 arrests and the seizure of over 40 kilograms of marijuana in 2000. Cantonal police in Bihac in Western Bosnia seized over 2,000 marijuana plants in 2000. In separate actions between September 30 - October 1, 2000, law enforcement authorities in the Republika Srpska (RS) seized a 144 kilograms shipment of cocaine and a 70 kilograms shipment of marijuana, both reportedly destined for shipment to Western Europe.

On November 29, 2000, Sarajevo Canton authorities arrested Nazim Uskuplu, a Turkish national wanted by European authorities for his alleged role in narcotics trafficking operations throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Uskuplu's arrest (based on an INTERPOL warrant) is an important step forward in Bosnia's full membership in INTERPOL; local officials are investigating Uskuplu's actions and associates in Bosnia but believe his presence in BiH indicates major trafficking activity. On November 11 2000, local authorities seized an 11 kilogram shipment of marijuana, reportedly from Albania, near Mostar in southern BiH.

These actions represent largely isolated efforts by local authorities rather than a coordinated national counternarcotics program. Despite these individual successes, narcotics-trafficking remains a crime of opportunity limited primarily by the interest of criminal elements in the higher profit margins offered by black-marketeering and alien smuggling. Ethnic Albanians, supplied by Turks, are responsible for smuggling Turkish-refined heroin through Bosnia to Western Europe. Authorities have yet to focus systematically on major narcotics traffickers; they have yet to bring a major case to trial or bring adequate resources to bear. The recent closure of the UN Drug Control Program (UNDCP) office in BiH will further complicate local initiatives and impede coordination with international authorities. To date, existing asset seizure and forfeiture statutes have neither been pursued by prosecutors nor imposed by judges. There is no established mechanism to identify, trace, or share narcotics-related assets.

Corruption. Law enforcement agencies have substantiated links between the narcotics trade and the parallel institutions that undermine the rule of law in Bosnia. Bosnia has no laws specifically targeting narcotics-related public sector corruption and has not pursued charges against public officials on narcotics-related offenses. A long-standing parliamentary inquiry into the disappearance of over 20 kilograms of heroin from the safe of the war-time Federation Interior Minister has made no progress to date. The U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo is coordinating closely with the Stabilization Force (SFOR), the United Nations Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina (UNMIBH), and the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to combat the influence of organized crime, corrupt officials, and ethnic hard-liners, all of whom use the narcotics trade to generate revenue.

Agreements and Treaties. There is no bilateral agreement between BiH and the United States specifically pertaining to counternarcotics. Counternarcotics does feature prominently in the USG's bilateral law enforcement assistance training program, which has provided both the Federation and the RS advice and assistance in a broad range of law enforcement issues including investigative techniques, border controls, and major case management. Although both entities worked closely with the UNDCP under the terms of a 1997 agreement, UNDCP concluded its program in BiH in early 2000. Bosnia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and is developing bilateral law enforcement ties with neighboring states to combat narcotics trafficking. Bosnia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

Drug Flow/Transit. Major heroin and marijuana shipments are believed to travel through BiH by several well-established overland routes. Local officials believe that Western Europe, not the U.S., is the ultimate destination for this traffic. Judging by reported seizures, cocaine trafficking is minimal; the market for designer drugs such as ecstasy in urban areas is small but reportedly growing. Law enforcement authorities posit that elements from each ethnic group and all major crime "families" are involved in the narcotics trade, often collaborating across ethnic lines. There is mounting evidence of links between—and conflict among—Bosnian criminal elements and organized crime syndicates in Russia, Albania, the FRY, Croatia, Austria, Germany, and Italy. Drugs are believed to have figured prominently in the June murder in Sarajevo of a Montenegrin figure with reputed ties to narcotics trafficking.

Cultivation and Production. Federation Interior Ministry officials believe that domestic cultivation is limited to small-scale marijuana crops grown in southern and western BiH. Although refinement and production are negligible, law enforcement officials indicate that Bosnia is increasingly becoming a temporary storage point for drug shipments en route from east to west.

Domestic Programs. USG-sponsored community-oriented policing programs, which contain a strong antidrug component, have reached over 40,000 Bosnian children. Although individual cantons have sponsored pilot community outreach programs and sought international assistance to introduce more proactive initiatives, there is no national drug awareness program.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The USG remains committed to providing the counternarcotics training and support needed to foster independent law enforcement operations by BiH authorities.

The Road Ahead. With the International Police Task Force's ongoing shift from training to monitoring of local police forces, the international community ("IC") will increasingly emphasize advanced specialized training in areas such as counternarcotics. The USG in particular has focused its bilateral training programs on related subjects such as organized crime, public sector corruption, and border controls. The IC is working to increase local capacities and to encourage interagency cooperation by mentoring and advising the local law enforcement community. The recent formation of an inter-entity joint task force will facilitate the exchange of information between RS and Federation authorities and could pave the way for inter-entity law enforcement operations, a distant, but essential goal.


I. Summary

Centrally located on Balkan routes leading through Romania or Serbia, Bulgaria is an important transit route between Turkey and Western Europe for Southwest Asian heroin and Southeast Asian marijuana. Authorities have also seized maritime deliveries of South American cocaine. Although Bulgaria is not a major transit country for drugs coming to the United States, it remains a country of concern to the U.S.

In total, Bulgaria's seizures in 2000 are comparable to those in the rest of Europe combined, and represent a major increase over previous years. Bulgaria is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The Government of Bulgaria (GOB) seeks to expand and enhance regional and international counternarcotics cooperation, and requires schools to offer a demand reduction program. Law enforcement authorities cooperate actively with U.S. and third country counterparts, both bilaterally and multilaterally, on counternarcotics case and issues. Narcotics use is a relatively small, but growing problem.

II. Status of Country

Bulgaria is a significant drug-transit country centrally located on three traditional Balkan routes between Turkey and, respectively, Serbia, Romania, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Small quantities of opium poppies and cannabis are grown in Bulgaria. Clandestine labs produce amphetamines and diverted acetic anhydride is transported from Bulgaria to Turkey.

Combating administrative corruption and organized crime are policy priorities for the Bulgarian government. The President, in office since January 1997, supports these priorities. The GOB has at its disposal potentially wide-reaching new anticrime legislation, including a 1998 money laundering law which authorities are working to implement, and which some in the government have suggested might be usefully updated and strengthened. As a result of late 1998 legislation which took full effect on January 1, 2000, the magistracy's investigative functions have been restructured. The government has provided extensive training to police investigators and others given greater responsibilities by these structural changes. The Prosecutor General, in office since January 1999, continues to seek ways to ensure a more effective prosecutorial assault on crime, including narcotics trafficking.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs

Policy Initiatives. National strategy against narcotics is coordinated by an inter-ministerial body composed of ministers or deputy ministers from 17 ministries and agencies. This council has designated the National Service for Combating Organized Crime (NSBOP) as the national focal point to gather and analyze information from all agencies. NSBOP continues to develop its new Center for Narcotics Data Coordination, with five analysts and four technical experts. It plans to open linked centers in major population centers, beginning with Plovdiv and Varna, and will provide additional training for its analysts with funding from the EU's PHARE and UNDCP multi-country drugs project.

Accomplishments. GOB narcotics seizures during 2000 were significant, both in the numbers of seizures and in the quantities of illicit drugs seized. NSBOP believes its seizures during 2000 were even more significant since they involved highly-placed or centrally-placed individuals in the narcotics distribution system. NSBOP also has pointed to greater coordination within the government, included with the Customs Agency and other divisions of the Ministry of Finance. Additional GOB accomplishments in 2000 included increasingly focused application of the money-laundering law in conformity with international standards, and productive use of assistance from PHARE and other western sources.

Law Enforcement Efforts. A 1999 Drugs and Precursors Law provided a legislative framework for GOB antinarcotics strategy, and law enforcement agencies, primarily NSBOP, attempted in 2000 to carry out this strategy with a team approach in which analysts developed expertise in specialized fields, then coordinated information. The new Narcotics Information Center coordinates data from internal sources, from Interpol, and from Romania and Macedonia, and will be expanded to include data from the region as a whole. The Customs Agency used newly improved methods and training to discover and seize large amounts of narcotics during 2000.

Current statistics were compiled from data provided by the Interior Ministry's National Service for Combating Organized Crime and by the Finance Ministry's Customs Agency (renamed in 2000 formerly the General Customs Directorate). In 2000, there was a significant increase in the total number of drug seizures at border check points. Specifically, in 2000, there were 80 drug seizures at border check points compared to 31 and 35 seizures in 1999 and 1998, respectively. However, there is an increase in the number of drug users in Bulgaria, estimated at 44-48,000, up from 25-30,000 in 1998. Also, five illicit drug laboratories were destroyed in 2000.

Corruption. There have been significant improvements under the current government, but corruption, including allegedly among police and especially Customs officials, continued in 2000 to be an important political topic in Bulgaria and could figure largely in the scheduled 2001 elections. The U.S. has no specific information that any senior GOB official has been involved in drug trafficking or other narcotics-related crimes. The government, in place since May 1997, has made the fight against organized crime and corruption a major priority, and has pressed forward with an extensive legislative reform effort to strengthen anticrime laws.

Agreements and Treaties. Bulgaria is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1990 Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of Proceeds from Crime. Bulgaria signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

The 1924 U.S./Bulgarian Extradition Treaty and a 1934 supplementary treaty are in force and in use, although there have been some difficulties in implementation. For example, a Bulgarian court in 2000 released a narcotics trafficker whose provisional arrest and extradition the U.S. had requested. Consultations are anticipated in 2001 regarding Bulgarian implementation of the treaty. Bulgaria is also party to the 1957 Council of Europe Convention on Extradition, the 1959 European Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty in Penal Measures, and the 1983 Council of Europe Convention on Transfer of Sentenced Persons. It also has a bilateral treaty with Turkey for transfer of convicted persons. The Bulgarian Customs Agency has memoranda of understanding on mutual assistance and cooperation with several European counterparts and is negotiating or updating others. The U.S. and Bulgaria signed a cooperation agreement in 2000. The GOB coordinates with INTERPOL and EUROPOL.

International Cooperation. Bulgarian and U.S. law enforcement agencies work well together in counternarcotics investigative efforts and in information sharing. Information on criminal investigations subsequent to arrest is held in secret, but is releasable to foreign law enforcement agencies at the discretion of the Prosecutor's office.

Bulgaria has signed and ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention and is a signatory to the 1990 Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of Proceeds from Crime. International agreements enter automatically into Bulgarian law. The Bulgarian government cooperates closely in providing timely information and evidence, but it has not adopted specific laws or regulations to ensure availability of narcotics investigations records to appropriate USG and other government personnel.

The GOB has no bilateral agreements with other countries on money laundering. It is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, and is building its antinarcotics units to more effectively combat the problem. It works with INTERPOL and is trying to expand and extend other forms of international cooperation, including especially with the EU. It is set to play an active, indeed leading role in South European Cooperation Initiative (SECI) anticrime efforts.

Cultivation and Production. Law enforcement officials do not routinely calculate crop size or yields for illegal narcotics crops. When necessary, case-specific determinations are made based on the weight of dry leaves yielded from one square meter times the dimensions of the field. In general, yield calculations for illegal narcotics crops are difficult, since it is not unusual, for example, to find cannabis hidden in a cornfield.

Drug Flow/Transit. Heroin from the Golden Crescent and Southwest Asian sources (e.g., Afghanistan) is the main illegal drug transiting Bulgaria, though some marijuana and cocaine also transits. The northern Balkan route from Turkey through Bulgaria to Romania is the most frequently used overland route; there are others through Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In previous years, GOB officials noted the transiting of apparently increasing amounts of Brazilian cocaine. The precursor chemical acetic anhydride, possibly produced in Bulgaria or coming from Macedonia, is transported from/through Bulgaria to Turkey.

Domestic Programs (Demand Reduction). Bulgaria's drug abuse problem is small but growing. Experts estimate that in this country of some eight million, there are up to 50,000 heroin users, fewer than 10 percent of whom are in treatment. Cocaine is too expensive for all but the wealthy. Marijuana has traditionally been used in rural areas. Ecstasy is an important and growing problem among university students. As in previous years, drug consumption is particularly worthy of note among marginalized Roma, among whom glue sniffing is a serious problem. There is also drug abuse in prisons, in some localized geographic areas, and among traffickers. Demand reduction has received government attention for several years. The Ministry of Education requires that schools nationwide teach health promotion modules on substance abuse. There is also a World Health Organization program for health promotion in 30 target schools. The Bulgarian National Center for Addictions provides training seminars on drug abuse for schoolteachers nationwide. There are also municipal demand reduction programs co-sponsored by the National Center for Addictions and the Institute of Public Health in six major cities and a number of smaller communities. Three universities provide professional training in drug prevention.

For drug treatment, there are 35 outpatient units and 10-12 inpatient facilities nationwide. The National Center for Addictions has psychiatric units in 20 regional centers. Specialized professional training in drug treatment and demand reduction has been provided through programs sponsored by UNDCP (funded by the U.S. State Department and the Government of Italy), EU/PHARE, and the Council of Europe's Pompidou Group.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Strategies

The U.S. promotes increased attention to the problems of narcotics trafficking and money laundering, assists Bulgarian law enforcement and anticrime legislative reform efforts with training, advisory assistance and some equipment, and encourages further cooperation between Bulgarian and U.S. law enforcement agencies, including the DEA, FBI, and Customs. In late 2000, the Department of Justice sent a regional legal advisor, who will set up a permanent office in Sofia in early 2001 to work with the GOB on law enforcement issues including drugs. Likewise, a Department of Justice/Central and East European Legal Initiative advisor was appointed to consult with and advise Bulgarian prosecutors and investigators. USAID's assistance to the training of magistrates, to date primarily judges, also serves to reinforce the GOB's antinarcotics effort.

Bilateral Cooperation. Bilateral cooperation between U.S. and Bulgarian law enforcement officials is excellent, with regular and close consultation between the GOB and DEA. U.S. bilateral assistance has focused on ILEA mid-level training and periodic FBI training. Through this INL-funded program, the USG has also provided advisory assistance to the GOB in the drafting of money laundering legislation and reform of the penal code and procedural penal code.

The Road Ahead. With new Department of Justice advisors funded by the Department of State's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), the continuation of USAID assistance to magisterial training, and U.S. Embassy training and equipment aid to Bulgarian law enforcement agencies in the pipeline, 2000 was a promising year for USG aid to the GOB. In 2001, the U.S. will use this assistance and will continue to encourage the GOB in antidrug efforts, combating money laundering, drafting and implementing anticrime legislative reforms, and continuing mutual cooperation with U.S. law enforcement. It will work with the GOB to identify further law enforcement training, advisory and equipment needs, and seek funding to meet those needs. The U.S. encourages the GOB to exchange counternarcotics information with other states in the region. The U.S. will also promote counternarcotics cooperation with regional and Western European assistance and UNDCP support for Bulgarian law enforcement authorities.


I. Summary

Croatia is not a major producer of narcotics. However, smugglers—driven to other routes in the early 1990s by war and instability—once again are using Croatia as part of the Balkans transshipment route of narcotics, particularly heroin, to Western Europe. Organized crime elements in Albania control heroin trafficking into Croatia. Cocaine also transits Croatia, entering frequently at the port of Rijeka. There have been some large cocaine seizures in Croatia. Although Croatia is not a major transit country for drugs entering the United States, it remains a country of concern to the U.S. During 2000, no new antinarcotics laws were passed, although the government is considering new legislation to increase its capacity to fight organized crime and corruption and to strengthen the interdiction powers of the customs directorate. In 2000, Croatia joined the Southeast European Cooperation Initiative's regional center for combating transborder crime.

The Ministry of Interior is the government ministry most directly involved in antinarcotics activities. Croatia's national narcotics strategy focuses on reducing domestic availability and demand for narcotics and curtailing Croatia's use as a transshipment point. Croatia generally has strong cooperation with its neighbors to disrupt drug trafficking. Croatia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Croatia, with a geographic position along the most direct route to Europe from Asia and limited resources for securing its extensive coast and borders, offers significant possibilities for transshipping narcotics. The Balkans route crossed Croatian territory prior to the break-up of Yugoslavia, although that traffic was substantially displaced to neighboring states (for example, the Czech Republic and Hungary) during the turmoil following the break-up of Yugoslavia. The government of Croatia detects an increased use of Croatia as a transshipment center corresponding to the increase in stability in the region.

Domestic narcotics abuse remains a priority area of attention, a problem that has mildly worsened during 2000. In particular, police are concerned about an increase in overdose deaths as well as a surge in amphetamine and ecstasy among the nation's youth.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Croatia continues to pursue its national strategy for combating abuse of narcotics. This initiative included implementation of measures to reduce both supply and demand. The Interior Ministry, Justice Ministry, and Customs Directorate have primary responsibility for law enforcement issues, while the Ministry of Health has primary responsibility for the strategy to reduce and treat drug abuse. The Interior Ministry's antinarcotics division is responsible for coordinating the work of drug units in police departments throughout the country. The Interior Ministry maintains cooperative relationships with INTERPOL, neighboring states as well as with counterparts in Germany and the United States.

Law Enforcement Efforts. During the first ten months of 2000, police made 5,532 seizures of narcotics and 6,132 persons had drug-related criminal charges filed against them. The number of criminal acts represents approximately a ten percent increase over 1999. Seized drugs include: 6.2 kilograms of heroin, one kilogram of hashish, 390 kilograms of marijuana, 930 kilograms of cocaine, 9,100 ecstasy pills and two kilograms of amphetamines. Croatian officials believe that the vast majority of seized cocaine was destined for European markets, largely because cocaine is prohibitively expensive for most citizens of Croatia. It represents only seven to eight percent of total drugs consumed in the Croatian market.

Croatian officials estimate that there are between 10,000 to 15,000 heroin addicts, consuming between 400 to 500 kilograms of heroin annually. On average, approximately 1,400 Croatians become addicted to heroin every year, although the rate of growth is slowing and the average age of addicts is increasing, suggesting that demand for heroin may have peaked.

Corruption. Croatian Interior Ministry officials maintain that corruption is not an endemic problem. Throughout 2000, however, there continued to be allegations of narcotics-related corruption and narcotrafficking involving the then-ruling HDZ party, elements of the Croatian intelligence and military and Bosnian Mafia groups. These allegations have not been substantiated.

Agreements and Treaties. In 2000, Croatia entered the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative's (SECI) agreement to prevent and combat transborder crime. Croatia is a party to the 1988 UN drug convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Extradition between Croatia and the United States is governed by a 1902 extradition treaty between the U.S. and Yugoslavia, which remained in force after Croatian independence. According to the Croatian constitution, Croatian citizens may not be extradited with the exception of extradition to the International War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague. Croatia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

The Croatian government is drafting a new narcotics law that will enhance its ability to prosecute those suspected of trafficking in precursor chemicals. Pending passage of the law, the government uses its adherence to the 1988 UN Drug Convention as the basis for prosecuting precursor trafficking. The GOC also is preparing new legislation to strengthen undercover activities against the drug trade as well as new measures to enhance its ability to fight organized crime.

Cultivation/Production. The Interior Ministry continues a program to identify areas of marijuana cultivation. The ministry assesses that small-scale marijuana production (less than 15,000 plants) for domestic sale and use is the only narcotics production within Croatia.

Demand Reduction. 40,000 young people use drugs regularly, and between 10,000-20,000 are addicts, according to Croatian authorities. The GOC continues to follow its 1998 national strategy on demand reduction. The Ministry of Health, with limited resources, has implemented demand reduction programs. The Ministry of Education requires drug education in primary and secondary schools. The state-run medical system offers treatment programs for addicts. The GOC attempts to use high-profile events, such as the destruction of over 900 kilograms of seized cocaine to raise awareness of the dangers of narcotics trafficking and the role of law enforcement.

Most demand reduction initiatives, however, are locally driven and are financed from the local budgets. These local programs encompass everything from prevention of drug abuse to rehabilitation and re-socialization of the addicts. The GOC does not maintain a comprehensive list of institutions dealing with demand reduction. After much debate, the GOC rejected a proposal to decriminalize possession of marijuana for personal use.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Croatia's democratic transition in early 2000 opened new opportunities for cooperation and assistance on rule-of- law and law enforcement cooperation issues that the U.S. is actively pursuing actively. The Interior Ministry and U.S. law enforcement agencies enjoyed strong cooperation at the operational level. In addition, the United States is providing technical assistance to the Croatian Customs Directorate as part of a World Bank-funded effort trade facilitation project that would, inter alia, improve the capabilities of Croatian customs to profile suspicious shipments, interdict drug shipments and curb corruption.


I. Summary

Cyprus is not a producer of significant amounts of narcotics. There is increasing concern about a perceived increase in drug use among the population, but the Government of Cyprus (GOC) traditionally has low tolerance for any narcotics use and continues its public affairs campaign to remind Cypriots that narcotics use carries heavy penalties. As a result of its large offshore banking sector, Cyprus remains vulnerable to money laundering. Cyprus is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of the Country

Cyprus has a small, but growing population of soft-core drug users. Hashish is the most commonly encountered drug, followed by heroin, cocaine, and ecstasy, all of which are available in most major towns. Users consist primarily of young people and tourists. Cypriot law carries a maximum prison term of one year for drug users under 25 years of age with no police record. While there is no indication of illicit drug or precursor chemical trafficking, the island's highly developed business, modern telecommunications system, fifth largest merchant shipping fleet in the world, and the free-port status of its two main seaports make Cyprus an ideal location for such activity. Still low by international standards, drug-related crime has been steadily rising since the 1980's.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. During 2000, the GOC continued its efforts against money laundering, as outlined in the subject chapter of this report. It followed a low tolerance policy on drug use in the country.

Accomplishments. These are mostly in the money laundering area, which are found in the subject chapter of this report.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Although no statistics are available, Cyprus aggressively pursues drug seizures, arrests, and prosecutions for drug violations. Cypriot police are generally effective in their law enforcement efforts; their techniques and capacity remain restricted by a shortage of financial resources.

International enforcement cooperation is limited somewhat by the political division of the island into the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus and the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)." Turkish Cypriots have their own law enforcement organization responsible for the investigation of all narcotics-related matters. There continues to be strong evidence of a growing trade in narcotics between the "TRNC" and Turkey and Britain, as well as significant money laundering activities. There is also some evidence of smuggling of narcotics from the "TRNC" to southern Cyprus.

Corruption. There is no evidence of senior or other officials facilitating the production, processing, or shipment of drugs.

Agreements and Treaties. Cyprus is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and the 1995 European "Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime." During 2000, Cyprus ratified the European "Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters" and the European "Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters." A new extradition treaty between the U.S. and Cyprus went into effect in September 1999. A mutual legal assistance treaty, signed by the GOC and USG in December 1999 awaits ratification by the U.S. Senate and the GOC.

Cultivation/Production. The only illicitly cultivated controlled substance in Cyprus is cannabis, and this is grown only in small quantities for local consumption. The Cypriot authorities vigorously pursue this illegal cultivation.

Drug Flow/Transit. There is no indication that Cyprus is used as a significant transit route for illicit narcotics. Law enforcement efforts have mostly converted Cyprus from a drug transit point to a "broker point," in which dealers meet potential buyers and negotiate the purchase and shipment of future shipments. This change is likely also as a result of improved conditions in Lebanon. Lebanese containerized freight now moves directly to third countries without transiting Cyprus.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. While drug use remains relatively low in Cyprus, recent increases have prompted the government to actively promote demand reduction programs through the school system and social organizations, occasionally with DEA-Nicosia participation. Drug treatment is available.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. Combating money laundering in Cyprus continues to be one of the highest priorities of the USG's policy towards Cyprus.

Bilateral Cooperation. Bilateral cooperation between the USG and GOC in law enforcement efforts has been excellent, as has GOC bilateral cooperation with neighboring countries.

The Road Ahead. The USG seeks closer cooperation from the Office of the Attorney General, the Central Bank, the Cyprus Police and the Customs Authority officials in drug enforcement and anti-money laundering efforts. The USG will work with the GOC to heighten its enforcement of its laws.

Czech Republic

I. Summary

The Czech Republic is both a transhipment and destination country for illegal narcotics. Limited amounts of pervitine are also produced in country. Continuing a trend cited in last year's report, Czech antidrug policy emphasizes interdiction and criminal penalties against both narcotics traffickers and, to a lesser extent, users. Czech cooperation with U.S., European and other international law enforcement efforts remains excellent. The Czech Republic is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Heroin from the south (mostly Turkey, moving north via the Balkans) continues to transit the Czech Republic en route to Northern and Western Europe. Czech authorities attribute much of this activity to Kosovar Albanian organized crime gangs, some of which maintain warehouse operations in the Czech Republic. Some heroin is also sold in the Czech Republic. Cocaine and West African marijuana also reach the Czech Republic, mostly in transit to Northern and Western Europe. While cocaine tends to be too expensive for the average Czech, some is sold to Western tourists. Marijuana is the drug of choice for younger Czechs. The use of ecstasy is reportedly also increasing, particularly among Czech University students. Some pervitine is produced in the Czech Republic, primarily for local consumption (although some is now being exported to nearby countries, e.g., Germany and Poland).

Recognizing that money laundering had become a problem, the Czech government took steps in 1999 and 2000 to clamp down on illegal financial transactions. On August 1, 2000, for example, a law prohibiting new anonymous accounts went into effect. As part of their drive toward European Union (EU) membership, the Czechs have also been engaged in legal and judicial reform efforts aimed at fighting major economic and financial crimes and public corruption.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs

Policy Initiatives. In October 2000 the Czech government approved a "National Drug Strategy, 2001-2004," which will guide Czech antinarcotics efforts in the coming years. At the same time, the Czech government approved a new "Strategy for the Fight Against Organized Crime," which includes several antinarcotics components.

Another significant new policy initiative (announced in November 2000) was to give the Czech National Antidrug Center (NADC) greater autonomy. Effective January 1, 2001, the NADC will report directly to the Minister of Interior.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The Czech National Antidrug Center (also known as the Antidrug Police) and a special Czech Custom's unit which focuses on narcotics and weapons smuggling have the lead in most major antinarcotics cases. Both are considered elite law enforcement units. Two other special police units, the Anticorruption Squad (SPOK) and the Anti-Organized Crime Police (UOOZ), sometimes handle cases which involve narcotics (e.g., UOOZ might discover an organized crime gang engaged in a combination of prostitution and drug-smuggling operations), but tend to turn purely narcotics cases over to the NADC. Despite budgetary problems, all of these units appear to work hard, take their antinarcotics responsibilities seriously and cooperate effectively on drug cases.

Corruption. We are unaware of any new cases of drug-related police or public corruption having been exposed during 2000. The antidrug police, in particular, pride themselves on their integrity. The government's "Clean Hands" anticorruption campaign has sought to identify and prosecute both public officials and business executives engaged in illegal financial dealings (including money laundering), but has not reported any narcotics-related cases.

Agreements and Treaties. The Czech Republic has upheld its responsibilities as a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and the World Customs Organization's Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance for the Prevention, Investigation and Repression of Customs Offenses. Antinarcotics cooperation with the U.S. is excellent, both in agency-to-agency terms and within the framework of the U.S.-Czech Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty and the U.S.-Czech Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement. The Czechs also cooperate closely and effectively with several of their European partners. Germany, France, Switzerland, and the Nordic states have antinarcotics liaison officers attached to their embassies in Prague. The Czech Republic signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

Cultivation/Production. Marijuana production is negligible and apparently for personal uses only. The Ministry of Agriculture monitors the cultivation and marketing of opium poppies grown for the poppy seeds used in traditional Czech cuisine. Production in 2000 should remain consistent with non-illicit domestic use.

Pervitine (a Czech-produced methamphetamine) is the second-most popular drug (after marijuana) in the Czech Republic. Traditionally, pervitine is produced in small labs in private homes, with production aimed at domestic users. Official reports suggest some Czech-produced pervitine is being exported to neighboring states (specifically, Germany and Poland).

Drug Flow/Transit. According to a recent report by the Mini-Dublin Group, there are some indications (based on seizure data) that the transit of cocaine and ecstasy through the Czech Republic is increasing. Czech police are also concerned about the role of organized crime (particularly groups from Kosovo, Nigeria, Vietnam and the CIS-states) in the trade and trafficking of marijuana and heroin. Amphetamines produced in Poland and Slovakia reportedly transit the Czech Republic en route north and west.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. There are approximately 16,000 Czech drug addicts. Czech schools engage in various antidrug education programs, but their effectiveness is difficult to gauge. The U.S. has funded some efforts to train teachers in demand reduction methods. The Czech government also maintains a network of counseling and health centers available to drug users seeking drop-by or continuing treatment. For heroin addicts both methadone therapy and needle-exchange programs are available. Health experts believe the needle-exchange program has greatly limited the spread of HIV/AIDS among IV drug users.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. U.S. goals and objectives in the Czech Republic include bolstering Czech law enforcement (including antinarcotics) capabilities, maintaining effective links between U.S. law enforcement agencies and their Czech counterparts, supporting Czech anti-money laundering efforts, and promoting drug abuse awareness.

Bilateral Cooperation. In recent years, the U.S. has provided a number of training opportunities for Czech police, customs officers, prosecutors and judicial officials. This training has included, inter alia, antidrug and anticorruption components. Moreover, DEA maintains an extremely active cooperative relationship with the Czech Antidrug police, and U.S. Customs Service agents work effectively with their Czech counterparts. The U.S. has also helped fund a teacher-training program aimed at demand reduction.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to cooperate very closely with Czech government and police officials in their antinarcotics efforts. Czech NADC officers and U.S. DEA agents will remain in close contact both on specific cases and in broader counternarcotics program. The U.S. will work to identify resources to continue to provide various training programs for Czech police, investigators, prosecutors and judges to complement our goals of improving law enforcement effectiveness and assisting in Czech anticorruption efforts.


I. Summary

Denmark's strategic geographic location and status as Northern Europe's primary transportation point make it an attractive drug transit country. The Danes cooperate closely with their Scandinavian neighbors and the EU against the transit of illicit drugs, and Denmark plays an increasingly important role in helping the Baltic States combat narcotics trafficking. While quantities of drugs seized in Denmark are relatively small, Danish authorities assume that their open border agreements and high volume of international trade allow some drug shipments to transit Denmark undetected. Danish authorities report a dramatic increase in the use of ecstasy and amphetamines in 2000, especially among younger Danes, although the figures on seizures do not reflect this increase. Denmark is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Drug traffickers use Denmark's excellent transportation network to bring illicit drugs to Denmark for domestic use and for transshipment to other Nordic countries. Evidence suggests that drugs from Russia, the Baltic countries, and central Europe pass through Denmark en route to other EU states and the U.S. The amount flowing to the U.S. is relatively small and is not in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the U.S. Seizures of all drugs except amphetamines are significantly lower than last year. Police in the region report this is due to a change in the trafficking routes used by drug traffickers.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Denmark continues to provide training, financing, and coordination assistance to the three Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), principally to improve interdiction efforts. Denmark, Sweden, and Norway have each stationed a Nordic liaison officer in one of the Baltic countries through their Politi Told Nordic (PTN - Nordic Police Customs) agreement. Denmark's officer is stationed in Lithuania.

Accomplishments. Danish police continued their aggressive counternarcotics efforts in 2000. Because of public outcry over the release of arrested drug dealers in 1996, many of whom were foreigners, Danish law was amended to make it easier to place drug dealers behind bars and to expel foreign dealers who reside illegally in Denmark. Danish authorities view narcotics-related money laundering as a manageable problem despite Denmark's role as a major financial center.

Danish law permits forfeiture and seizure of assets in drug-related criminal cases. Authorities strongly uphold existing asset seizure and forfeiture law and cooperate with foreign authorities in such cases. There were no significant seizures of assets in 2000. In 1998, U.S. authorities criticized Danish customs for lax enforcement on exports of precursor chemicals to Latin America. Since then, the Danes have been very responsive and proactive on monitoring exports.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Seizures for all types of drugs except amphetamines were down in 2000, reflecting increasingly effective narcotics control efforts and changes in trafficking routes. Through December 2000, Denmark confiscated 18.6 kilograms of cocaine (down from 24.2), 20.7 kilograms of heroin (down from 96), 1,697 kilograms of hashish and marijuana (down from 14,051), and 18,538 MDMA tablets down from 26,117.) Figures used here for 1999 include a few more months data than those used in last year's report. (The decline in seizures of hashish and marijuana is not as dramatic as it appears as the large numbers in 1999 were due to a single 12-ton seizure aboard the M/V Kvedara.) Amphetamine were the only drugs that saw an increase in seizures - from 31.6 kilograms in 1999 to 42.9 kilograms in 2000. In April, authorities seized eight kilograms of cocaine off of a charter flight from Venezuela at the international airport in Bilund. Local gangs had discovered that there were no customs checks, not even drug-sniffing dogs, at this airport. In a related operation, in August authorities arrested a large number of Danish drug traffickers, along with Bandido and Hell's Angels gang members. One group of traffickers had enlisted the Bandidos as bodyguards and distributors and the other group had enlisted the Hell's Angels. This multi-ton hashish trafficking operation made Danish authorities aware that Danes, and not foreigners as previously believed, conduct much of the drug trafficking in Denmark.

Denmark continues to bolster the interdiction capabilities of the Baltic States. One of the bases of operations is on the Baltic island of Bornholm, Denmark's easternmost territory, where a continuing project involving the customs services and police, in cooperation with the Danish Navy, works to interdict narcotics, other smuggled contraband and illegal migrants.

Corruption. The U.S. has no knowledge of any involvement by Danish government officials in drug production or sale, or other drug-related corruption. Danish laws regarding public corruption in general are sufficiently stringent that there are no laws specifically targeting narcotics-related corruption.

Agreements and Treaties. Denmark complies with the requirements of all major international conventions and agreements regarding narcotics to which it is party. Denmark also contributes toward the development of common counternarcotics standards within the international organizations of which it is a member. Denmark ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention in 1991 and signed the enabling legislation for the European Drugs Unit, now Europol, in 1997. Denmark signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Crime and its protocols in December 2000. The U.S. has signed a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) and an Extradition Treaty with Denmark. Denmark participates in the Dublin Narcotics Assistance Coordinating Group and EU meetings on related topics.

Cultivation/Production. There is no substantial cultivation or production in Denmark.

Drug Flow/Transit. According to law enforcement officials in Denmark, drugs transit Denmark on their way to neighboring European nations and, to a lesser extent, to the U.S. There is no evidence that drugs entering the U.S. from Denmark are in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the U.S. The ability of the Danish authorities to interdict this flow is slightly hampered by Denmark's membership in the EU and the resultant open border policies.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Denmark's Ministry of Health estimates that there are between 10,000 and 12,000 drug users in Denmark, which includes only those people who are officially registered as addicts with the government and enrolled in government programs. The country maintains an extensive counternarcotics education program in schools and youth centers. Drug addicts are treated in a large number of institutions throughout Denmark. In addition to in-patient care at hospitals, out-patient care is available at hospitals, youth crisis centers, and special out-patient clinics. These programs are free of charge to Danish residents. In 1996, the government began funding programs that involve the treatment of addicts through a medically supervised reduction program as an alternative to serving prison sentences. The debate on a proposal to permit doctors to supply some addicts with heroin continues, but support is waning.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. enjoys excellent cooperation with its Danish counterparts on drug-related issues and in assisting in joint investigations.

The Road Ahead. In the coming year, the Danish authorities hope to increase their seizures of ecstasy tablets within Denmark and work closely with the Norwegian authorities in interdicting drugs. The Danes will also continue to build on the PTN agreement with their Nordic neighbors to increase information sharing and cooperation against narcotics trafficking. The U.S. will continue its liaison with Danish authorities and work to deepen its regional cooperation against illicit drug trafficking.


I. Summary

This increase in drug use and transit through Estonia has been met by an increased response from law enforcement authorities. The arrest of Estonian drug traffickers in neighboring countries and domestically, as well as the destruction of several domestic drug labs, demonstrates Estonia's involvement in the international narcotics trade. Nevertheless, by international standards, Estonia's narcotics problem is not grave. Estonia joined the international community and ratified the 1988 UN Drug Convention in May of 2000.

II. Status Of Country

Estonia's geographical position, on the edge of the Baltic Sea linking Europe and Russia, makes transportation of persons and goods and tourism the country's leading economic sectors. Tourism and soft border controls between EU members has resulted in relatively safe transit routes for heroin, amphetamine and cannabis products from the Netherlands, Belgium, and the Scandinavian countries to Estonia.

There is a growing demand for illicit narcotics. A recent survey shows that the number of 15-16 year old students who admit having tried illegal drugs at least once has increased by a factor of seventeen in the last four years (from 0.4 percent to 7 percent). However, compared with the situation in other countries, Estonia's narcotics problem is not serious. The estimated drug abusers in the country number only about 20,000 out of a population of 1.4 million.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The Minister of Internal Affairs has recently stated that the national criminal code, addressing drug-related crimes, must be made stronger. Domestically, the law on narcotics and psychotropic substance provides a legal basis for controlling drugs, their precursor chemicals, the trafficking of drugs, and also addresses treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers. The most severe punishments are reserved for those engaged in the sale and trafficking of narcotics, rather than to users. Although the Government of Estonia (GOE) has declared narcotics control to be a priority, the domestic demand for hard drugs and an upsurge of HIV virus-infected drug users in the northeast border area illustrate the limited effects of the GOE's counternarcotics efforts.

Law Enforcement Efforts. According to the GOE`s 1997-2001 police program, the prevention of drug addiction and narcotics-related crime is one of Estonia's top priorities. As a direct consequence, the Counternarcotics Office of Central Criminal Police was established to coordinate the Estonian police and their efforts. Fifty-seven full-time counter narcotics officers are assigned to the Tallinn-based central criminal police bureau, up from 45 in 1999.

In addition, one police officer in each police prefecture has been assigned responsibility for drug matters. In Tallinn a special counternarcotics team, accompanied by drug-sniffing dogs, regularly patrols the streets, high-crime areas and youth nightspots. Two additional counterdrug offices have been established, one in Tartu the country's second largest city in southern Estonia and the other in Narva a northeastern city considered the most problematic after Tallinn and predominately populated by a Russian speaking minority.

A separate counternarcotics unit functions under the national customs board. The primary task of the unit is to detect and prevent the smuggling of drugs in the areas along the border between control points. Nine border guards have been trained to work full-time with drug-detecting dogs that work at the border. Similarly to Estonian police, each customs region - five in total - has one or two customs officers whose responsibilities include drug matters as a top priority. The Estonian customs board and private forwarding companies continue to implement a cooperation agreement to impede expanding drug trafficking into and transit through Estonia.

During the first nine months of the year 2000, 987 drug-related crimes (a 19.4 percent increase over the same period last year) and 1,559 civil offenses, such as possession of drugs in small amounts, were registered. Six production sites (thee active, three abandoned) were discovered and shut down, compared with two in 1999. The Central Criminal Police, through long-term surveillance efforts, confiscated about ten kilograms of newly made Amphetamine and 100 liters of precursors, the largest seizure ever made by the Estonian police. The GOE is quick to point out that the sharp rise is due not only to expanding drug abuse, but also to the increasing expertise of law enforcement agencies, especially of the Estonian police.

Corruption. The drop in real wages has led to circumstantial corruption. The relatively large number of police seizures and closing of drug labs, is an example of how highly-educated chemists who have access to good lab equipment but are being paid low salaries are forced to find alternate means of income.

Treaties and Agreements. Estonia continues to meet the requirements of the three United Nations drug conventions. In May 2000, the Estonian parliament ratified the UN 1988 Drug Convention. Estonia also is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, as well as the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Estonia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

Cultivation and Production. According to the central criminal police, 50 percent of the Amphetamine consumed in Estonia are produced locally. Ecstasy has also been produced in Estonia. Addicts convert opium poppy straw into an injectable acetylated opium solution also known as "Polish kompot" or "liquid heroin." This solution has been produced in crude "kitchen labs," a process that requires precursor chemicals much the same as those used in the conversion of opium to heroin. While the cold weather precludes Estonia from becoming an important source of narcotics crops, small amounts of opium poppies and cannabis have been reportedly cultivated. Countryside communities with small populations make it easy to keep these so-called "narco-farms" hidden.

Drug Flow and Transit. According to the counternarcotics department of Estonia's central criminal police, there is not one established drug trafficking route through Estonia. The spread of high technology Internet and cellular phones, especially with the new untraceable phone-cards available at any kiosk, has resulted in an increase in street trade and sales of narcotics. Traffickers take advantage of the frequent passenger ferries from Finland and Sweden, that unload thousands of European tourists at the port's border control stations, making it difficult for law enforcement agencies to adequately check parcels. Small boats and freight vehicles are also being used for drug trafficking. Estonian dealers and traffickers have established direct contacts with cocaine sources in Latin America, including Colombia and Venezuela. Amphetamine, other stimulants and precursors are reportedly imported from Russia and other Former Soviet countries. The import of precursor chemicals in particular has raised more concerns because of the difficulty of identifying them as such at the border. Recently, narcotics police seized LSD-laced stamps originating in Latvia. This is three times more than the total of the recent years.

Demand Reduction. Amphetamine, hashish, and acetylated opium products remain the most widely abused drugs in Estonia. Police officials identify the increased use of Ecstasy by young people as one of their most pressing concerns. Ecstasy is available for purchase in almost every bar and nightclub in Tallinn and has become the drug of choice in the 15 to 25 year old group. Drug-related topics are a compulsory health education subject of Estonia's basic and secondary education state study program. Estonian NGO's and youth organizations are actively participating in counternarcotics efforts with a series of antidrug advertising campaigns, educational exhibitions, lectures and video seminars designed both for students and teachers. On the initiative of the Tallinn City Government, Estonia joined the international youth organization "path", and the young people's leisure-time project, fully financed by Estonian businesses, corporations, and the Tallinn City Government.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The U.S. pursued few policy initiatives and programs during 2000. A one-week drug enforcement operation-training seminar was provided for the Estonian law enforcement community. And, a demand reduction summer camp, focused on adolescents and teenagers, which sent a strong antidrug message. In 2001, the U.S. intends to offer Estonia additional bilateral training dealing with drug enforcement and organized and financial crimes.


I. Summary

Finland is not a significant narcotics producing or trafficking country. However, drug abuse increased steadily during the 1990s and into 2000, and drug-related crimes have increased four and a half times from 1990 to 2000. The police attribute the increased drug use to the wider availability of narcotics in post-Cold War Europe; greater experimentation by Finnish youth; and a continuing gap between police resources and incidents of drug abuse. One alarming result of this increase has been a significant rise in the number of drug-related deaths and HIV cases. Effective controls on the Russian border have prevented the overland route from developing into a trafficking conduit. The police are concerned, however, about heroin and methamphetamine shipments arriving from the St. Petersburg area and the Baltic countries, respectively. Finland is a major donor member of the UNDCP, and is active in counternarcotics initiatives within the European Union. Finland is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Finland remains an insignificant country with respect to narcotics production, trafficking, cultivation, and production/diversion of precursor chemicals. Finnish law enforcement authorities effectively counter the threat of trafficking from abroad. Estonia, Russia, Spain, and the Netherlands are Finland's principal sources of illicit drugs. Existing Finnish legislation covers the distribution, sale, and transport of narcotic substances, as well as extradition, law enforcement, transit cooperation, precursor chemical control, and demand reduction. It also criminalizes abuse of illicit drugs with sentences of up to two years in prison.

Police have made significantly more arrests for heroin use and trafficking in 2000. Authorities suggest a link between the increase in use of heroin and its increased purity and the sharp increase in the number of drug-related deaths among young people. In September 2000, the Finnish press reported that since January 2000 there were 66 drug-related deaths among 15- to 28-year-olds, compared with only 33 in all of 1998. Of the 140 drug-related deaths in 1999, about half were heroin-related. In 2000, the number of new cases of HIV broke the record set in 1999, rising from 143 to 170. Health experts believe the increase is due in part to intravenous drug use.

There are approximately 25-30 organized crime groups in Finland, some of which have connections with organized crime in the Baltics and Russia. Some of these groups are facilitators and distributors of narcotics to the Finnish market. Police are concerned that the implementation of the European Union's Schengen agreement in March 2001, which will allow the free movement of people and cargo throughout the Union, might increasingly make Finland a transit country for Russian organized crime.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. In late 1998, the Finnish government released a comprehensive policy statement on drugs. This statement clearly articulated Finland's policy on drugs: complete prohibition. It reminded citizens that all narcotics infractions, from "casual" use to manufacturing and trafficking, are crimes punishable under Finnish law. However, in October 2000, the Finnish press reported that many prosecutors do not pursue charges in minor drug possession cases. The Ministry of Justice is considering proposing legislation that would mandate fines rather than prison time for minor drug possession offenses. This aside, the police believe it is imperative to criminalize the system effectively in order to send a strong deterrent message to the "demand" end.

Accomplishments. In late 2000, Parliament passed legislation which would increase the law enforcement community's ability to pursue criminals with additional investigative tools, including undercover investigations, and authorization to make controlled "buys" (wiretapping was authorized in 1995). The legislation should go into effect in March 2001. Following the issuance of the government's comprehensive policy statement on drugs in late 1998, in February 2000, the Finnish police completed a strategy for combating drugs for 2000-2003. The strategy places an increased emphasis on addressing street-level drug trafficking.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Police report a significant increase in arrests and seizures of heroin and ecstasy in the late 1990's and into 2000. Police investigated 167 cases of indoor cannabis cultivation in the first six months of 2000, up from thee equivalent total of 128 in 1999. Indoor cannabis cultivation is a fairly new phenomenon in Finland, according to the police. While most homegrown cannabis is for private consumption, some is intended for trafficking.

Beginning in the mid-1980s, law enforcement authorities focused limited police resources on major narcotics cases and on significant traffickers, somewhat to the detriment of street- level patrols, investigations, and prosecutions. Police suggest the result of this focus was to lessen drug users' fear of arrest and to make "recreational" drug use more widespread. According to the police, the steady rise in drug use during the 1990s and 2000 led to a situation in which the number of drug offenders greatly exceeds the resources deployed to combat illegal drugs. The police report that, following the release in late 1998 of the government's policy statement on drugs, greater resources have been devoted to combating drugs at the street level. This includes action by uniformed police officers, as well as by plainclothes police officers.

Corruption. There have been no arrests or prosecutions of public officials charged with corruption or related offenses linked to narcotics money in Finnish history.

Agreements and Treaties. Finland is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and its legislation is consistent with all the convention's goals. Finnish judicial authorities are empowered to seize the assets, real and financial, of criminals. Finland has extradition treaties with many countries, and ratified the European Union's extradition treaty in 1999. In December 2000, Finland signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Crime and its protocols. A 1980 bilateral extradition treaty is in force between the U.S. and Finland. The USG has also concluded a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement with Finland. Finland is a member of the major donors' group within the Dublin Group. The vast majority of its financial and other assistance to drug-producing and transit countries has been via the UNDCP. Finland has had bilateral narcotics agreements with Estonia since shortly after that country regained independence.

Finland does not have mutual legal assistance or precursor chemical treaties with the United States. Multilateral treaties, including membership in the UNDCP, constitute the basis of Finnish cooperation with the U.S. on counternarcotics initiatives.

Finland makes an impressive international effort to combat drug trafficking and other organized crime. The Finnish police maintain liaison officers in eight European cities (four in Russia, four elsewhere). In addition, Finland and the four other Nordic countries pool their resources and share information gathered by Nordic liaison officers stationed in 34 posts around the world.

Cultivation/Production. During 2000, there were no seizures of indigenously cultivated opiates, no recorded diversions of precursor chemicals, and no detection of illicit amphetamine, cocaine, or LSD laboratories in Finland. Finland's climate and short growing season make natural cultivation of cannabis and opiates almost impossible. Local cannabis cultivation involves small numbers of plants in individual homes using artificial lighting. The distribution of the 22 key precursor chemicals used for cocaine, amphetamine, and heroin production is tightly controlled.

Drug Flow/Transit. Hashish is the drug most often seized by the Finnish police. Trafficking in highly purified methamphetamine from Estonia and Poland, small quantities of ecstasy from Estonia, and amphetamine for Lithuania is a continuing concern for Finland. According to the police, these drugs are generally manufactured in the Baltic region and elsewhere in Europe. Finnish authorities affirm that their land border with Russia is well guarded—on both sides—to ensure that the border will not become a significant narcotics transit route. They express continuing concern, however, about the recent presence (since 1998) of high-quality, powerful heroin ("white heroin") from the St. Petersburg area.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives

U.S. Policy Initiatives. The U.S. has pursued cooperation with Finland in a regional context, coordinating assistance to the Baltic States. In January 2000, DEA conducted a two-week DEA regional drug enforcement seminar in Helsinki. The seminar brought together participants from Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. In December 2000, three FBI experts came to Helsinki at the invitation of the Finnish police to make presentations at a Council of Baltic Sea States Law Enforcement Task Force on money laundering.

Bilateral Cooperation. Cooperation between U.S. law enforcement agencies and their Finnish counterparts remains excellent.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. anticipates continued excellent cooperation with the Government of Finland in all areas of countering crime and narcotics trafficking.


I. Summary

France remains a transshipment point for drugs moving in Europe. With its shared borders with trafficking conduits such as Spain, Italy, and Belgium, and France's proximity to northern Africa, France is a natural distribution point for drugs destined for North America from Europe and the Middle East as well as the appropriate destination for drugs aimed at France and nearby countries. Specifically, ecstasy (MDMA) originating in the Netherlands and Belgium, heroin originating in southwest Asia, cocaine originating in South America, and cannabis originating in Morocco all pass through France.

A major concern of French officials is the continuing rise in the number of users of ecstasy and the large quantities of this synthetic drug that are entering France. The use of crack cocaine is almost negligible. But the use of cannabis (primarily hashish) is rising, particularly among young people, making it the most widely used drug in France. Like other European countries, France is increasingly facing the problem of multiple drug addiction. France is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

French government narcotics data for 1999, released in the spring of 2000, show that the number of persons arrested for trafficking in cannabis remains significantly greater than for any other drug. The 1999 data show that arrests for cocaine/crack trafficking increased by over 22 percent. In 1999 the amount of heroin seized dropped 16.96 percent and there was a 17.78 percent decrease in the number of arrests for heroin use/resale. This would indicate that actual use of heroin was also down for the third year in a row. Cannabis and ecstasy continue to be the most widely abused drugs in France. The number of arrests for cannabis use/resale increased 8.22 percent. Arrests for trafficking in psychotropic substances increased 110 percent and increased 17.25 percent for their use/resale.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. France's drug control agency, "La Mission Interministerielle de Lutte Contre la Drogue et la Toxicomanie (MILDT)" (The Interministerial Mission for the Struggle Against Drugs and Drug Addiction), is the focal point for French national drug control policy. MILDT coordinates among the many ministries that have a role in establishing, implementing, and enforcing France's domestic drug control strategy. In June 1999 the GOF adopted a three-year plan of action (1999-2001) to integrate efforts against the abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs into France's antinarcotics programs. The plan gives a major role to prevention, including health, welfare and education programs, while reaffirming the role of law enforcement activities.

In January, a regional center for combating drugs was inaugurated at the police academy in Sofia, Bulgaria, under a program for cooperation between the Interior Ministries of Bulgaria and France. In November, the French government hosted a seminar in Almaty, Kazakhstan, which included police from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan to share operational methods used by law enforcement agencies in European countries. In July, the French/EU presidency proposed an annual session of six seminars to be offered to National Police of EU member states to take place in Lyon and Muenster between November 2000 and March 2001.

Accomplishments. France has stabilized and perhaps even reduced the number of heroin users. Having adopted a new national drug policy, the GOF has commenced implementation of a three-year national drug control strategy. French law enforcement officials continue to interdict and seize large quantities of narcotics destined for or transiting France.

Law Enforcement Efforts. French counternarcotics authorities are efficient and effective. In 2000, French authorities made notable seizures of narcotics. In May, French customs seized 192,000 ecstasy tablets in the Port of Calais. In the same month, officials dismantled an international (France-Morocco) cannabis smuggling ring. The second largest seizure of cocaine (117 kilograms) for the year was made in the Port of Calais on May 30. The General Directorate of Customs at Roissy, Charles de Gaulle Airport, seized over 285 kilograms of cocaine only half-way through 2000. They predicted that seizures of heroin and cocaine in 2000 would be greater than 1999. In August, a Spanish national was arrested following the seizure of 2,200 doses of LSD. In September, customs officers seized 1.4 tons of cannabis resin in Bordeaux, the largest seizure in over a year.

France is an active participant in international efforts. In August, five tons of cocaine were seized in Orinoco (Venezuela) as a result of French cooperative efforts. The confiscation operation included counternarcotics and intelligence authorities from France, the U.S., and other countries.

In 1999 heroin seizures (203 kilograms) decreased by 40.86 percent, cannabis seizures (67,480 kilograms) increased by 21.15 percent, cocaine seizures (3,687 kilograms) increased by 254.84 percent, LSD seizures (9,991 doses) decreased by 46.51 percent, and ecstasy seizures (1,860,402 doses) increased by 62.88 percent.

Corruption. Narcotics-related corruption among French public officials is not a problem. The U.S. is not aware of any involvement by senior officials in the production or distribution of drugs or in the laundering of drug proceeds.

Agreements and Treaties. France is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. It is a party to the 1961 UN Single convention and its 1972 Protocol, as well as the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The USG and the GOF have narcotics-related agreements, including a 1971 agreement on coordinating action against illicit trafficking. In 1996, the U.S. and France signed a new extradition treaty to replace the 1911 treaty and 1970 supplementary treaty currently in effect. The U.S. Senate ratified the new treaty in 1998. A mutual legal assistance treaty signed in 1998 is expected to enter into force in 2001.

The U.S. has a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) with the GOF. French officials participate in international multilateral drug control efforts, including UNDCP, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), and the Dublin Group of countries to coordinate drug assistance. In 1999, France was the 11th largest donor to the UNDCP, giving 9.5 million Francs (approximately $1.36 million), with particular emphasis on judicial assistance, border controls in Southwest Asia, and money laundering. In December 2000, France signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols.

Cultivation/Production. French authorities believe the cultivation and production of illicit drugs is not a problem in France. France cultivates opium poppies under strict legal controls for medical use and produces amphetamines. It reports its production of both products to the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) and cooperates with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to monitor and control those products.

Drug Flow/Transit. France is an important transshipment point for illicit drugs to other European countries. Most of the heroin consumed or transiting through France originates in southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan) and enters France via the Balkans after passing through Iran and Turkey. New routes for transporting heroin from southwest Asia to Europe are developing through central Asia and Russia. West African drug traffickers are also using France as a transshipment point for heroin and cocaine. These traffickers move heroin from both Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia (primarily Burma) to the U.S. through West Africa and France, with a back-haul of cocaine from South America to France through the U.S. and West Africa. Law enforcement officials believe these West African traffickers are stockpiling heroin and cocaine in Africa before shipping it to final destinations. France is also a transit route for Moroccan cannabis (hashish) destined for European markets, and for South American cocaine destined for the U.S. and Europe. There is no evidence that the heroin or cocaine entering the U.S. from France is in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the U.S.

Most of the South American cocaine entering France comes from Spain and Portugal. Most of the ecstasy in France or transiting France is produced in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Domestic Programs. MILDT is responsible for coordinating France's demand reduction programs. Drug education efforts target government officials, counselors, teachers, and medical personnel. The GOF is continuing its experimental methadone treatment program. Although there continues to be public debate concerning decriminalization of cannabis, the GOF is opposed to any change in the 1970 drug law that criminalizes all uses of illicit substances, including cannabis.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. and GOF counternarcotics law enforcement cooperation remains excellent with a confirmed practice of information sharing. Most recently, French counterparts attended a conference on ecstasy held in the United States.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue its cooperation with France on all counternarcotics fronts, including multilateral efforts such as the Dublin Group and UNDCP.


I. Summary

Georgia is a secondary transit route for narcotics flowing from Central Asia to Europe. Georgia has the potential to become an important narcotics transit route in the future because of the lack of control the government exercises over some of its borders and territory. Law enforcement agencies remain overstaffed, under-equipped, poorly paid, and have a reputation for corruption. The United States Government continues to provide training and equipment for the border guards and customs officials. Georgia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and is working with the UN Drug Control Program.

II. Status of Country

Georgia is a secondary transit route for heroin smuggled from Afghanistan to Europe and morphine base, also from Afghanistan, being transported to Turkey. Given Georgia's geographic location and its ambition to form part of an overland trade corridor between Europe and Asia in the future, there is a possibility it could also emerge as a major drug route. Local involvement in drug trafficking remains limited, but cigarette, fuel and alcohol smuggling are major illegal activities in Georgia. Interdiction efforts are hampered by Georgia's lack of control of all its territory and its borders, some of which continue to be under separatist control.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Counternarcotics efforts are coordinated under an inter-agency group chaired by the Ministry of Interior (MOI) with the Ministry of State Security (MSS) as deputy chair. The interagency group did not undertake any significant counternarcotics policy initiatives in 2000. The lead agencies remain fully occupied with other priorities involving Georgia's national security.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Drug seizures and arrest in 2000 are reported to have risen 200 percent from 1999. Despite a growing awareness of the dangers of increased narcotics transiting, all of the relevant law enforcement agencies in Georgia suffer from a lack of financial resources. Their personnel are under-equipped and poorly trained. Command lines are vague and these organizations are vastly over-staffed.

Corruption. Corruption is a significant problem for Georgia's law enforcement agencies. There is widespread acceptance of corruption within Georgian society. Despite numerous investigations and firings, petty corruption on the part of lower level government officials is still widely tolerated as an inevitable consequence of economic hardship and paltry salaries, often unpaid for months at a time. Customs officials lack proper training and are easily corruptible. The President appoints the head of the customs service, but other positions are reportedly purchased.

Agreements and Treaties. The GOG has no counternarcotics agreements with the United States. Georgia has been a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention since January 1998. Georgia is also a party to the council of Europe Prisoner Transfer Treaty. Apart from a cooperation agreement between Georgia and Turkish Interior Ministries, there are no formal mechanisms to exchange counter narcotics information. Georgia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

Cultivation and Production. Estimates by the GOG on the extent of narcotics cultivation in Georgia are unreliable. They do not, for example, include those areas of the country outside the central government's control. Despite a small amount of low-grade marijuana grown mainly in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, largely for domestic use, Georgia does not appear to be a significant producer of narcotics. Although Georgia has the technical potential to produce precursor chemicals, it has no known capacity for presently producing significant quantities of such chemicals.

Drug Flow/Transit. The government has no reliable statistics on the volume of drugs transiting Georgia. However, the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MOIA) has reported that 95 percent of illegal drugs in Georgia are imported. MOIA statistics indicate incidences of illegal drug contraband seizures doubled in 2000.

Demand Reduction. There are approximately 20,000-25,000 drug addicts in Georgia, according to MOIA estimates. The drugs of choice are heroin and opium. The national program prepared by the MOIA's antinarcotics unit is comprehensive; however, program implementation has been constrained due to a lack of resources. Besides law enforcement activities, the government's strategy involves the treatment of addicts and the education of young people as keys to the long-term reduction of domestic drug use.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. In the year 2000, the USG provided $20 million to the Georgian Law Enforcement Assistance program. This program has assisted the GOG in developing the capabilities of its border guards and customs service to control Georgia's borders after Russian Border Guards pulled out in 1998. This program included counternarcotics training, training in tracking migration of persons, technical assistance, and an antinarcotics seminar for the entire Caucus region.

The Road Ahead. Corruption in Georgian law enforcement agencies makes effective counternarcotics efforts problematic. Financial and technical assistance from the U.S. and the international community should concentrate on building capacity to monitor and control the workings of the law enforcement bodies.


I. Summary

Although not a major producing country, Germany is a consumer and transit country for narcotics. Most illicit drugs are consumed in Germany, with ecstasy use showing a dramatic surge. Cocaine and heroin also rank as widely used illicit drugs. There is a high level .of cooperation between Germany and the United States on prevention programs, interdiction, money laundering, precursor chemical diversion, and Dublin Group (assistance coordination) matters. Drug use and attendant problems continue to be treated primarily as social and health issues rather than criminal issues in Germany. Germany has criminalized money laundering and in mid-2000 created a Financial Intelligence Unit and established a central database for reporting of suspicious money laundering transactions. Germany is a party to the 1998 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Drug couriers from around the world travel to or through Germany via its major airports at Frankfurt and Duesseldorf, and its North Sea and Baltic seaports such as Hamburg, Bremen, and Rostock. Much of the heroin for the markets of Europe passes through Germany. Heroin is destined for the Netherlands, and most seizures have been from Turkish nationals. Colombia, as well as several other Latin American countries, remains the main source of cocaine transiting Germany. Germany is the world's leading manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, making it a target for the diversion of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. With the 1998 shift of responsibility for the coordination of drug policy from the Ministry of Interior to the Ministry of Health, Germany's approach to drug use and problems shifted from law enforcement to social and health concerns. Focus continues to be on prevention and raising awareness of drug addiction as a disease. Drug consuming rooms, where addicts shoot up in a clean environment and are offered drug counseling, were legalized by the German Federal Government in February 2000. Hamburg, a leader in addressing drug addiction as a health problem, was the first German state to pass implementing legislation for the drug consuming rooms. Assessing the effectiveness of drug consuming rooms is difficult due to the absence of hard data, but those in Hamburg received considerable government support as one tool in the battle against drugs. The rooms remain controversial within Germany and in other countries. Unless they can provide solid evidence of effectiveness, they are not likely to become widespread.

Germany continues to contribute to the UNDCP. Germany ranks with Italy, England, the United States, Japan, and Sweden as one of the most important contributors to the UNDCP. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development annually contributes approximately U.S. $2.3 million to be used in narcotics control programs.

Accomplishments. Through October 2000, German law enforcement officials had numerous successes in seizing illicit narcotics either destined for the German market or transiting Germany for other markets. During the first six months, eight drug laboratories were discovered (five for the production of cocaine and three for the production of amphetamines). German police cooperated with Spanish law enforcement officials in May 2000 in seizing 4.5 tons of hashish in Valencia, Spain. In addition, the alleged perpetrators had over U.S. $500,000 in a Berlin bank. In October, Munich police seized 10.4 kilograms of heroin at a street price of approximately U.S. $10 million. In November, Customs investigators in Frankfurt and Hamburg apparently thwarted a possible drug deal with a value of approximately U.S. $300 million. Cargo from China containing 452 kilograms of a chemical substance used in the manufacture of ecstasy was destroyed at the Frankfurt airport. In November, Bavarian authorities seized 87 kilograms of heroin (the largest seizure in 2000). The drugs in this seizure apparently originated in Turkey and were destined for the German market. In November, Bavarian customs authorities seized 400 kilograms of hashish, their largest discovery of hashish in several years. This hashish, which was discovered in an Albanian refrigerator truck, entered Germany via Italy and Austria. Official figures for the first six months of 2000 reported total heroin seizures during that period as 339 kilograms, cocaine seizures at 384 kilograms, amphetamines at 125 kilograms. Hashish and marijuana seizures for the fist six months of 2000 were reported as 6.2 MT and 3.1 MT, respectively. Some 720 thousand MDMA-"Ecstasy" pills were seized as well.

Law Enforcement Efforts. At the state and federal levels, German law enforcement efforts are effective.

Corruption. Neither the government nor senior officials encourage or facilitate the production or distribution of illicit drugs. Isolated cases of corruption may occur, but it is not a major problem in Germany.

Agreements and Treaties. Germany is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Germany signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols in December 2000. A 1978 extradition treaty and supplement is in force between the U.S. and Germany. Negotiations for a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) between the U.S. and Germany are on-going. There is a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) between the U.S. and Germany.

Cultivation/Production. Police occasionally discover marijuana plants cultivated for personal use, but there is no reported large-scale cultivation of any type of drug in Germany.

Drug Flow/Transit. Germany remains a transit country for illicit narcotics. Afghan heroin moves through Turkey along the "Balkan Route" into Germany. Most cocaine seizures involved drugs from Colombia, though other countries of transit/origin include The Netherlands and Brazil.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Federal Ministry of Health State Secretary Christa Nickels, tasked with overseeing Germany's drug policy, continues to emphasize prevention and demand reduction. DEA works closely with local law enforcement officials in outreach programs, such as presentations at schools, in conducting prevention and demand reduction programs.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. German law enforcement agencies work closely and effectively with their U.S. counterparts in narcotics related cases. Close cooperation to curb money laundering continues between DEA, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Internal Revenue Service, and the U.S. Customs Service and their German counterparts. These agencies and their FRG counterparts routinely cooperate in joint investigations. Within the last year, there were 25 controlled deliveries to the U.S. resulting in the seizure of over 500 kilograms of ecstasy and numerous arrests. Further investigations in these cases have resulted in the identification and arrest of an international ecstasy dealer. German-U.S. cooperation has also yielded an excellent program designed to attack diversion of the chemical precursor for cocaine production.

The Road Ahead. The United States will continue its cooperation with Germany on all bilateral and international counternarcotics fronts, including the Dublin Group and the UNDCP. Completion of an MLAT will remain a priority for both the U.S. and Germany.


I. Summary

Greece is an important "gateway" country in the transit of illicit drugs. Narcotics flow into Western Europe both through Greece's porous marine borders and through land borders with neighboring countries. Heroin and hashish enter Greece via Turkey, while cannabis and other drugs enter via Albania, Bulgaria and FYROM (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). Greek authorities report that drug abuse, particularly of heroin, is increasing. The country has the second highest rate of increase in drug overdose deaths in Europe.

Although Greece is not a major transit country for drugs coming to the United States, it remains a country of concern to the U.S. Local U.S. authorities report an excellent working relationship with Greek law enforcement agencies. The government of Greece (GOG) is an active member of international antidrug and anti-money laundering organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the Dublin Group, in which a Greek representative chairs the Balkans/Near East regional working group. The Greek Parliament ratified the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative's (SECI) anticrime initiative and plans to participate in the work of the regional anticrime center in Bucharest, and its specialized task force on counternarcotics. Greece is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Greece's geography, particularly its extensive coastline and numerous islands, its merchant marine (largest in the world), and its membership in the European Union make it a favored drug transshipment route to Western Europe. Two major Balkan drug routes pass through Greece: from Turkey through Greece and Albania to Italy, and from Turkey through Greece to Bulgaria and on to Central and Western Europe.

The domestic market for illicit drugs is growing, particularly for heroin. A 1999 study by the University of Athens found that the use of narcotics tripled in the last 15 years. Greek officials in charge of counternarcotics policy estimated the number of persons in Greece using heroin on a regular basis at approximately 40,000, with an estimated 90 percent of the heroin addicts using it intravenously. Other drugs used include cocaine, LSD, ecstasy, barbiturates, amphetamines, and locally grown marijuana. Academic sources estimated the average age for first time marijuana use to be 16 years old. Solvents are the most widely used controlled substances among high school students (6.5 percent in 1993 and 13.7 percent among students aged 15-16 in 1998).

While not a major producer, supplier, or transshipment point for precursor chemicals, Greece has a special customs unit to track and investigate chemical imports and exports.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The Ministers of Health and Justice approved the extension of the government's network of methadone treatment, in addition to two methadone treatment centers already in Athens and two in Thessaloniki, to several other major cities in Greece. OKANA, the Ministry of Health's agency for combating narcotics use, treats approximately 666 addicts at the four existing methadone treatment centers and has 4,076 people on its waiting list. (The long list is due to the limited number of centers available to addicts.) It also runs a needle exchange program; syringes are inexpensive and readily available in pharmacies.

The Ministry of Justice, with OKANA and the Ministry of Health, undertook the creation of a treatment facility for prison inmates addicted to drugs. The center, to be located in Avlona (Thiva), has not yet opened.

Accomplishments. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Unit (SDOE) of the Ministry of Finance has participated in a number of narcotics interception operations since it was activated in 1987. In August 2000, after a nine-month multi-nation investigation, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), working with the Hellenic National Police (HNP), SDOE and Hellenic Coast Guard (HCG), seized 9.5 tons of cocaine off the coast of Venezuela and several cargo vessels, and arrested 50 suspects, several of whom were expelled to the United States. Greek authorities will play a significant role in providing testimony and evidence in these trials.

The DEA and HCG have also had many successes in their container program this year in South and Central America. Ships transiting through Greek ports were seized and searched. Shipments of hundreds of kilograms of drugs were found as a result of this program.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The Central Narcotics Council, composed of representatives from the Ministries of Public Order, Finance, and Merchant Marine, coordinates Greece's drug enforcement activities. Cooperation between U.S. and Greek law enforcement officials is excellent; the GOG pursues U.S. requests for legal assistance routinely. Greek laws permit the seizure of assets related to drug convictions. For the first time, the authorities are also permitting the sharing of seized assets with other countries. The money raised in 2000 from the auctioning of several seized cargoes was shared between the U.S. and the Greek counternarcotics agency.

From January 1-September 30, 2000, statistics show that the GOG seized 86 kilograms of heroin, 15 kilograms of cocaine, and 25 kilograms of cannabis resin. In addition, 61,000 cannabis plants were seized as well as seven tons of cannabis herb. During this period in 2000, there were 8,727 drug-related arrests and 5,670 drug investigations. In December 2000, law enforcement officials seized a shipment of 500 kilograms of heroin.

The antinarcotics unit of the Greek police does not have its own budget. As a result, police equipment is often outdated and training is infrequent, but has improved since 1999.

Corruption. The Ministry of Public Order opened a Bureau of Internal Affairs in October 1999 to combat police corruption. Local U.S. authorities had no reports of serious corruption within the narcotics department of the police force, nor in other governmental antinarcotics agencies. The government Ombudsman's office, created in 1998, has authority to investigate corruption complaints within the governmental bodies that bear the antinarcotics responsibility in Greece.

Agreements and Treaties. Greece is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, and meets the convention's goals and objectives relating to drug cultivation, distribution, sale, transport, law enforcement, transit cooperation, and demand reduction. Greece has passed implementing legislation for essential and precursor chemical controls. An agreement between the GOG and the U.S. to exchange information on narcotics trafficking has been in force since 1928, and an extradition treaty has been in force since 1932. The U.S. ratified a new Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) in December 2000 between the United States and Greece. The MLAT was ratified by the Greek Parliament in October 2000. The Police Cooperation Memorandum, signed in September 2000, will enhance operational police cooperation between the two countries. The U.S. has concluded a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) with the GOG.

Cultivation/Production. Cannabis, cultivated in small amounts for local consumption, is the only illicit drug produced in Greece.

Drug Flow/Transit. Greece is a major transshipment route to Western Europe for heroin from Turkey, hashish from the Middle East, and heroin, ecstasy, and marijuana from Southwest Asia. Metric ton quantities of marijuana and smaller quantities of other drugs are smuggled across the borders from Albania, Bulgaria, and FYROM. Marijuana has been smuggled into Greece on pack mules across the mountainous border with Albania. Hashish is off-loaded in remote areas of the country and transported to Western Europe by boat or overland. Larger shipments are smuggled into Greece in shipping containers, on bonded "TIR" trucks, in automobiles, on trains, and in buses. Such trucks typically enter Greece via Turkish border crossings, then cross the Adriatic by ferry to Italy. A small portion of these drugs is smuggled into the United States, including Turkish-refined heroin that is traded for Latin American cocaine, but there is no evidence that drugs narcotics entering the U.S. from Greece are in an amount sufficient to have a significant effect on the United States. Nigerian drug organizations smuggle heroin and cocaine through the Athens airport, and increasingly through the Aegean islands, from Turkey. The police have raided several organizations selling anabolic steroids (not a controlled substance in Greece) by mail to purchasers in the United States. Cocaine also transits through Greece to other parts of Europe.

Domestic Programs. OKANA coordinates all national antinarcotics policy in Greece. It heads demand reduction efforts, develops and administers information and prevention programs, runs treatment centers for substance abusers, and coordinates with other agencies involved in narcotics treatment and prevention.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. DEA has a close working relationship with representatives of the Greek Coast Guard, the national police, Customs, SDOE, and INTERPOL.

The economic section of the U.S. Embassy in Athens maintains regular contact with SDOE. The Embassy's office for public diplomacy regularly distributes literature on drug prevention, and periodically arranges background briefings with DEA officers for local journalists and general informational seminars. Local DEA officials are frequent speakers at local schools. Another program provides grants to Kethea (a self-regulating legal entity under the supervision of the Ministry of Health, providing treatment, vocational training and social rehabilitation to drug addicts) to bring U.S. rehabilitation experts for two weeks at a time to train Greek therapists.

The Road Ahead. The United States will encourage the GOG to continue to participate actively in international organizations such as the Dublin Group and OSCE. DEA will continue to seek funding to offer training to Greek officials. DEA will also continue to organize additional conferences, seminars, and workshops with the goal of building regional cooperation and coordination.


I. Summary

Hungary is an important transit country for illegal narcotics from Southwest Asia to Western Europe. Among other drugs, Hungary receives synthetic drugs and marijuana from the Netherlands, and heroin through the Balkan Route. After dramatically increasing in the early 1990's, drug seizures have remained relatively stable over the past few years. In 2000, however, there was an increase in seizures, possibly linked to improvements in Hungarian border control. Domestic consumption of illegal narcotics, particularly heroin and ecstasy, continued to be a problem. The Government of Hungary (GOH) passed strict antidrug legislation in late 1998 that went into effect in early 1999 and introduced stiff penalties for using and/or selling narcotics. The government has also campaigned to eliminate corruption among government officials, especially those in the political or judicial sphere, and a national anticorruption strategy is in the process of being formulated. However, there is scant evidence of success in this field.

Drug traffickers may be punished with life imprisonment. Civil rights activists have been critical of the government, arguing that the new laws unfairly punish users. A Data-Sharing Agreement to improve further U.S.-Hungarian law enforcement cooperation was concluded in January 2000. Hungary is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Hungary continued to be used as a major transit country for illegal narcotics smuggled from Southwest Asia through the Balkans to Western Europe, although some disruption of traditional routes occurred as a result of instability in the FRY (Former Republic of Yugoslavia). Although Hungary is not a major transit country for drugs coming to the United States, it remains a country of concern to the U.S. The Hungarian government assesses that foreign groups primarily control transit and sale of narcotics in Hungary, particularly groups from Albania, Turkey and Nigeria. Many of these groups have been resident in Hungary for several years. Ethnic Turks are continuing a trend toward increasingly more sophisticated means of transporting drugs through Hungary, including the use of German-licensed vehicles that are not as closely scrutinized by border guards.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Anticrime legislation passed into law on March 1, 1999 was the first anticrime initiative of the new government elected in May 1998. The legislation stiffens Hungary's criminal code, extends life imprisonment for drug trafficking, allows confiscation of property, creates new criminal provisions for production of chemical precursors and increases penalties for drug-related crimes. All drug consumers, including casual users, are subject to criminal penalties, although addicts may be exempted from prosecution. Civil rights leaders claim that the new provisions, among the toughest in Europe, will unfairly punish casual users, while exempting addicts.

Accomplishments. The GOH adopted a National Drug Strategy, which includes demand reduction and law enforcement efforts. The Coordination Committee on Drug Affairs was established as part of the National Drug Strategy to act as a forum to iron out political conflicts associated with implementing the national strategy. Its creation addresses calls in Parliament to replace the inter-ministerial drug committee by a "Drug Czar" and an entirely new office responsible for antinarcotics strategy. According to unconfirmed press reports, a detailed budget for the strategy, estimated at 17 Billion HUF (roughly U.S. $56 million) and the draft strategy itself were submitted to Parliament where final approval is expected with few changes.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Hungarian and Austrian border authorities continue joint cross-border antinarcotics investigation efforts begun in 1998. Eastern Hungary has seen initial steps toward joint border control efforts with Romanian and Ukrainian counterparts encouraged by the U.S. Embassy, while updated detection equipment provided by the European Union at high-incident border posts will continue to help bring down incident rates in these areas. On December 5, the Hungarian Parliament passed a bill creating an Anti-Mafia Center that will provide needed data-sharing and investigative cooperation between Hungarian law enforcement bodies with investigative powers and the secret services. The Center was scheduled to begin operations in January 2001, despite the Hungarian Socialist Party's appeal to the Constitutional Court to block the opening of the Center on constitutional and political grounds.

Corruption. Hungary's governing coalition passed an anti-Mafia package that went into effect in March 1999. Its provisions include increased criminal penalties for organized crimes relating to drugs and money laundering in addition to a number of other offenses. In 1999, the GOH conducted an anticorruption campaign targeted primarily at civil servants. A new code of ethics for Interior Ministry civil servants is being prepared in line with assistance provided by the U.S. Embassy. The new Border Guards commander, upon assuming office in late 1999, unveiled plans for a new personnel system designed to break up the continuity of border guards posts in an effort to separate groups of potentially corrupt officials. The plans have not yet been implemented. To date, there is little evidence of concrete progress in this anticorruption campaign, although the arrest of Parliamentarian Istvan Szekely for taking bribes may provide the first example of a high-level corruption prosecution since the regime change in 1990. There have been no narcotics-specific corruption cases of which we are aware.

Agreements and Treaties. Hungary is party to the 1961 UN Convention amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. An extradition treaty and mutual legal assistance treaty are in force between the U.S. and Hungary. A bilateral Data-Sharing Agreement was signed in January 2000 that paved the way for even closer cooperation between U.S. and Hungarian law enforcement agencies. Hungary signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and accompanying Protocols in December, 2000.

Cultivation/Production. GOH authorities claim that marijuana (mostly cultivated in Western Hungary), ecstasy and LSD are locally produced; all other illegal narcotics are imported into Hungary. Seventeen marijuana plots were eradicated in 1998; four in 1999; but only one, consisting of 117 plants, was eradicated as of the end of November 2000.

Drug Flow/Transit. Through the first 11 months of 2000, overall drug seizures went up sharply in Hungary, owing largely to a handful of large confiscations scattered throughout the year. The Hungarian Customs Service noted, particularly, the steep increases in heroin, marijuana, hashish, and opium seizures. Slight-to-moderate decreases were observed in coca leaf (tourist confiscations), ecstasy and LSD seizures, but the volume of these decreases was dwarfed by the increases cited above. The gross weight of confiscations through the end of November 2000 increased by some 430 percent over 1999 figures.

Demand Reduction. Hungarian officials continue to report the increasing seriousness of their domestic drug problem, particularly among teens and those in their twenties, who have benefited from the country's strong, if unequal, economic performance. There are 10,000 heroin addicts in Hungary, and synthetic drugs are also widely abused. In response to this growing problem, the National Drug Strategy, adopted on December 5, plans to expand prevention programs modeled after a 1995 U.S. pilot project in Hungary to train teachers to identify and counsel students using drugs. The strategy also plans to broaden law enforcement efforts begun in 1998 to attack the drug supply network. To achieve these goals, the GOH will use public information campaigns and other methods to deliver better, more complete information about the dangers of drug use to the public. In addition, national drug treatment capabilities will be expanded and lifestyles that are more productive will be highlighted as a way of limiting exposure to and a desire to experiment with psychotropic drugs. Funding for the National Drug Strategy (USD $56 million) is spread over a three-year term.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. The U.S. focuses its support for GOH counternarcotics efforts on training and cooperation through the ILEA (International Law Enforcement Academy) and bilateral programs with the GOH. As part of the U.S. program, DEA conducts training programs for its Hungarian counterparts, which included an Asset Forfeiture course in September 2000. DEA maintains a regional office in Vienna, Austria, that is accredited to Hungary and works with local and national authorities.

Bilateral Cooperation. GOH officials continue to participate in international law enforcement training efforts, particularly through the ILEA and the bilateral program coordinated by the U.S. Embassy in Budapest. The U.S. has been supportive of Hungarian legislative efforts to stiffen criminal penalties for drug offenses, and will continue to support the GOH through training at ILEA and ad hoc initiatives. The USG will continue to sponsor law enforcement training programs and technical assistance via the USG "6-Point" Plan.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to enhance its already excellent law enforcement and counternarcotics relationship with the GOH. The U.S. will move to ensure effective implementation of the 2000 Data Sharing Agreement and the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty. The U.S. will work to secure resources to provide assistance to the GOH in all its counter crime efforts, with special attention to improvements in efforts to counter corruption.


I. Summary

Few, if any, illegal drugs are produced in Iceland and the country is not considered to be a major transit point between North America and mainland Europe. Most illegal drugs in Iceland originate from outside the country and appear to be solely for domestic use. However, in the single biggest drug seizure of 2000, an airline passenger transiting Iceland on his way to New York was found with more than 14,000 ecstasy tablets in his possession. Some Icelandic officials are concerned that the country's upcoming participation in the Schengen Agreement's free travel area could increase the movement of illegal drugs through the international airport at Keflavik. An annual survey of Icelandic 10th graders showed alcohol and drug use dropping for the second consecutive year, reversing an upward trend since 1990. At same time, however, there were signs that overall drug abuse continued to increase, as it has since 1995. In 2000, the number of admissions to treatment centers was significantly higher, and law enforcement officials again seized a record amount of drugs.

II. Status of Country

Illegal drugs and precursor chemicals are not cultivated or produced in significant quantities in Iceland. The harsh climate and lack of arable land make the outdoor cultivation of drug crops almost impossible. Icelandic authorities believe that the production of drugs, to the extent it exists, is limited to individual marijuana plants and a small amount of homemade amphetamines. The vast majority of illegal drugs found in Iceland originates from outside the country, mainly Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany. The chief illicit drugs entering Iceland are cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy. Icelandic authorities believe that most illegal drugs are smuggled into the country by airline passengers, through the mail or inside commercial containers.

Iceland, along with the other Nordic countries, is scheduled to become a part of the Schengen free travel area on March 25, 2001. Some officials are concerned that the elimination of passport controls on passengers arriving from other Schengen countries could make it more difficult to combat drug smuggling by airline and cruise ship passengers. Traditionally, Iceland's geographic isolation in the harsh environment of the North Atlantic has protected it against other types of smuggling. There is growing concern, however, that drug traffickers could be taking advantage of Iceland's sparse population and numerous unguarded harbors and airstrips to bring in drugs by small private boats and planes.

As indicated by surveys and treatment center admissions, the abuse of drugs in Iceland has increased significantly since 1995, roughly coinciding with the economic boom that has brought unprecedented prosperity to the country. In 2000, there was an especially sharp increase in the number of people treated for cocaine addiction, which previously had been a relatively minor problem. Icelanders were shocked in December 1999 when a teenage drug addict murdered an elderly woman in her home. For a country that averages fewer than two murders per year, this was a chilling new development.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The National Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Council, which includes representatives from each of the seven ministries involved in the fight against drugs (i.e., Prime Minister's Office, Foreign Affairs, Social Affairs, Health, Justice, Finance, and Education), spearheaded the national effort against drug abuse in 2000. Established in January 1999 to "eradicate the use of harmful drugs and to significantly reduce the consumption of alcohol," the Council distributed more than $800,000 during the year to various groups and causes around the country in support of these objectives.

Accomplishments. Three times as many ecstasy tablets were seized in 2000 as were in 1999, which itself was a record year. Some two thirds of the ecstasy tablets were seized in one case, when a Dutch national waiting for his connecting flight to New York was caught with 14,000 ecstasy tablets in his possession. The passenger, who admitted that his plan was to sell the tablets in New York, was ultimately convicted of drug trafficking and sentenced to nine years imprisonment. In another major seizure, an airline passenger was found with 80 condoms in his stomach containing some 800 ecstasy tablets. This was one of 11 cases during the year in which an airline passenger was caught hiding drugs within his or her body. Meanwhile, the amount of cannabis products seized in 2000 was down from the record set in 1999, but still significantly above that taken in previous years.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The record number of seizures was due in part to greater cooperation between the police and custom authorities. This cooperation was formalized in an agreement between the National Police Commissioner and the Director of Customs in March 1999. The agreement includes provisions for the sharing of information, the establishment of a joint database, the holding of regular consultations, the use of drug dogs, and the exchange of officers. The increased seizures also reflected new guidelines issued by the National Police Commission in April 1999 to the country's 27 district chiefs of police. Among other requirements, the chiefs of police must now send a monthly report to the National Police Commission outlining who in their district is suspected of producing, importing or distributing illegal drugs and what is being done about it. To assist the district chiefs of police in pursuing drug cases, the National Police Commission divided the country into five operational areas and assigned a specially trained narcotics officer to each one. In addition, a special antidrug task force has been established to conduct operations in the southwest of Iceland, where most of the illegal drugs are believed to enter the country.

Corruption. Public corruption in illegal narcotics is considered rare and, to the degree it exists, does not involve higher-ranking officials of the government.

Agreements and Treaties. Iceland is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, as well as the European Convention on Money Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of Criminal Proceeds. In December 2000, Iceland signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols. An extradition treaty dating from 1902, supplemented in 1905, between Denmark and the U.S., is applicable to Iceland.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The National Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Council's main project was a five-year "Drug-Free Iceland" program, which was launched in 1997 as a cooperative effort among the national government, the city of Reykjavik, and the Association of European Cities Against Drugs. Among other things, the "Drug-Free Iceland" program informed parents about the reality of teenage drug and alcohol abuse and emphasized the importance of enforcing the legal curfew as a way to prevent such abuse. The annual survey of Icelandic 10th graders (16-year-olds) conducted in 2000 indicated that these efforts may be having a positive effect. There was a decrease in alcohol and illicit drug consumption for the second consecutive year, reversing an upward trend since 1990.

In July 2000, Reykjavik was the site for the founding conference of a new organization called "PATH: European Youth Without Drugs." The idea of forming such an organization came from an Icelandic travel club that organizes adventure trips for 16 to 25 year olds under the slogan "get high naturally." The PATH organization, headquartered in Reykjavik, seeks to promote the positive message that teenagers do not need drugs or alcohol to enjoy life. At the end of 2000, PATH had affiliated member organizations in 40 European countries, as well as the United States.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. As part of its preparations for participating in the Schengen free travel area, Iceland has sought law enforcement cooperation with the United States. This cooperation included bringing U.S. experts to Iceland to discuss counternarcotics experience, as well as sending Icelandic law enforcement officials to the U.S. to participate in international visitor programs and law enforcement training. An INS team came to Iceland in September 2000 to train 140 police and customs officers on detecting fraudulent travel documents, and in early 2001, a DEA team is scheduled to come to give a "jetway" course on how to identify male fide travelers.

Under a 1989 bilateral agreement, a Joint Information Coordination Center (JICC) was established in Iceland, which is designed to facilitate information exchange regarding small aircraft flying between the United States and Europe via Iceland. The JICC reports information about transiting planes to the El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC), which, in turn, notifies the JICC whether derogatory information exists on that particular aircraft or its passengers. Iceland suspended its participation in the program in late 1999, but plans to start up again in early 2001.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to foster bilateral cooperation through its speaker, international visitor and mobile training team programs. The U.S. Embassy in Reykjavik, in cooperation with DEA and legal attach�s in Copenhagen, will also work to make the JICC mechanism more useful for both countries and to act on Iceland's specific requests for cooperation and assistance.


I. Summary

The Republic of Ireland does not figure prominently in international drug trafficking, although increasing drug abuse among Irish youth continues to have a significant domestic impact. In 2000, the Irish government undertook a review of the National Drug Strategy. Another recent development, the Criminal Justice Act of 1999, provides for a mandatory minimum ten-year prison sentence for those convicted of possession with intent to supply drugs with a value of U.S. $12,000 or more. Between the entry into force of this Act in May 1999 and November 20, 2000, 103 persons were charged with this offense. There have been no verifiable instances of Ireland being used as a transshipment point for narcotics sent to the U.S. Ireland is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

While most drug seizures within the Republic and off its coast appear to be destined for Ireland, it is commonly believed that Ireland is also a transit point for the shipment of narcotics destined for Europe. Ireland is not a significant source of illicit narcotics or precursor chemicals. Money laundering, although still relatively limited, has increased over the last few years.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Government of Ireland (GOI) policy in relation to drug abuse is essentially to deal with the problem on two levels. First, strong legislative measures backed up by tough law enforcement are intended to address the supply of drugs. Second, the GOI has adopted a multi-agency, partnership approach to address the issues of prevention and demand reduction. The GOI spent much of 2000 involved in a major review of its National Drug Strategy (NDS). A review group comprising senior officials from key government departments and the NDS Team are managing the review. Independent consultants were commissioned to assist with the review process, which included a nation-wide public consultation process over the summer months. The objective is to review the current NDS, identify any gaps or deficiencies, develop revised strategies and, if necessary, new structures through which to deliver them. The review will be submitted to the Cabinet Committee on Social Inclusion and later to the full Cabinet for approval. Officials anticipate completing the process and launching a revised strategy by early 2001.

Ireland also applied to join key provisions of the Schengen Arrangements. The proposed participation will allow for greater cooperation with the police services in other EU Member States, in relation to criminal investigations and prosecutions, as well as improving cooperation in preventive action.

Accomplishments. In addition to the policy initiatives discussed above, law enforcement efforts in Ireland in 2000 resulted in major drug seizures.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Ireland's new participation in the Schengen Agreement's provisions for closer EU-wide policing and customs cooperation is expected to enhance its counternarcotics efforts. For the period January 1, 2000 to September 30, 2000, significant (street value U.S. $300,000 or more) drug seizures amounted to an estimated street value of around U.S. $9.36 million.

In 2000, the Gardai Siochana (Irish police force) initiated a number of operations to tackle drug dealing at the street level. Between January 1, 2000 and April 16, 2000, one operation yielded drug seizures with an estimated street value of U.S. $1.44 million and resulted in over 2,000 arrests.

Ireland has also been praised for its close and successful relationship with the Dutch police. (Much of the narcotics entering Ireland transit through Amsterdam, and most of Ireland's 13 known organized crime families have operations in Amsterdam.) A March 2000 cooperative effort, which received considerable media attention, resulted in the arrest of a number of persons in Amsterdam and Dublin and the seizure of firearms and drugs with an estimated street value of U.S. $9.6 million.

Two items of concern are the lack of resources devoted to the interdiction of sea-borne smuggling and lack of follow-through on the 1999 Criminal Justice Act. This Act mandates a ten-year sentence for convictions involving narcotics with a value of over U.S. $12,000. In the first half of 2000, six cases came before the courts and the mandatory sentence was not imposed in any of them. In each instance, the courts invoked the clause allowing for lighter sentences in cases of "exception and specific circumstances." The Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform intends to review the relevant provisions of the Act to assess their effectiveness.

1996 legislation permits the seizure of assets of those convicted of various crimes, including narcotics trafficking. Legitimate businesses can be seized if they are used to launder drug money or other criminal proceeds. Any asset can be seized except for a "homestead exemption" that protects primary residences. Proceeds from seized assets are frequently donated to victims' funds and antinarcotics efforts. The law allows for criminal forfeiture without formal criminal charges being made, but does not permit civil forfeiture.

Corruption. There were no verifiable instances of police or other official corruption related to drug activities in 2000.

Agreements and Treaties. The U.S. and Ireland signed a mutual legal assistance treaty in January 2001. An extradition treaty between the two countries is already in force. Ireland is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Bilateral antidrug and anticrime agreements with the Russian Federation and the Republic of Hungary entered into force in 2000. Ireland signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols in December 2000.

Cultivation/Production. Cultivation of narcotics remains limited to small quantities of cannabis. There is still no evidence of domestic synthetic drug production capability.

Drug Flow/Transit. Irish authorities acknowledge that the Republic remains a "gateway" for imports of cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines to continental Europe. The cocaine comes primarily from Colombia and other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Cannabis and amphetamine shipments originate in the Netherlands and eastern European countries. Ireland continues to receive heroin shipments via the U.K. and the Netherlands.

In 2000, Gardai continued to destroy narcotics networks in operation throughout Ireland. Concerns remain, however, that criminal/drug trafficking organizations are moving to more complex networks and distribution systems, including the involvement of non-Irish criminals.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The Framework for Social Inclusion and Equality, which was adopted in 2000, includes the provisions for increased funding to local drug task forces and urban areas where an emerging drug problem is evident. The Framework also provides to the Young People's Facilities and Services Fund support for young people at risk of becoming drug abusers. The Framework notes that in the context of the review of the National Drugs Strategy, workplace initiatives dealing with drug misuse will be considered. Finally, the Framework provides for the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform, in conjunction with the Gardai and the Probation and Welfare Service, to continue to develop programs for at-risk young persons

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. The U.S. has pursued various policy initiatives in Ireland including encouraging Irish cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies, such as the DEA, and participation in international counternarcotics fora, such as the Dublin Group.

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. and Irish counternarcotics officials furthered their close working relationship in both official and unofficial capacities throughout 2000. In addition to handling requests for investigative assistance and background information, officials were often involved in joint operations/investigations.

The Road Ahead. By supporting Irish efforts to counter drug trafficking, the U.S. can help ensure that Ireland does not become a transit point for narcotics trafficking to the U.S. and that Ireland's developing financial services market does not become a haven for money laundering. In pursuit of these objectives, the U.S. will continue to offer cooperation and assistance with Irish authorities in this field.


I. Summary

The Government of Italy (GOI) is firmly committed to the fight against drug trafficking. Italian organized crime groups continue to be involved in international drug trafficking and money laundering. The political turmoil in the former Yugoslavia and Albania has provided the perfect opportunity to establish relationships between Italian organized crime and Albanian criminal organizations. GOI cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies continues to be exemplary. Italy is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Italy is not a drug producing country. The last time a heroin processing laboratory was discovered was in 1985 in Sicily. Although there are no cocaine HCL processing laboratories in Italy, Colombians, Peruvians, and Italians have jointly set up conversion sites. In 2000, a conversion laboratory was seized in Milan, Italy. The cocaine base was contained in bean-shaped pellets.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Possession of small amounts of dangerous drugs is not a criminal offense in Italy. In November 2000, in Genoa, Italy, the Italian Ministry for Social Solidarity held a conference on the fight against drug addiction. The conference dealt with several problems related to drug addiction such as AIDS, and legalization. Italy's Prime Minister announced that the GOI would not change the country's stringent antidrug laws. As of November 2000, the Direzione per i Servizi Antidroga (DCSA) (Antidrug Services Directorate) had 18 drug liaison officers in 17 countries. Italy is a major contributor to the UNDCP based in Vienna and contributed approximately $9.5 million in 1999 to UN programs to combat illegal drugs and crime. Pino Arlacchi, an Italian, is in charge of UN drug control and anticrime efforts.

Accomplishments. During 2000, several major organized crime figures were arrested and their assets forfeited. Bank accounts (total amount approximately $500,000) identified as owned by high echelon members of the Colombian Cali cartel were forfeited for the first time in Italy.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The fight against drugs is a major priority of each of the three police services coordinated by the DCSA, namely the Carabinieri (an armed service), the Polizia di Stato (State Police), and the Guardi di Finanza (Finance Police). The number of drug trafficking arrests slightly increased to 20,493 arrests in 2000, compared to 20,386 arrests in 1999. Drug overdose deaths decreased in 2000: 615 drug overdose deaths in 2000, compared to 811 in 1999. (Figures are not comparable, because the 2000 figures are only for the first ten months of the year.) In addition, below please find a comparison of drug seizures from 1999 and January 1, 2000-October 31, 2000 (as expressed in kilograms, except MDMA/ecstasy, which is expressed in tablet pills):



Heroin (kg)



Cocaine (kg)



Marijuana (kg)



Hashish k(g)



MDMA (tablets)



Agreements and Treaties. Italy is a party to the 1961 UN Single Convention, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the 1972 Protocol and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. In December 2000, an international conference was held in Palermo, Italy, for the signing of treaty on transnational crime. The treaty must be ratified by a quorum of 40 countries before it comes into force. This new treaty will strengthen governments against serious crimes, including drug trafficking, money laundering, trafficking of human beings and arms trafficking. As a member of the European Union, Italy participates in the Dublin Group, UNDCP Pompidou group, Europol, the EU Commission, and attendant committees and working groups.

Cultivation/Production. There is no known coca bush cultivation in Italy. However, opium poppy grows spontaneously in the southern part of Italy and the island of Sicily. It does not present a threat due to the low alkaloid content.

Drug Flow/Transit. Italy is a consumer and transshipment country. It is a major transit point for heroin coming from Southwest Asia destined to other European countries. The Balkan route is a heavily utilized shipping route. During 2000, heroin and cocaine seizures in Italy have declined. Heroin and cocaine are smuggled into Italy via boats and overland via trucks. In smaller quantities it is transported via couriers or air express parcels. Italian authorities have reported an increase in the use of MDMA/ecstasy, which is mostly imported from The Netherlands.

Domestic Programs. The Italian Ministry of the Interior reports that Italy has 552 public health departments operated by the Ministry of Health. According to the Ministry of Health, there are 500,000 drug addicts in Italy, of which 140,000 are provided rehabilitation services at public centers. Approximately 20,000 addicts receive rehabilitation services from privately financed centers.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. and Italy continue to enjoy exemplary cooperation regarding counternarcotics efforts. U.S. and Italian law enforcement authorities carry out numerous joint operations against drug traffickers, money launderers, and organized crime. In September 2000, the U.S. and the GOI sponsored the third Global Conference on Drug Prevention at which 650 delegates from 74 countries came out strongly against harm reduction and any form of drug legalization. Members of the Italian cabinet also attended and sponsored various events. This Conference, funded in part by the U.S. Department of State, resulted in the creation of the first ever "international drug prevention network" to help countries develop positive demand reduction programs, fight legalization, and increase the political and social will to fight drug use.

The Road Ahead. U.S.-Italian cooperation against narcotics will be strengthened even further, and Italy will continue as a key link in the effort against narcotic drug abuse and trafficking.


I. Summary

Kazakhstan is not a major producer of narcotics, but is an important transit route in Central Asia for opium and heroin from Afghanistan going to Russia and Europe and precursor chemicals going to Afghanistan. Kazakhstan legally produces acetic anhydride for export to Russia and other countries in the region; however, the chemical is a heroin precursor and is illegally diverted to Afghanistan. While highly motivated to move against the narcotics industry, the Government of Kazakhstan (GOK) is hampered by numerous resource and coordination problems. Drug abuse continues to increase, with a drop in the average age of abusers. With the assistance of the UN Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODCCP), foreign countries and non-government organizations (NGO's), some positive steps have been made, including creation of a Drug Information Center. Seizures appear to be on the rise based upon information from that center. Kazakhstan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Trains through Kazakhstan continue to be the most popular means of smuggling drugs to Russia and from other Central Asian countries. Law enforcement officials are arresting more under-aged traffickers than in the past. The official number of drug abusers is approximately 37,408, but authorities estimate the real number to be 7-8 times higher. Increasing numbers of children (1,946) and women (3,488) were arrested during 2000 for drug abuse. Marijuana and heroin are the drugs most often abused. The increase in heroin trafficking has led to an increase in heroin abuse and addiction. Intravenous drug abuse is still on the rise, adding to the problem of HIV positive tested citizens. UNODCCP has started needle exchange programs in an attempt to decrease shared needle usage. Local law enforcement officials note that synthetic drugs are still a growing problem, especially in nightclubs.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. President Nazarbaeyev issued a decree in April implementing measures to improve anticrime and corruption efforts. He disbanded the State Commission on the Fight Against Corruption, and placed its responsibilities directly under the Presidential Administration. In August, the GOK approved a unified chemical control list, including dual use precursors, to be used to control all exports and imports.

Accomplishments. With the assistance of the UNODCCP, the Prosecutor General's office created the Drug Information Center (DIC) and required all agencies involved with narcotics to report to it monthly. The GOK signed an agreement with the Government of Germany to provide dog narcotics detector training.

Law Enforcement Efforts. During the first nine months of 2000, 20,062 drug related criminal cases were opened, according to official reports from the DIC—five times more than last year's approximately 4,000 cases. Seizures of 7.9 tons of drugs included 134 kilograms of heroin, 74 kilograms of opium, 7.4 tons of marijuana and 154 kilograms of hashish. Also seized were 4,991 kilograms of precursor materials. The police, under the Ministry of Interior, carried out most of the seizures, with the National Security Committee, Customs Committee and Tax Police together accounting for about 2 percent of the seizures. Law enforcement operations continue to suffer from lack of equipment, resources and technical expertise. Progress on improving interagency cooperation has been slow. The lack of interagency communication and coordination has hampered controlled deliveries within Kazakhstan. However, the DIC reported that Kazakhstani authorities had cooperated with Russian counterparts on controlled deliveries in 60 cases, permitting the shipment across the Russian border to expose the recipient.

Corruption. Corruption remains a problem, which the GOK has acknowledged and taken steps to combat. The president issued a decree implementing measures to improve anticorruption efforts and placed responsibility for fighting corruption under the direct supervision of the Presidential Administration. Disciplinary actions for those guilty of corruption were developed by the end of the year.

Agreements and Treaties. Since 1998, the GOK has been a party to the 1988 UN Drug Control Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 protocol and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Drugs. It has signed bilateral agreements with South Korea, Russia, and Pakistan on counternarcotics cooperation and renewed cooperation agreements with neighboring Central Asian countries. Kazakhstan signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December 2000.

Cultivation and Production. Opium poppies and cannabis are grown more for personal use than illicit sale. Traffickers still find opium and heroin smuggled from Afghanistan cheaper, purer and more potent than locally produced opiates. While Kazakhstan is an important cannabis producer, this production does not significantly affect the U.S. However, it remains a country of concern to the USG. Ephedra grows wild in mountainous areas of southern and western Kazakhstan. Legal ephedra products are very profitable. The Drug Control Agency plans to combat the illegal use of ephedra with the licensing of the manufacturers of ephedra products and to treat ephedra, from a legal standpoint, as a dual use substance.

Drug Flow/Transit. Kazakhstan continues to be used for the transshipment of precursor chemicals, mainly acidic anhydride, from Russia, China and other countries for the illicit production of heroin in Afghanistan. Drug traffickers continue to use adolescents or the elderly to smuggle drugs, primarily opium and heroin, in and out Kazakhstan.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The GOK initiated a public awareness campaign in 2000 via radio and television against the use and trafficking of narcotics. Training of local schoolteachers in an antidrug education curriculum continued. The GOK and UNODCCP continued to work with drug treatment programs. Insufficient funding limited program services. Support from local officials for non-profit treatment programs helped fill the void

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. In 2000, the USG provided 18 counternarcotics and law enforcement training courses to over 250 Kazakhstani law enforcement officials, prosecutors and judicial officials. In addition, a regional FBI Legal Attache Office was opened in Kazakhstan and a resident legal advisor was assigned to Almaty.

The Road Ahead. The USG will continue to support and cooperate with UNODCCP to encourage full implementation of the GOK's plan for the control of illicit drugs and organized crime and encourage increased support from the European Union and individual European countries. Pending signing of a bilateral assistance agreement, the USG will continue to provide training and other assistance for law enforcement officials, including judicial and prosecutorial officials.


I. Summary

Kyrgyzstan is not a major producer of illicit narcotics, although it is an important transit avenue for drugs from Afghanistan to Russia and Western Europe. The technology and ability to produce opium, as was done during the Soviet era in Kyrgyzstan, remains in place but is not used. A potent strain of marijuana grows wild in Kyrgyzstan. The Government of Kyrgyzstan expresses a willingness to combat illegal drugs transiting Kyrgyzstan but its law enforcement entities have not made any significant seizures or arrests in the last year. Drug abuse is rising among all ethnic groups within Kyrgyzstan. In 1994, Kyrgyzstan became a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Tajikistan's internal chaos has helped make Kyrgyzstan an attractive onward route for illegal narcotics because of their shared unprotected border. The southern provincial city of Osh continues to be a hub for the passing of illegal narcotics through Kyrgyzstan.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Kyrgyzstan is making efforts to increase control over its borders with Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Law enforcement agencies continue to make narcotics trafficking a priority, with a major focus on border control. The primary goal of border control for Kyrgyzstan is to prevent future incursions by the insurgents from Tajikistan from destabilizing southern Kyrgyzstan.

Law Enforcement Efforts. In the first ten months of 2000, seizures of heroin, opium, hashish, marijuana, and opium straw totaled 1,517,756 kilograms, as reported by the Kyrgyz State Drug Control Commission, as compared to a 1999 total of 1,895,211 kilograms of heroin, opium, and cannabis. Antidrug units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) continue to be undermanned and underfunded. The arrests made by the police are always couriers, but never suppliers.

Corruption. Corruption is a widely acknowledged problem in Kyrgyzstan and there is no reason to believe that those agencies involved in counternarcotics enforcement or other government officials are immune to it.

Agreements and Treaties. Kyrgyzstan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It is also a party to the Central Asian Counternarcotics Protocol with the UN. Kyrgyzstan has extant extradition statutes; however, there is no known instance of extradition relating to drug charges. Kyrgyzstan and the U.S. do not have a bilateral extradition or mutual legal assistance treaty. Kyrgyzstan signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols in December 2000.

Cultivation and Production. There are indications that opium poppies continue to grow wild and are cultivated in insignificant amounts for illicit purposes. Government officials estimate that as much as 40,000 hectares of land might be under cannabis cultivation. This cannabis is either consumed locally or exported to neighboring countries and does not significantly affect the U.S. Nevertheless, Kyrgyzstan remains a country of concern to the USG.

Drug Flow/Transit. Because of its border with Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan has become an important transit route for opium and heroin from Afghanistan to Russian and Western European markets.

Demand Reduction. In the first half of the year, the Kyrgyz State Drug Control Commission produced a series of infomercials about drug addiction and aired them on the local television stations. This was a coordinated effort with the MVD. Drug use has increased, but there are no official estimates of drug use. There are also no hospitals that offer drug treatment.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Kyrgyzstan received U.S. training assistance in counternarcotics and law enforcement. It has also cooperated with UNDCP, especially in the area of improving the Customs Service ability to detect illegal narcotics shipments. The U.S. and other countries are contributing materiel and training to the Government of Kyrgyzstan for border control. While the Kyrgyz authorities expressed a desire to work with U.S. law enforcement agencies in an operational basis on the drug problem, this past year saw no involvement by American law enforcement agencies working with their counterparts in Kyrgyzstan aside from participating in training.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to support counternarcotics and law enforcement training and equipment through a bilateral agreement. Regional efforts are a major part of cooperation and will continue to be supported by U.S. contributions to UNODCCP projects that include Kyrgyzstan.


I. Summary

The abuse and trafficking of illegal drugs continues to rise in Latvia. Of particular concern is the increasingly widespread availability of heroin. In cooperation with NGO's and the international community, Latvia is working on a demand reduction program specifically aimed at young people. The UNDCP maintains its regional office in Riga and chairs the regular meetings of the Mini-Dublin Group. The U.S. and the EU, provide many assistance and training programs to the Government of Latvia (GOL) to address law enforcement and narcotics problems. Latvia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Drug abuse continues to increase in Latvia. First time registration for drug addicts increased from 410 for all of 1999 to 487 for the first ten months of 2000. Of these, 90 percent were registered as being addicted to opiates. In the first nine months of 2000 there were 422 criminal cases involving either possession or trafficking in drugs as compared to 337 for the same period in 1999. There has also been a significant increase in the number of drug addicts contracting HIV through intravenous drug use.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. In October, the Latvian City Union adopted a resolution to be submitted to the government asking for changes in legislation regarding preventive measures that should be taken on the part of city councils in fighting the production, sale and distribution of drugs and psychotropic substances.

Accomplishments. As a first step toward combating the increasing problem of drug abuse in Latvia, the Riga Narcotics Prevention Center has produced the first in-depth study of drug availability in Latvia. The Center has also established Latvia's first 24-hour drug crisis hotline, as well as a web site, where people with drug problems can receive confidential advice and counseling.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Law enforcement authorities are currently more concerned about cross-border drug trafficking than local production. At the highest levels of government Latvian law enforcement agencies attempt to cooperate, but this working relationship weakens in the field. Much of the problem stems from limitations in the organizational structure and lack of financial, material and human resources. Less than five percent of the country's 1,700 customs officials deal with border crossing. And, despite their size and close proximity, law enforcement cooperation between the Baltic States is weak, often depending on personal relationships.

Cultivation and Production. Drug production is not a significant problem in Latvia. To date, there is no evidence of either amphetamines or ecstasy production in Latvia. The minor cultivation of opium poppies on small private plots is fairly common. As a rule, however, the poppies are grown as an herb, rather than for their narcotic qualities. In July, however, 40 tons of poppies were seized and a criminal case initiated. Also, in October, two men were arrested for selling 50 kilograms of poppy seed straws. In general, however, low prices and general availability make it unprofitable to either grow or produce drugs in Latvia.

Drug Flow and Transit. There is growing evidence that drugs, primarily opiates, are moving from Afghanistan to the Balkans, up through Poland and from there, through the Baltics and on to Scandinavia. Most drug smuggling involves organized crime elements that are already involved in cigarette and alcohol smuggling into and through Latvia and other Baltic States. Evidence in the form of minor seizures seems to indicate that the flow of drugs to Scandinavia through Latvia remains small.

Within Latvia, drugs appear to be distributed through local networks. According to both law enforcement and press reporting, much of the Riga drug scene centers on a few popular nightclubs and, allegedly, a few open-air drug markets. Precise information on these drug markets is sketchy at best. That said, small-scale dealers are able to operate relatively freely due to apparent weaknesses in the law regarding small amounts of drugs. Typically, small-time dealers are kept in detention for very short periods following arrest, and continue their activities upon release.

Demand Reduction. Teenagers have been identified as the main target for drug demand reduction efforts. Illegal drugs, particularly heroin, tend to be relatively inexpensive. According to law enforcement sources, the average price of a single dose of heroin is 2 Lats (approximately U.S. $3.20), or less than the price of a Big Mac at the local Macdonald's. With the average addict requiring six doses per day, a heroin habit is currently within the reach of Riga's affluent youth. As a part of this program, the government has organized a number of training programs for drug prevention and treatment professionals, and drug awareness campaigns have been carried out in the schools. Latvia has worked with EU PHARE to provide a series of seminars designed to raise the awareness of government officials, producers and distributors on precursor chemical control issues.

Agreements and Treaties. A 1923 extradition treaty supplemented in 1934 remains in effect between Latvia and the United States. Latvia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Latvia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Multi-Lateral Cooperation. Over the last year the U.S.G. has funded a variety of training programs designed for police, customs, and judicial authorities. The EU has also provided aid programs aimed to strengthen local law enforcement's ability to collect and analyze credible information on supply and demand.


I. Summary

Lithuania has become a part of the major transit route for heroin from Asia to Western Europe. Production of synthetic narcotics in Lithuania advanced substantially, some of which are exported. Heroine has become the drug of choice in Lithuania, becoming more widespread and twice as cheap to purchase then in the previous year. Narcotics sales continue to increase nearby and inside secondary schools, a response to the growing demand Lithuanian urban youth. Law Enforcement has reported an increase in the number of narcotics trafficking cases.

II. Status of Country

In the past year, the demand for synthetic narcotics and precursor chemicals in Lithuania has increased, just as sophisticated laboratories for amphetamine production appeared. Investigation and arrest statistics show that heroin has become the drug of choice, and that its price decreased from U.S. $8-10 to five U.S. dollars per dose. Young people are getting involved in narcotics use and trade at an earlier age. The narcotics supply and distribution network is sophisticated. The use of narcotics is concentrated in a few big cities. The number of narcotics-related crimes committed by groups and drug users is increasing, as is the number of repeated crimes.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs In 2000

Policy Initiative. Due to the substantial increase in narcotics use, the GOL ordered an evaluation and stepping up of the drug prevention program for 1999-2003. This new program is directed toward improving overall counternarcotics policy, increasing the control of narcotics contraband and trade, increasing the control of precursors and psychotropic substance use, increasing preventive education and cure of narcotic addicts, and strengthening rehabilitation and social integration of narcotic addicts. Critics feel the program focused too much on health care rather than on prevention of narcotics use, and it is not comprehensive. As a positive development, experts note rapidly rising public awareness of the hazards caused by narcotics. Government agencies and NGOs initiated a series of public awareness campaigns throughout 2000.

Accomplishments. In June 2000, amendments to the criminal code were passed to increase the penalty for production of prohibited narcotics (amphetamines, ecstasy) with the aim to distribute them. In July 2000, recommendations were drawn up for determining differences between small and large amounts of narcotics discovered. The Interior Ministry is preparing amendments to the code, which would allow for increasing the penalties for distribution of narcotics among the young persons. The Interior Ministry is also working on coordinating of counter narcotics activities, and drafting instructions for the destruction of seized narcotics.

Law Enforcement Efforts. During the first ten months of 2000 law enforcement reported a 37.6 percent increase in narcotics-related crimes, the majority of which were related to the purchase and possession of narcotics for individual use and trade in narcotics. Although Lithuanian law enforcement agencies are aware that Lithuania is being used for narcotics transit, there were only four cases of narcotics smuggling registered in 1999 and six cases in 2000. Local experts believe that all elements necessary for effective counternarcotics activities are present in Lithuania, however, some agencies are weaker than others are and the whole system is poorly funded. Police note that they lack personnel and special equipment to fight narcotics-related crimes more effectively.

Despite being understaffed, in need of practical training and experience and operating on very limited funding, Lithuanian law enforcement made substantial efforts to fight narcotics crimes in 2000. The Custom's Department responded to the increase in narcotics trafficking by creating a counternarcotics division. Lithuanian law enforcement carried out several successful joint narcotics seizure operations with law enforcement agencies of Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Latvia, the Russian Kaliningrad enclave, and Sweden. Also, law enforcement successfully shut down four laboratories responsible for the production of amphetamines and ecstasy, confiscating 16 kilograms of amphetamines and precursors and detaining more than ten persons. The laboratories were well equipped, efficient, and produced drugs for export.

Corruption. The U.S. is unaware of any official narcotics-related corruption in Lithuania.

Cultivation and Production. Until 1998, most popular narcotics were cheap "local" narcotic substances, such as intravenous opium extract produced from locally grown poppies or "Ephedrone" (or Pervitine) made from medications containing ephedrine. With a rise in the standard of living, new types of drugs, primarily synthetic, appeared on the market. In 1999, the use of heroin doubled, and it further increased in 2000.

Drug Flow and Transit. In 2000, narcotics transit routes through Lithuania have changed. The export of poppy straw from Lithuania to the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad and Latvia is decreasing. Marijuana and hashish now arrives in Lithuania from the east and from the west, by land and by sea. Heroin arrives in Lithuania via Russia from Afghanistan. Cocaine is being transported to Lithuania from central and South America via Germany and the Netherlands. Most amphetamines arrive in Lithuania from Poland and the Netherlands, but they are increasingly being produced locally as well. The police claim to have reliable information that Lithuanian-produced pills are exported to Russia and Sweden, and perhaps some other countries.

In an effort to expand the market, narcotics traders increased their activities nearby and inside secondary schools. The use of marijuana, ecstasy, LSD, and amphetamines unfortunately is considered an integral part of the alternative youth sub- culture, gradually leading to the use of stronger narcotics. Increasing proportions of young people try heroin first. The number of those who try drugs among 15-16 year-old pupils is growing rapidly. As a result, Lithuania is catching up to western countries fast in overall drug use, production and distribution.

Demand Reduction. In 1997 Lithuania passed a law on narcological supervision which provides narcotic addicts with the right to confidential health care and social services. Anonymous consultation and needle/syringe replacement offices were started in 1997 and presently operate in all major cities. These efforts have resulted in somewhat better contact with drug users on the social fringes, and in the slower spread of HIV infection in Lithuania. The methadone treatment programs have been started in major cities since 1995. Approximately 35 percent of the officially registered drug-dependent individuals had access to treatment and rehabilitation. Law enforcement has contributed to the effort by staging annual operations to educate the population.

There are more than 3,000 officially registered narcotic addicts in Lithuania. However, according to police estimates, over 30,000 out of 3.7 million of Lithuania's inhabitants consume narcotics, and about half of them live in the capital Vilnius. Over 90 percent of drug dependency cases in Lithuania are intravenous drug users. According to the Lithuanian AIDS center, from 1997 to September 2000, the number of HIV cases among intravenous drug users grew from one to 154 (this accounted for 60 percent of all HIV cases). According to the most recent data available from the Vilnius public health center, 44 percent of Hepatitis C infected patients in Vilnius admitted being intravenous drug users.

Treaties and Agreements. Lithuania is a party to the 1961 U.S. Single Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Drug Convention. A 1924 extradition treaty supplemented in 1934 is in force between the U.S. and Lithuania. A bilateral mutual legal assistance treaty entered into force in 1999. Lithuania signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. will continue to support GOL in a variety of programs focused on strengthening law enforcement bodies and drug control programs in an effort to improve border security and anti-smuggling efforts. The U.S. has offered training to Lithuania law enforcement agencies in illegal narcotics-related areas, such as land and maritime border control, anti-money laundering and combating organized crime.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to assist Lithuania in meeting its obligations associated with ratification of the 1988 UN Convention, and to support Lithuania's inclusion in programs aimed at the Baltic region. Already an advanced drug enforcement school training program, a narcotics interdiction course, assistance to combat money laundering, and clandestine laboratory investigation training are planned for 2001.


I. Summary

The Government of Luxembourg (GOL) is committed to deterring the flow of drugs into the country and within its borders. Illicit drug production does not pose significant problems for the country, although reports document an increase since 1996 in the amount of drugs entering into the Grand Duchy. GOL authorities believe there are relatively few hard drug users in Luxembourg for now, but remain concerned about the potential for increased drug use, particularly among adolescents. Luxembourg is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Luxembourg, based on an official study from 1995, has continued to estimate that 0.5 percent of Luxembourg's population (roughly 2,300 people) are hard drugs users. The GOL's 2000 report on narcotics, a collaboration between the Ministries of Health and Justice, found that the number of drug users has increased since 1997 based on data from governmental and non-governmental organizations assisting addicts. In addition, the 1995 statistic does not track with the European Commission's estimate that seven per 1,000 inhabitants in Luxembourg use drugs, giving the Grand Duchy the highest number, per capita, of drug users within the European Union.

The GOL reports that the open borders with neighboring countries are responsible for the increased flow of drugs into Luxembourg and have made it more difficult to stem the tide. Some 90 percent of illicit drugs consumed in Luxembourg are brought into the country from other European countries, such as the Netherlands. The Grand Ducal police force has a narcotics division that consists of 11 officers.

Luxembourg is a major world financial center, hosting more than 200 international financial institutions that benefit from strict bank secrecy laws and operate an unrestricted range of services and activities. Nonetheless, Luxembourg plays an active role in the EU against money laundering.

III. Country Action Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Based on the GOL's 1999 declaration that defines drug addiction as a medical and social risk, the GOL increased the Ministry of Health's 2000 budget for fighting drug use from 46 million LUF to 86 million LUF and projects to raise the 2001 budget to 127 million LUF. The GOL in 2000 also appointed a national drug coordinator in compliance with a European Union directive. The Ministries of Health and Youth are preparing for a multimedia information and prevention campaign against drugs to begin in early 2001. The Grand Ducal Police decided to add one more office to its narcotics division starting in 2001.

Agreements and Treaties. Luxembourg is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and cooperates closely with the USG in the fight against drugs and money laundering. The GOL ratified in 2000 a bilateral Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the United States which provides an enhanced framework for taking action against drug traffickers operating in the Grand Duchy. Luxembourg frequently collaborates with the World Health Organization, Europol, other Benelux governments, and EURO-AST, a German, French and Luxembourgish association to help drug addicts. In 2000, Luxembourg signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols.

The Road Ahead. The GOL favors treatment of drug use in lieu of punishment. This philosophy, and the fact that neighboring countries, including the Netherlands and Belgium, are increasingly decriminalizing drug use, render likely the possibility that Luxembourg could, one day, follow suit and relax some of its antidrug vigilance.

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of

I. Summary

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is not a major producer or transit point for illicit drugs; however, it remains a country of concern to the United States. Illicit drug trafficking and/or interdiction increased dramatically during 2000. Compared to last year, the number of criminal offenses increased by 45.5 percent while the number of individuals involved increased by 34.5 percent. Loosened border restrictions and inadequate frontier regimes in Kosovo and Albania permit traffickers to move drugs more easily across those borders. The flow of drugs being smuggled into Western Europe through Macedonia increased with the continued use of the shorter and more direct east-west link and the reestablishment of the traditional Balkan "Drug Road" (Sofia-Dimitrovgrad-Belgrade-Western Europe). The increased flow of drugs through Macedonia has also contributed to domestic consumption and local drug trafficking. Macedonia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Macedonia is a transshipment point for drug trafficking between Turkey and Western Europe and recently one between Albania and Kosovo and Western Europe. Marijuana from Albania is smuggled into FYROM. In 2000, illicit narcotics trafficking increased along all links through Bulgaria, Albania and Kosovo. Increased movement of drugs to and from Kosovo indicates that Kosovo has increased importance both as a market and a production area. The main reasons cited for the sharp rise in narcotics trafficking include a lack of resources available to interdict illegal drugs, better organized criminal elements operating in Macedonia from Albania and Kosovo, and more-open border crossings.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The Ministry of Interior undertook an active counternarcotics program in 2000. The process of establishing an effective counternarcotics unit continues. Presently, there is an operational counternarcotics unit at the national and local levels, where the firearms and the drug enforcement units work jointly. The Ministry of Interior is actively involved in the Interpol/Pro-Balkan program and the SECI Regional Crime Center in Bucharest.

Accomplishments. The Government of Macedonia developed legislation to permit interception of telephonic communication. The law is awaiting parliamentary approval and required adjustments to the constitution. Currently, it is illegal for Macedonian law enforcement agencies to use communication interception. Police and customs authorities may only seize vehicles involved in drug trafficking.

Law Enforcement Efforts. In 1999, the Ministry of Interior opened nearly 300 illicit cultivation and production related cases. The activities of the Ministry of Interior resulted in the following seizures in 2000: one ton and 323 kilograms of marijuana, 90.37 kilograms of heroin, 427 kilograms of hashish, 27 kilograms of opium, 4.689 kilograms of cocaine, ten liters of acetic anhydride, and 280 "Ecstasy" pills. Twice the amount of drugs was seized in 2000 compared to 1999. The growth of illegal trade in drugs has been accompanied by a coincident increase in number of drug addicts. Approximately 4,000 addicts have been registered, as required by Macedonian law. So far this year, there are 500 newly registered addicts, which reflects an increase of 15.6 percent compared to last year. Drug overdoses claimed the lives of 11 individuals in 2000. In the same period, authorities brought 43 cases of narcotics trafficking against 50 individuals locally, and seized small amounts of associated drugs.

Based on information relating to quantities seized, the number of individuals arrested, the number of groups identified involved with illicit production and/or trafficking in drugs, as well as the number of individuals abusing drugs indicates that negative trends are accelerating and that illegal trade in narcotics and related crime is on the increase in Macedonia. In addition, efforts at interdiction are improving, leading to larger numbers of police actions.

The Ministry of Interior undertook a number of operations and technical measures to enforce and discover the illegal trade in drugs and precursor chemicals. As a result, 300 criminal offenses of "illegal production and trafficking in narcotic drugs, psycho-active substances and precursors" have been filed, involving 477 perpetrators.

Agreements and Treaties. Macedonia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Extradition between Macedonia and the United States is governed by a 1902 extradition treaty between the U.S. and Yugoslavia, which applies to Macedonia as a successor state. Macedonia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

Illicit Cultivation/Production. Macedonia is not a major cultivator or producer of illicit narcotics. There is legal opium poppy cultivation that is strictly controlled. Production is by individual farmer-contractors or larger state-controlled agricultural combines. Alkaloid, the only factory in Macedonia that processes opium poppy, provides registered contractors with poppy seeds and buys out the poppies and poppy straw. There have been no reports of diversion. Production is reported to the Macedonian Ministry of Health and through the Ministry of Interior to the INCB (International Narcotics Control Bureau) in Vienna. There are no reports of local illicit production or refining of heroin. Some recent cases under investigation have given rise to suspicion that there is an illegal packing facility in Macedonia , but no arrests have been made. There is some unknown quantity of illicit cultivation of cannabis, mainly for personal consumption. The government has an active program against illicit drug-related cultivation.

Demand Reduction. Of the total of 3,432 registered drug addicts in 1999, 2,978 were men and 454 were women. Public awareness programs are scarce and supported primarily by international non-governmental organizations. There have been some efforts by NGO's to begin prevention programs, but these are also limited and ineffective. Limited treatment of addicts is financed by the state. Addicts are given methadone on the basis of a certificate confirming that they are receiving treatment in state-owned institutions.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. A non-resident DEA Country Attach� has been accredited in Macedonia since 1997. The U.S. encourages antidrug support from those nations, primarily in Western Europe, most directly affected by the drugs associated with this region. In 2000, the U.S. provided a precursor chemical training seminar for drug enforcement officers. The improving political situation in the region has resulted in improved cooperation between the Macedonian police and foreign police services of the countries with which Macedonia has bilateral cooperation agreements. Limited, yet important and successful, cooperation has been coordinated by the DEA office in Athens within neighboring countries. Improved cooperation with Greece, in particular, has resulted in a growing number of successful cases.

The Road Ahead. The increasing trend of illegal drug trade in the region is expected to rise, along with increasing activity of organized crime groups. Based on this projection, the Ministry of Interior will continue to emphasize all aspects of enforcement. The U.S. will continue encouraging Macedonia to expand its drug control activities, enact antidrug legislation, and to improve its counternarcotics enforcement capabilities. In 2001, the U.S. will also provide training programs and some equipment to Macedonia.


I. Summary

Malta is not a producer of illicit drugs nor is it a major transit route. However, it has the fourth largest ship registry in the world and large freeport container operations that may be used for transfer of shipments by narcotics traffickers. Drug abuse among Malta's youth is primarily of heroin and ecstasy. Law enforcement agencies have full government and popular support for their continuing efforts to combat drug related crime. Malta is a party to the 1988 UN Convention on Drugs.

II. Status of Country

Malta is not a major narcotics producer or trafficker. However, the Government of Malta (GOM) is concerned over individual use, which is on a steady increase, and over limited-scale (but increasing) local drug trafficking. The drug problem in Malta tends to involve the sale and use of consumer quantities of illegal drugs. The police and the armed forces routinely attempt to interrupt these activities. Maltese authorities also attempt to prevent the movement of drugs through the airport and the sea terminal. Although monitoring the movement of drugs through the freeport has proved difficult because of the high volume of containers moving through, the authorities have shown they can act decisively when notified by foreign law enforcement authorities of transshipment attempts.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The GOM continues to place great importance on aggressively combating drugs and drug-related problems and has actively pursued illegal drug operations.

Accomplishments. Over the past two years, the GOM appointed an assistant police commissioner for drug-related matters and created a force exclusively dedicated to the fight against drugs, the National Drug Intelligence Unit (NDIU). In August 2000, the GOM authorized and supported a USG/multinational request to board and exercise jurisdiction over the M/V "Suerte I," a Greek-owned Maltese-flagged vessel. The vessel was escorted to Houston, Texas, where it was seized for alleged drug smuggling. As a result of this incident the GOM requested a bilateral maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement, which is under negotiation.

Law Enforcement Efforts. For the first 11 months of 2000, the Maltese police conducted 623 raids/searches, resulting in the seizure of 5,165 ecstasy pills, 28 kilograms of cocaine and 5.6 kilograms of heroin. The quantity of ecstasy seized during this period was 10 times the amount for 1999 and the quantity of heroin was three times the amount for 1999. The efforts of the new assistant commissioner for narcotics and the NDIU have resolved some coordination problems that existed between the various agencies combating drug trafficking and drug abuse (the police, the NDIU, customs, the military and SEDQA (a national organization dedicated to drug and alcohol rehabilitation).

Corruption. Malta has appropriate laws governing official corruption. There is no evidence of any problems related to or associated with corruption of public officials due to illegal drug activities.

Agreements and Treaties. There is no extradition treaty between the U.S. and Malta, who continue to use an extradition agreement between the United Kingdom (Malta's former colonial power) and the USG, signed in 1934 and applicable to Malta as of 1935. At its request, the GOM is negotiating with the USG on a new bilateral extradition treaty, a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT), and a bilateral Maritime Counternarcotics Cooperation Agreement. Negotiations on a bilateral Customs Assistance Agreement were completed and the Agreement is scheduled to be signed in March 2001. Malta is a party to the 1988 UN Convention on Drugs and has ratified the Council of Europe convention on money laundering.

Cultivation/Production. There is no known cultivation or production of narcotics in Malta.

Drug Flow/Transit. Malta's drug problems involve the importation and distribution of consumer-sized quantities of illegal drugs. At present, there is no indication that Malta is a major trafficking location. However, drug movements through the Malta freeport are impossible to quantify and probably occur.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. SEDQA, a government-funded agency, deals with all aspects of drug and alcohol abuse. The agency runs awareness and drug education programs in the school system and also organizes programs for parents at the agency's headquarters. SEDQA also develops and runs local TV commercials on drug awareness and education issues. CARITAS, a Catholic Church affiliate, is also very active in drug education/awareness programs in Malta. A nation-wide European values study in 1999 indicated that 81 percent of the Maltese population consider drug abuse to be a serious problem, compared with 43 percent in 1984.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. Although there are no USG policy initiatives specifically involving Malta, except for previously- mentioned proposed extradition and cooperative treaties, the USG continues to pursue its overall policy of close cooperation among law enforcement officials on drug related issues and to provide training where possible.

Road Ahead. The USG will continue to work with law enforcement entities and encourage the excellent cooperation of the Maltese authorities whenever necessary to work on illegal drug issues of mutual interest and concern.


I. Summary

Moldova initiated a Service to Fight Against Illegal Traffic in Drugs at the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 1999. While this office is small and equipment is limited, they have made inroads during the year 2000 in the fight against narcotics. The Service has endeavored to serve as a training and information resource center for regional police operations against narcotics. The amount of illegal narcotics reported as seized by law enforcement officers during the year 2000 has risen. Low per capita income continues to make Moldova a relatively unattractive market for narcotics. Nevertheless, drug use and the number of individuals addicted to drugs are reported to be on the increase in Moldova. The country is not a significant narcotics producer. In the year 2000, the United States has provided courses of instruction aimed at improving law enforcement techniques in the area of drug enforcement. The United States has also supported visits of experts who consult with state institutions on the prevention of money laundering, border control and the fight against organized crime and corruption. Moldova is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

The geographic position of Moldova produces a climate that is favorable for opium poppy and hemp cultivation, particularly in the northern region. Cultivation is not reported as extensive and usage is currently reported to be confined to local consumption and consumption in directly neighboring countries. Importation of synthetic drugs (i.e., ecstasy and heroin) is reported to be on the increase, as is the importation of cocaine, but cost factors confine these drugs to a limited audience. Moldovan traffickers are closely connected with those in Ukraine and Romania. Despite limited law enforcement resources, seizures of drugs are on the increase. This might also be interpreted as an indication that transshipment of drugs through Moldova is also on the increase.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Moldova continues to endeavor, despite resource constraints, to meet its obligations under the 1988 UN Drug Convention and other international agreements to which it is a party. In 1999, the Service to Fight Against Illegal Traffic in Drugs became independent of the general criminal investigative division under the Ministry of Internal Affairs General Directorate. The Service is currently comprised of six permanently assigned investigators and one administrator. This change has allowed the Service to focus exclusively on antinarcotics activity. The Service maintains contact with each police district on antinarcotics matters and serves as a central training and information center.

Accomplishments. The Service and local police are hampered by lack of local government funds for support equipment. Despite these limitations, it was reported that the number of drug confiscations is on the rise. Moldovan law enforcement officials are anticipating the approval and promulgation of a new criminal code, which will increase penalties for drug use and update the number of illegal substances. This code is currently in the legislative process. A new statute in this area is also currently in the legislative process.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Approximately, 1732 narcotics related criminal cases were processed by law enforcement officers in the first ten months of 2000, a 1.4 percent increase over the number of cases processed in the same ten months of 1999. Law enforcement officers seized over 1,000 kilos of narcotics in the year 2000 to date, including 870 kilograms of poppy straw, 13 kilograms of opium, 95 kilograms of liquid opium, and 70 kilograms of hashish/marijuana.

Corruption. Although there is no specific law dealing with narcotic-related corruption, Moldova has a Department to Combat Organized Crime and Corruption, which addresses cases related to narcotics-related public corruption. Circumstantial corruption will continue until the government can ensure that workers we receive adequate salaries.

Agreements and Treaties. Moldova is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. There is no bilateral extradition or law enforcement treaty in force between Moldova and the U.S.

Drug Flow and Transit. Periodic seizures indicate that Moldova is used as a transit route for refined narcotics moving from central Asia to central and Western Europe and for precursor chemicals moving in the opposite direction. However, the seizures are too sporadic to indicate trends in this regard.

Demand Reduction. In the area of treatment for addicted individuals, Moldova has approximately 5,000 registered addicts. Significant treatment is unavailable, due to resource limitations. Police estimate 80,000 Moldovans abuse drugs, between one and two percent of the population. Funding for antidrug information campaigns and education is also limited, although NGOs do some work in this area.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The United States sponsors several important programs that aid in the battle to control illegal narcotics. There is an on-going series of antinarcotics and anti-organized crime and corruption courses presented by various U.S. agencies to law enforcement in Moldova. Forensic and police surveillance equipment has been provided. Computer training centers have been established to give Moldovan law enforcement officers the opportunity to learn how to use advanced technology in the war on drugs. The U.S. has provided training and consultation on regulations for the financial sector. In addition, considerable support from various U.S. government law enforcement agencies for border control projects has been and continues to be implemented. The response of Moldovan law enforcement and high-ranking officials to these efforts has been extremely positive.

The Road Ahead. The energy and determination of Moldovan law enforcement officials to fight against illegal narcotics will need to be supplemented by outside resources for the foreseeable future. Legislation must be also passed to support the efforts of law enforcement personnel in this field.


I. Summary

Despite active Dutch government policy to counter narcotics trafficking, The Netherlands remains an important transit point for drugs entering Europe, an important producer and exporter of amphetamines and synthetic drugs, and an important consumer of most illicit drugs. The U.S. DEA estimates that large amounts of ecstasy tablets seized in the U.S. in 2000 came from or through The Netherlands. The U.S. notes the increasing quantities of ecstasy that enter the U.S. from The Netherlands and will continue to monitor this problem closely. The Dutch are active in efforts to stem international drug trafficking and have worked cooperatively with the USG both bilaterally and in international fora. Domestically, however, Dutch policymakers view drug abuse primarily as a public health issue. Dutch demand reduction programs reach about 75 percent of the country's estimated 25,000 to 28,000 hard drug users. The Dutch are major donors to the UNDCP, members of the Dublin Narcotics Assistance Coordinating Group, and chair its central European regional group. The Dutch are also active in the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and play a key role in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF). The Netherlands is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

The central geographical position of The Netherlands, with its modern transportation and communications infrastructure and the world's busiest seaport in Rotterdam, makes the country an attractive operational area for international drug traffickers. Amphetamine, ecstasy and other synthetic drugs are produced in notable amounts. Although marijuana is cultivated in The Netherlands, such cultivation does not have a significant effect on the U.S. An Amsterdam police report concluded that the city is the country's center for drug trafficking. As a center for the international chemical industry, The Netherlands is also an attractive location for criminals to obtain or produce precursor chemicals used to manufacture illicit drugs. The Netherlands, like many other industrialized countries, has been designated a major source of precursor chemicals which can be used in the production of illicit narcotics. For details, see the precursor chemicals section of this report.

The Dutch Opium Act punishes possession, commercial distribution, production, import, and export of all illicit drugs. However, the act distinguishes between "hard" drugs that have "unacceptable" risks (e.g. heroin, cocaine, Ecstasy), and "soft" drugs (cannabis products). Trafficking in the former is prosecuted vigorously. Sales of small amounts (under five grams) of the latter are "tolerated" (i.e., not prosecuted, even though technically illegal) in "coffeeshops" operating under regulated conditions (no minors on premises, no alcohol sales, no hard drug sales, no advertising, and no "public nuisance"). One of the aims of this controversial policy is to separate the markets for soft and hard drugs so that soft drug users are less likely to encounter hard drugs. Another goal - arguably less successful - has been to separate "revenue streams" so that hard drug dealers do not use soft drug dealing as a source of capital.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Overall, the Health Ministry coordinates drug policy, while the Ministry of Justice is responsible for law enforcement. Matters relating to local government and the police are the responsibility of the Ministry of Interior. At the municipal level, policy is coordinated in tripartite consultations between the mayor, the chief public prosecutor and the police. Other agencies with important roles in implementing drug policy include the 25 regional police forces and their Special Criminal Information Services; the National Police Services Force; the National Criminal Intelligence Division (CRI) of the National Police Services Force, which coordinates efforts to counter drug trafficking; and customs authorities and the Customs Information Center.

Policy Initiatives. Major Dutch government policy initiatives in 2000 included addressing soft drugs, especially cannabis. The number of current cannabis users is estimated at 323,000, or 2.5 percent of the Dutch population of 12 years and older. Reflecting Dutch concern about increasing cannabis use, Justice Minister Korthals in 1999 denied pleas by 20 Dutch mayors to allow experiments with controlled cultivation of and trade in Dutch-grown cannabis ("nederwiet"). Korthals said this would violate international treaties, lower the age threshold of young people who start using drugs, and encourage drug tourism. The mayors called for such measures in an attempt to terminate the paradoxical situation of "tolerating" front-door sales of soft drugs (coffeeshops are allowed to sell five grams of soft drugs per person and to keep a supply of 500 grams), while prosecuting back-door deliveries. Korthals confirmed in an April 2000 report issued by the Justice Ministry on "soft" drug policy that the Dutch government does not intend to change current policies. Limited sales and use of cannabis products continue to be "tolerated," but the supply of soft drugs to coffeeshops remains subject to prosecution.

As a result of intensified controls, the number of coffeeshops has dropped from 1,200 in 1995 to 846 in 1999. Research shows that only 105 (of 538) municipalities in The Netherlands have coffeeshops. Almost 75 percent of municipalities do not tolerate the shops.

Other conclusions in the Justice Ministry's soft drug policy report were that the current policy of reducing the number of coffeeshops may lead to more illegal points of sale, and banning foreign cannabis in coffeeshops may lead to more street trade. The report also concluded that local governments are facing drug-related problems of crime and public disturbances. The Justice Minister announced his intention to spend an extra U.S. $10 million to step up enforcement efforts and other efforts to fight illegal cannabis trade. Innovative public information and prevention campaigns are high priorities of this effort.

In July 2000, the Dutch government also decided not to honor a non-binding parliamentary resolution that would have legalized the production and supply of Dutch-grown cannabis to coffeeshops. Prime Minister Kok, sensitive to pressure from EU partners unhappy with The Netherlands' persistent role as a magnet for "drug tourism," said the government would ignore the resolution because of Dutch international treaty obligations.

Ecstasy. The amount of MDMA seized in 1999 quadrupled compared to 1998, whereas the quantity of amphetamine seized declined by a considerable margin. Statistics show that 36 percent of these seizures took place abroad. The Dutch Police Synthetics Drug Unit's (USD) 1999 annual report shows that 40 percent of the remaining 64 percent seized (ca. 25 percent of all ecstasy seized) in The Netherlands was destined for the U.S. During 1999, 9,678,259 ecstasy tablets seized internationally originated inside Dutch borders.

During FY 2000, at least 8.1 million tablets seized could be traced to production in The Netherlands. During October 2000, the Dutch seized a container of precursor chemicals that contained 8,250 liters of PMK (the main precursor for ecstasy), enough to produce 112 million ecstasy tablets. In October 2000, at a Dutch-sponsored international "Congress on Ecstasy," Justice Minister Korthals announced efforts to step up the fight against trafficking in and production of ecstasy. Specifically, Korthals suggested a registration system for pill-making machines and intensifying international cooperation in the fight against synthetic drugs.

Sentencing. Dutch criminal courts have drawn up national sentencing guidelines for a number of minor drug offenses, in order to achieve more consistency in sentencing. The drug offenses concern matters involving only one suspect. Small drug dealers, who have only been dealing for one month, may face three months in jail; additional jail sentences vary from six to 18 months, depending on how long this dealing has been going on. There also is a new streamlined national guideline for the sentencing of hemp growers. Penalties vary from U.S. $1,000 for 50-100 plants, six weeks' imprisonment for 100-500 plants, and 12 weeks' imprisonment for 500-1,000 plants.

Medical Marijuana. In 2001, The Netherlands will set up a special government Bureau for the Medical Use of Cannabis for AIDS, MS or cancer patients. The Bureau is to regulate cultivation, distribution and export of marijuana for scientific medical purposes. So far, The Netherlands has imported marijuana for medical research from federal bureaus in the UK and U.S.

Accomplishments. The Dutch Justice Minister announced in October 2000 that drug controls at Schiphol airport would be intensified. The number of military police at the airport will be expanded from 170 to 220, and the special Schiphol teams of police, Customs and public prosecutors will be strengthened to step up the fight against drug trafficking. During October 2000, two x-ray drug scanners became operational at Schiphol. In the first month of their operation, the scanners detected over 933 kilos of cocaine, almost as much as in all of 1999. Dutch customs officials estimate the total street value of the drugs found in October at U.S. $80 million. In 2000, the Dutch Police Special Synthetics Unit (USD), established in 1997 to coordinate the fight against designer drugs, was given permanent status.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Dutch police and prosecutors give high priority to combating drug trafficking. The Hague-based DEA officers have close contacts with their counterparts in The Netherlands. During FY 2000, DEA instructors held a "clandestine laboratory" course in Virginia to teach Dutch officers the methods used to investigate and dismantle clandestine laboratories. During FY 2000, the Schiphol airport police established an "outbound" team to watch suspected traffickers departing The Netherlands for other countries with contraband, with a main focus on the U.S.

The increasing internationalization of the synthetic drug problem has led to increases in U.S. (and other) requests for information from Dutch law enforcement. However, because precursor chemicals often have their origins outside of Dutch territory, and because numerous separate production sites are located throughout The Netherlands, it is often difficult for foreign authorities to find a police region with clear cut responsibility for handling a specific case.

Corruption. There were no reported cases in 2000 of corruption of public officials because of illegal drug activities. In May 2001, the Dutch Justice Ministry will host a ministerial-level multilateral "Global Forum II" anticorruption conference following up the first one convened by the U.S. Vice President in February 1999. The USG is co-sponsoring Global Forum II.

Agreements and Treaties. The Netherlands is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The U.S. and The Netherlands have agreements on extradition, mutual legal assistance, and asset sharing. The Netherlands is a member of the UN Commission on Narcotics Drugs and the Major Donors Group of the UNDCP, to which it contributes some $750,000 per year. It participates in the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and The Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF). The Netherlands is a leading member of the Dublin Group and chairs the central European regional Dublin Group. It is member of the daily management of the Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council (CCLEC). It is actively implementing the Schengen Agreement, the Benelux Agreement on Extradition, and the European Convention on Extradition and Mutual Assistance. The Dutch participate in the Council of Europe's Pompidou Group. In December 2000, the Netherlands signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols.

Dutch police, Justice and Customs officials maintain close contacts with their colleagues in Belgium, France, Germany and the UK. In 2000, The Netherlands signed a cooperation agreement with Italy to fight synthetic drug trafficking. The National Criminal Intelligence Division (CRI) has posted liaison officers in Thailand, Pakistan, Venezuela, Colombia, Interpol, The Netherlands Antilles, Turkey, Poland, Spain, Hungary and Russia. Finally, The Hague is headquarters of the EU's European Police Office (Europol).

Cultivation and Production. About 50 percent of The Netherlands' cannabis market is Dutch-grown marijuana ("nederwiet"). The Dutch government has given top priority to investigating and prosecuting large-scale commercial cultivation of nederwiet and doubled the criminal penalty to four years imprisonment and/or a fine of about U.S. $50,000. Legislation adopted in 1999 closed loopholes, thus completing the ban on all indoor cultivation of hemp. Possession of five or less nederwiet plants is not prosecuted. Dutch police authorities regularly dismantle nederwiet "plantations".

According to the Synthetic Drugs Unit's (USD) 1999 annual report, the total quantity of ecstasy tablets seized throughout the world, that can be directly or indirectly traced back to The Netherlands, has increased exponentially. The means for exportation include express mail, couriers, and sea containers. The USD reports that 36 production laboratory sites were dismantled during 1999, of which 25 were associated with MDMA (ecstasy) production, five with amphetamine production, and six with both ecstasy and amphetamine. During calendar year 2000, Dutch authorities dismantled at least 23 MDMA production laboratory sites. Since the establishment of the USD, ecstasy chemists have increasingly moved their activities and laboratories to northern Belgium, Poland and the Middle East.

Drug Flow/Transit. Approximately 50 percent of hashish seized in The Netherlands enters the country from Morocco through France and Belgium. About 80 percent of the heroin seized enters the country from Germany through the Balkan Route. In 1999, 4,208 kilos of drugs were seized at Schiphol airport, of which almost 2,600 were in the possession of couriers and the remainder was hidden in airfreight. Of the total 1999 drug seizures at the airport, 3,200 kilos consisted of cocaine, up from 2,849 kilos in 1998. Although the number of couriers arrested at Schiphol dropped from 818 (1998) to 618 (1999), the average drug weight per courier went up from 3.8 to 4.2 kilos. In 2000, the Dutch intensified border controls to combat the flow of drugs, including the effective implementation of scanners in the port of Rotterdam (installed in 1999), and the x-ray scanners that became operational at Schiphol airport in October 2000. The number of drug-sniffing dogs in Rotterdam port has been increased from 25 to 35.

Demand Reduction/Prevention. The Netherlands has a variety of demand-reduction and "harm-reduction" programs, reaching about 75 percent of the country's 25,000-28,000 hard drug users. The number of hard drug addicts has stabilized in the past few years, and the average age has risen to 38. Dutch authorities assert that the number of drug-related deaths in The Netherlands remains the lowest in Europe. HIV infection among addicts is relatively low. A national drug monitoring office to coordinate the large number of monitoring activities related to drugs became operational in 1999, and the first results are expected in 2001.

Additionally, the Justice Ministry will start experiments in ten Dutch cities with the enforced treatment of criminal drug addicts. Special prison departments will be set up where nearly 350 repeated drug offenders will be forced to undergo two-year treatment.

The Dutch Addiction Care Information Foundation (IVV) notes a significant increase in the number of cocaine addicts seeking treatment: 5,689 people in 1999, which is 23 percent more than in 1998. The IVV attributes the increasing trend in cocaine use to higher prosperity. The number of heroin and cannabis addicts seeking treatment has stabilized, whereas the number of ecstasy clients in 1999 dropped by 25 percent from 1998. The total number of cannabis users in The Netherlands is estimated at some 323,000, of a population of more than 15.5 million. Total costs of Dutch drug treatment programs are put at U.S. $100 million.

Drug prevention programs are organized through a network of local, regional and national institutions. Schools are targeted in efforts to discourage drug use, while national campaigns are conducted in the mass media to reach the broader public. The Netherlands requires school instruction on the dangers of alcohol and drugs as part of the health education curriculum. The Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (the Trimbos Institute) has developed projects in the field of alcohol and drugs in the context of teaching "healthy living" in classrooms.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. and The Netherlands cooperate closely on law enforcement activities throughout the Kingdom of The Netherlands. The USG is also working with the Kingdom to assist Aruba and The Netherlands Antilles in countering narcotics trafficking. In April 1999, the U.S. and The Netherlands concluded an interim, one-year agreement for the establishment of Forward Operating Locations (FOLs) on Aruba and Curacao. These are now operational. The ten-year FOL agreement still awaits approval by the Dutch Parliament.

Although operational cooperation between U.S. and Dutch law enforcement agencies is excellent, there is a growing concern over The Netherlands' role as the key source country for MDMA/ecstasy entering the U.S. The U.S. Embassy in The Hague recently proposed a three-pronged effort (political engagement, training and enhanced consultation at the working level, and public diplomacy) to improve bilateral law enforcement cooperation. Initial Dutch reaction has been positive.

The Road Ahead. U.S.-Dutch bilateral law enforcement cooperation will intensify with the above-mentioned proposed action plan. The USG will encourage improved methods for screening container traffic in the port of Rotterdam and Schiphol airport to further counternarcotics efforts. The U.S. will also encourage The Netherlands to place a police liaison in its embassy in Washington to deepen cooperation against international crime and drug trafficking. However, important differences in approaches toward "soft" drugs, as well as differing legal procedures and law enforcement structures could continue to complicate bilateral cooperation against drugs.


I. Summary

Drug production remains rare in Norway because of the country's (a) harsh climate, and (b) regulations governing domestic sales, exports, and imports of precursor chemicals and drugs. To combat money laundering and control chemical precursors Norway is armed with excellent legislation and top-flight enforcement efforts. In 2000, the number of drug seizures in Norway rose on a continuing trend, with cannabis seizures accounting for the bulk (38 percent) followed by benzodiazepines (16 percent), and amphetamines (13 percent). Seizures of heroin and ecstasy also increased. While narcotics production remains rare, the police have been increasing efforts to track and intercept drugs in transit (e.g., those arriving from central Europe and going to Nordic and other western markets). Norway is implementing various programs for curbing domestic drug abuse. Norway is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of the Country

While Norway has become more popular as a transit country for drugs produced in Central/Eastern Europe and Central/South America, the increase in narcotics seizures by the police and customs has helped dampen the problem. Norway has laws governing money laundering and sales, and exports and imports of precursor chemicals.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Norway continues to implement counternarcotics policy initiatives on several levels. While Norway has not developed an overall counternarcotics master plan, the Ministry of Justice continues implementing an Antidrug Action Plan to meet the objectives of the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The key goals of the plan are to: (a) curb the inward flow of illicit drugs; (b) limit illicit drug production; (c) reduce domestic drug consumption; and (d) coordinate with other ministries in the fight against illicit drug activities and related crimes, including money laundering. Norway continues to cooperate closely with police forces in Nordic and other countries on drug cases.

The Norwegian Customs and Excise Directorate continues implementing its own antidrug plan aimed at curbing drug imports and seizing illicit drug money and chemicals for narcotics production. The Norwegian Customs has established a mobile narcotics control unit (including sniffing dogs), and is coordinating its efforts with the police and the Coast Guard.

Norway's Ministry of Health and Social Affairs continues to implement educational and other programs to reduce drug abuse through the Norwegian directorate for the prevention of alcohol and drug problems. Moreover, Norway's Ministry of Defense implements programs to reduce narcotics use in the armed forces. On local government levels, antidrug campaigns were launched in 1999 and 2000.

Accomplishments. According to the police, Norway remains in full compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Convention as a result of (a) counternarcotics plans/initiatives progressing as scheduled; (b) antidrug legislation being strengthened; and (c) ongoing cooperation with the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP). As an indication of its broader antidrug policies, in November 2000 Norway also hosted meetings of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) Foundation Board and Executive Committee, the International Antidoping Arrangement (IADA), and the International Intergovernmental Consultative Group on Antidoping in Sports (IICGADS). Forty-one countries, including the United States, participated with representatives from independent athletic organizations and the International Olympics Committee (IOC) in an effort to address the challenges presented by doping in sports.

Law Enforcement Efforts. In 2000, the number of drug seizures rose to an estimated 26,200 cases, up from 21,835 the previous year (Final Statistics). According to the police, cannabis, and amphetamine seizures rose most strongly. Seizures of heroin and ecstasy also rose. Law enforcement efforts were increased, resulting in a record number of persons charged with narcotics crimes. Additionally, in an effort to discourage the use of narcotics substances the fines relating to narcotics offenses were increased. Oekokrim, the principal entity responsible for tracing and seizing assets, continues to establish systems for identifying, tracing, freezing, seizing and forfeiting narcotics-related assets. According to Norwegian laws, assets derived from criminal acts (narcotics trade and money laundering) are to be seized and confiscated by the Norwegian State. While the State destroys drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes, the State auctions items such as confiscated autos. Norway has not enacted laws for sharing narcotics assets with other countries. No major changes in current legislation are contemplated.

Corruption. Public corruption remains insignificant in Norway, and no drug-related corruption was recorded in 2000. Norway's corruption laws were broadened in 1998 to cover corruption overseas to facilitate the domestic prosecution of Norwegian nationals who bribe officials in foreign countries.

Agreements and Treaties. Norway is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. It has extradition treaties with many countries, including the United States. Norway's extradition law (of 1975) governs extradition of criminals to the U.S. and other countries. It has bilateral customs agreements with the U.S., the EU, Russia, countries in central and east Europe, and other trading partners. Norway remains a member of Interpol, the Dublin Group and the Pompidou Group. In December 2000, Norway signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols.

Cultivation/Production. Cultivation of drugs remains limited in Norway although small quantities of Norwegian-grown cannabis have been detected. Production of synthetic drugs is also rare due to effective laws governing domestic sales of precursor chemicals.

Drug Flow/Transit. According to the police, the inflow of illicit drugs increased in 2000 with cannabis, benzodiazepines and amphetamines in the lead. Most illicit drugs are entering Norway in vehicles from The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Poland, and Hungary. Some drugs have been seized in commercial vessels arriving from the European continent and Central/South America. Nationals from the Former Republic of Yugoslavia have become prominent in Norway's narcotics market.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. As noted above, government ministries and local authorities have initiated antidrug abuse programs. According to the police, the increasing number of drug-related deaths suggests that these programs need further strengthening to become effective. While the maximum penalty for a narcotics crime in Norway is 21 years imprisonment (also the maximum penalty for any crime, including murder), penalties for carrying small amounts of narcotics remain mild from a global perspective. The police believe that stiffer penalties and fines would probably help reduce drug demand, especially among youths.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Norwegian counternarcotics authorities cooperate frequently with their counterparts in the Nordic countries and the U.S. DEA officials consult with Norwegian counterparts regularly. The U.S. generally experiences excellent law enforcement cooperation with the Norwegians.

The Road Ahead. U.S. officials will continue to participate with Norway in a variety of counternarcotics-related meetings including antidoping in sports.


I. Summary

Poland continues to play an important role as both a transit route and producer of a variety of narcotics. As a gateway to the European Union and lucrative markets beyond, Poland finds itself in the path of drug traffickers and organized crime groups bringing narcotics from the Golden Triangle, Latin America, and elsewhere. Not yet a large market itself, Poland nonetheless feels the impact of the trade through growing local narcotics production, drug-related violence, money laundering, and other criminal activity. The current legal framework for combating drug use and trafficking is the National Program for Counteracting Narcotics, originally passed in 1997, and implemented in 1999. Poland is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Poland's law enforcement organizations have recently stepped up efforts to stem the production and flow of narcotics, in particular the growth in amphetamine manufacturing. Although these efforts have resulted in numerous raids and seizures over the last year, they have not yet had a significant impact on the local industry, which is estimated to satisfy nearly a quarter of European demand.

The transport of heroin through Poland and on to markets elsewhere in Europe continues to be dominated by Turkish, Pakistani, Indian and Nigerian nationals. Poles control drug production and distribution in Poland's domestic market. Polish nationals are also regularly recruited as couriers for drugs bound for Europe. Financial support comes from Germans, Austrians, and Scandinavians. While the bulk of the narcotic traffic is westbound, Poland is also a transit point for shipments to the Baltic nations mainly ecstasy smuggled to Estonia and opium poppy straw and amphetamine transported to Lithuania.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. On November 17, 2000, President Kwasniewski signed into law three significant amendments to the National Program for Counteracting Narcotics. The most controversial of those amendments criminalizes possession of narcotics. To date, possession of small amounts of narcotics for personal use has not been illegal. Under the new legislation, police are now authorized to arrest and prosecute those found possessing any quantity of illicit drugs. Whether or not the police have the necessary resources to enforce such legislation remains to be seen. To that end, the USG is working with the Polish Parliament to amend the police law to enable them to effectively handle their caseload.

The second amendment empowers court officials to order drug treatment and counseling. Currently, treatment is on a voluntary basis. The third significant amendment aims to penalize business owners who knowingly foster an atmosphere tolerant to drug sales and use on their properties.

Accomplishments. During the past year the Government of Poland's (GOP) Central Narcotics Bureau merged with the Organized Crime Bureau. The new office, the Central Bureau of Investigations, has a broadened authority, allowing it to pursue multi-faceted criminal investigations. Polish law enforcement authorities designed the new Bureau to eliminate duplicated effort, unnecessary expense, and avoidable delays. As a result, each of the Bureau's seventeen district offices answers to headquarters, not local political or law enforcement officials. Although very new, the Bureau has already succeeded in conducting several noteworthy investigations leading to drug seizures and arrests. One such investigation involved cooperation with Bulgarian, Slovak, and Czech counterparts, and resulted in at least 13 arrests and the seizure of 70 kilograms of heroin.

Law Enforcement Efforts. In addition to efforts being made to streamline investigations, the GOP has demonstrated a clear commitment to strengthening its border controls. Polish border and customs authorities acknowledge that its borders, particularly with Ukraine and Belarus, have not presented a meaningful barrier to criminals smuggling narcotics, human cargo, and miscellaneous contraband.

With considerable guidance and support from the European Union, the GOP has increased the size of its customs presence on these borders, staffing more than a dozen new control towers and deploying mobile surveillance teams. In addition, new detection technologies and methods are being employed at vehicle crossing points. One such technology is x-ray equipment, which was instrumental in the recent discovery of 100 kilograms of heroin in a truck's floor.

In recognition of the growth in amphetamine production in Poland law enforcement bodies are focusing more attention on locating and liquidating illegal laboratories. In 1999, police eliminated ten such laboratories, and between January and May 2000, eight more were raided.

On November 27, police underlined their assault on amphetamine producers by raiding a laboratory in Warsaw estimated to have produced 500 kilograms of amphetamines during the last year. The lab, associated with a prominent Polish organized crime group, reportedly employed more than a dozen people, several of whom were arrested at the scene.

Corruption. Data relating to corruption among law enforcement bodies is not available. Contacts within the Polish National Police acknowledge that instances of corruption are occasionally discovered, particularly among customs officers, and that prosecution for such activity is possible.

Agreements and Treaties. Poland is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The U.S. and Poland have an extradition and mutual legal assistance treaty. As part of its projected accession to the European Union, Poland is cooperating with its EU counterparts to bring its legal code into line with that of other Union members. In terms of narcotics enforcement, this process includes increasing the number of potential criminal narcotics charges, as well as drafting legal definitions of drug trafficking and addiction. Poland signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

Cultivation/Production. Small quantities of marijuana are produced in Poland for local use. Morphine base extracted from opium poppy straw, known locally as Kompot or Polish Heroin is a long-standing staple of Polish addicts. Most Kompot is produced at home by addicts themselves. European law enforcement officials estimate that Poland fulfills more than 25 percent of Europe's amphetamine demand. These high-quality amphetamines are also available locally, and are increasingly popular among Poland's estimated 60,000 drug addicts, as well as Poland's urban youth seeking recreational highs. Poland's law enforcement community acknowledges that they are not yet fully equipped to stem the production of amphetamines and other locally produced narcotics, much of which comes from mobile clandestine laboratories.

Drug Flow/Transit. Measuring the flow of illicit narcotics through Poland has proven a difficult task. There is evidence of southwest Asian heroin, cocaine from South America and cannabis products from Morocco and Nigeria. As police detection and interdiction methods improve, new means of transporting illegal materials are discovered, including vehicles transiting Poland. Over the last two years, police report that nearly all the heroin, cocaine, and LSD seized has been transiting Poland.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Kompot is the most common drug in Poland, used by approximately 75 percent of Polish addicts. Another 10 percent use inhalants; amphetamine abuse is growing very rapidly. The Ministry of Health estimates that there are 30,000-40,000 addicts and up to 400,000 casual users. Requests for medical or rehabilitative services have grown rapidly in the last three years, reaching more than 4,000 in 1999. According to rehabilitation authorities, this is the result of the growth in the number of drug abuses, as opposed to the result of expanded services. Education programs, meanwhile, have diminished due to a lack of money and trained instructors. As a national education strategy has yet to be finalized, government bodies and international organizations have pursued a variety of education methods, including school-based and mass media campaigns. The GOP is currently cooperating with UNDCP to devise a more systematic public education program.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Initiatives. U.S. goals in Poland include the development of an increasingly potent Polish law enforcement community, in part to stem the flow of drugs through Poland. The U.S. has also sought to help the GOP combat domestic production of illicit narcotics. The U.S. reinforced this effort by sponsoring a training program on clandestine laboratories, conducted by the DEA. The U.S. Resident Legal Advisor played an instrumental role in persuading essential legislators and policymakers to support the amendments to the National Program for Countering Narcotics. The FBI representative in the Embassy in Warsaw provided considerable input into the reorganization and creation of the Central Bureau of Investigations.

Bilateral Cooperation. Polish authorities continue to cooperate closely with the Embassy and U.S. law enforcement agencies through training programs, enforcement collaboration, and consultation on legal reforms. The U.S. continues to foster close working ties with Polish law enforcement agencies, with a particular focus on narcotics and organized crime. Over the last year, the U.S. Embassy in Warsaw played host to U.S.-funded programs targeting money laundering and other financial crimes, drug trafficking, clandestine narcotics laboratories, and corruption. The U.S. also continues to support Poland's International Police Training Center, last year coordinating the provision of communication equipment.

Road Ahead. The U.S. anticipates continuing strong ties with Poland's law enforcement communities, fostered through additional targeted training programs and continued expansion of working relationships between U.S. Embassy and law enforcement officials.


I. Summary

Portugal figures in the international drug situation largely as a gateway into Europe for drug smugglers. In domestic consumption, heroin leads, followed by hashish and cocaine. Drugs enter by air and sea and transit overland both to and from other European countries. The drugs tend to originate from North Africa and South America. U.S.-Portuguese cooperation on drugs includes visits by American officials and experts, training of law enforcement personnel, and assistance in establishing rehabilitation programs. Portugal participates actively in international counter narcotics efforts. It views drug addiction as a public health problem and administers methadone and needle-exchange programs. In 2001, a new law goes into effect that decriminalizes drug use in small quantities. Portugal is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Drug smugglers use Portugal as a point of entry for drug shipments headed into Europe from North Africa (notably Morocco), and from Latin American countries (particularly Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador). Portugal's open borders with other members of the Schengen Agreement simplify the work of drug smugglers, and linguistic and cultural ties with Brazil and Mozambique facilitate trafficking from those countries. Moroccan hashish and Afghan opium have entered Portugal through the Schengen countries. Cocaine and heroin enter Portugal by commercial aircraft, truck, and maritime vessel. The heroin, largely of Turkish origin, transits to Portugal through Holland and Spain and is consumed domestically or is shipped out of the country. Cocaine produced in Brazil and Colombia passes through Portugal to the rest of Europe. The U.S. has not been identified as a final destination.

Drug consumption is no longer a "big city" problem. Contrary to the general trend in Europe, heroin use in Portugal has not diminished in recent years. Estimates suggest that (of a population of ten million) Portugal has more than 60,000 heroin addicts, 5,000 cocaine addicts, and 100,000 hashish consumers. Ecstasy has become an even more popular drug among some urban youth.

Portugal now has the highest per capita HIV infection rate in Europe, with 88 cases for every 1,000 inhabitants. Intravenous drug use makes up 55 percent of all reported cases of HIV transmission in Portugal.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. President Jorge Sampaio signed new legislation that decriminalizes drug use for both "casual" consumers and addicts. The law takes effect on July 1, 2001. Under the new law, "consumption, acquisition, and possession of drugs for personal use" (maximum quantity allowed any one person not to exceed ten days' worth) becomes a simple administrative offense. The penalties for "non-addict" consumers may be either monetary fines or other penalties. For "addicts," only non-monetary penalties apply. The new legislation replaces two articles of an earlier law addressing the legal regime applicable to trafficking in and consumption of narcotic drugs, but does not revoke it.

Accomplishments. In December 1999, Portugal and the U.S. signed a case-specific assets sharing Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). A portion of the monies was earmarked to fund rehabilitation programs.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Portugal has three separate law enforcement agencies that deal with the drug program—the Judicial Police (PJ), the Public Security Police (PSP), and the Republican National Guard (GNR). The PJ is a unit of the Justice Ministry with overall responsibility for coordinating enforcement efforts and record keeping. The PSP and GNR are uniformed forces operating in the cities and countryside, respectively, although in practice overlap often occurs. The GNR also patrols the highways, inland waterways and the coast. The GNR recently received delivery of two of five new speedboats needed to patrol the coastal waters. PSP officers in some cities are involved in a "safe schools" project similar to the D.A.R.E. drug awareness program in the U.S.

Maritime interdiction cooperation between Portugal and Spain continued in 2000, following the terms of the 1998 treaty between the two countries. This cooperation, together with U.S. assistance, resulted in a multi-ton cocaine seizure in the Caribbean. The traffickers arrested in Portugal were nationals of Portugal, Spain, and Colombia.

The PJ made three major seizures of heroin and cocaine in 2000. The PJ aimed to cut off the supply source and obstruct the operations of traffickers who sell to other traffickers. Drug programs overall are coordinated by the Secretary of State for the Presidency of the Council of Ministry, Dr. Vitalino Canas, who is directly responsible to the Prime Minister.

Corruption. No cases of systematic or large-scale corruption were reported in 2000.

Cultivation and Production. In Portugal production is not a significant concern.

Drug Flow and Transit. Portugal's exposed geographic position and its long, rugged coastline and proximity to North Africa, offer an advantage to traffickers who smuggle illicit drugs into Portugal. Cooperation between criminal elements in the far north of Portugal and the nearby Galician underworld appears to be increasing. A Turkish trafficking group is seeking to turn the Iberian Peninsula into a narcotics distribution center for all of Europe.

Demand Reduction. The Institute for Drugs and Drug Addiction is a new Portuguese government office that serves as a statistical gathering and dissemination center for narcotics issues. In 2000, the government's antidrug public service advertising campaign showed activity similar to campaigns on the danger of AIDS. A new series of "Just Say No"-style television spots began last spring.

The Ministry of Health administers needle exchange, psychiatric, methadone, and detoxification programs. During an official visit to Spain, the Portuguese Minister of Justice visited a prison to investigate a needle-exchange program. He promised to review the possibility of implementing a similar program in Portugal.

The Portuguese consider drug addiction to be an illness, not a crime. Branch clinics of the Ministry of Health offer methadone treatment. Registered addicts can obtain prescribed doses of methadone from any pharmacist, and thus avoid having to go to a public clinic. Long-term clinics offer free detoxification. Portugal prefers to see addicts in rehabilitation rather than in prison. A judge can offer a convicted user a choice between therapy and prison, but cannot compel the user to enter therapy against his or her will.

Agreements and Treaties. Portugal is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. A Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) has been in force between Portugal and the U.S. since 1996. Portugal and the U.S. cooperate in extradition matters through a 1908 extradition treaty. However, the extradition treaty does not cover financial crimes, drug trafficking or organized crime.

Portugal is a member of the Pompidou group of the Council of Europe, which began in 1971 as a Europe-level forum to discuss narcotics issues. The European Monitoring Center on Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), an EU facility, is located in Lisbon and serves as an information clearinghouse for EU countries.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. has facilitate a working relationship between the Portuguese Navy and a private company called International Health Resources Management, in order to develop a drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. The Portuguese Navy has signed an agreement with the Portuguese Industry Association that will allow civilian organizations and businesses to utilize drug testing and treatment services from this program. The final phases of implementation and evaluation of this program will take place in 2001.

The Road Ahead. Portugal plans to continue to take dynamic steps to confront and combat a growing domestic narcotics problem. In some areas, the country will align itself closely with the drug policies of its EU neighbors. The future should see a continued effective performance by Portugal, characterized by increasing cooperation with the United States and with European nations.


I. Summary

Romania is not a major producer or cultivator of narcotics. However, the country lies along a well-established route used to funnel heroin and opium from Afghanistan through Turkey to Western Countries. Romania is also used as a depot and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe. In 2000, Romania made noted progress in empowering the National Police to investigate drug-related crimes. This year also saw the implementation of legislation designed to fight money laundering, including provision for the seizure of the proceeds of drug related activities. Romania is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Romania lies along what is commonly referred to as the Northern Balkan Route, and serves as a transit country for narcotics moving from Afghanistan, through Turkey and Bulgaria and onward to Western Europe. In addition, a large amount of precursor chemicals transit Romania from West European countries south towards Turkey. The comparatively low salaries earned by most Romanian citizens make narcotics prohibitively expensive; however, law enforcement officials noted that the trend of increasing domestic use continued in 2000. According to the same officials, this trend was most prevalent in consumption of cannabis and synthetic drugs, such as "ecstasy," among the country's youth.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Romania made significant progress in its ability to combat narcotics with the passage of Law 143/2000. The law, passed in August 2000, gives the National Police expressed powers to carry out controlled deliveries of narcotics. The law also allows for the use of undercover police in investigating drug-related activities. While still relatively new, the law is already being put into practice.

Romania is home to the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) Organized Crime Center, which serves as a focal point for countries in the region to share information, including information on narcotics trafficking. In 2000, the Romanian National Police received training from foreign governments including Germany, France, and the United Kingdom, designed to provide Romanian officers greater experience and knowledge in fighting organized crime such as drug trafficking. Seminars on fighting narcotics trafficking have also been sponsored via the EU's PHARE program and the Pompidou Group.

Accomplishments. Romania's primary successes have come in the area of new legislation to fight narcotics and money laundering. In addition, the SECI Organized Crime Center, headquartered in Bucharest, has taken several steps closer to becoming fully functional. Romanian law enforcement is beginning to employ cooperation assistance as a tool to identify major drug traffickers. Such cooperation assistance is specifically allowed under the new drug law. Romanian agencies, such as the National Police, Border Police, and Custom's Administration (VAMA) continue to offer a high degree of cooperation in working with the U.S. The lack of a counternarcotics master plan, inadequate resources, and corruption, remain the most significant impediments to combating narcotics trafficking in Romania.

Law Enforcement Efforts. During the first ten months of 2000, the National Police made 172 narcotics seizures and the Customs Administration three seizures. While a smaller amount of hashish, cannabis and heroin was confiscated in 2000 than in 1999, there was a slight increase in amount of seized cocaine. There was also a noted increase in the amount of confiscated methadone pills, along with an over 50 percent increase in the amount of synthetics (primarily ecstasy) confiscated. As of October 19, 2000, narcotics seizures included 39.66 kilograms of heroin, 149 vials of morphine, 0.06 kilograms of opium, 35.17 kilograms of hashish and cannabis, 12.9, kilograms of cocaine, 15,597 amphetamine pills, and 264 methadone pills. Through the same period, there were two seizures of precursor chemicals, 137 liters of benzylmethylketone (BMK) and 160 liters of acetic anhydride. Arrests through October 19, included 155 nationals, and 28 foreigners.

Law enforcement resources dedicated to fighting narcotics in Romania are limited. As of September 2000, there were only 25 police officers assigned to the national level drug squads. Thirteen of these officers are assigned to the Romanian National Police Antidrug unit within the country's Directorate for Combating Organized Crime (DCCO). The 12 other officers are focused on combating the illicit sale of precursor chemicals. In addition, one or two officers are assigned to each of Romania's 41 county organized crime squads. Romania has established a system for identifying, tracing, freezing, seizing and forfeiting narcotics-related assets. Under existing law, any proceeds from illegal activity, or assets that were used, or intended to be used, in illegal activity can be seized. However, Romania currently does not have legislation in place that allows for the sharing of seized assets with foreign governments.

Corruption. A 2000 anticorruption law expanded the penalties for corrupt acts and added to the list of activities that can be prosecuted as corruption. However, corruption remains a serious problem within the Romanian government. Despite the new law, the number of corruption cases brought to court dropped in 2000.

Agreements and Treaties. Romania currently has an extradition treaty with the United States and, in 1999, the two countries signed a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT). Work has begun on the agreement with the UN regarding cooperation in fighting narcotics trafficking and drug abuse. Romania is also working with the UN regarding the implementation of fighting the trafficking of narcotics by sea, as outlined in the UN Convention on the Trafficking of Illicit Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances. Romania signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

Drug Flow/Transit. Illicit narcotics from the Near and Middle East enter Romania primarily over land through its southern border with Bulgaria. However, drugs are also brought into the country via the Black Sea port of Constanta, as well as via the country's international airports. Once in Romania, the drugs move either north through Hungary, or east through former Yugoslavia, on their way to Western Europe. The DCCO estimates that approximately 80 percent of the drugs that enter Romania continue on to Western Europe, while the remaining 20 percent are consumed in country.

Domestic Programs. Low wages restrict consumption of Heroin and cocaine; synthetic drugs are a growing alternative, as are inhalants. Detoxification programs are offered through some hospitals, but are very limited. The Romanian Ministry of Health maintains some programs designed to educate young people about the hazards of drug abuse. However, these efforts are hampered by a lack of resources. As a result, there remains a strong lack of knowledge among the country's youth regarding the dangers of abusing narcotics.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. In response to strong interest by the Romanian National Police and other Romanian agencies with narcotics law enforcement responsibilities, the U.S. embassy has assisted in providing a wide range of training geared towards fighting narcotics, corruption, and money laundering. The Regional Security Officer is the coordinator at post. The Department of State's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL)-sponsored training in 2000 included an economic crimes course, a regional conference on fighting corruption, a public corruption seminar, and a FBI-provided undercover operations seminar. Other State Department-funded programs in 2000 were offered through the Department of Justice's Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT). These programs include an organized crime seminar, as well as training in the areas of financial litigation, international asset forfeiture and asset sharing, economic crime/advanced money laundering, and investigating public corruption. Training to improve border enforcement was provided by the U.S. Customs Service, which has several representatives present in Romania. DEA activities in Romania are coordinated by their regional office in Vienna.

The Road Ahead. Romania has put serious emphasis behind its counternarcotics efforts and cooperation with the USG. There is little reason to believe that this cooperation will diminish under the new Romanian administration elected in November 2000. The new drug law will make a noticeable difference in the country's fight against drugs over the coming year and beyond. The USG plans to maintain its support in providing counternarcotics, money laundering, and corruption related training in 2001.


I. Summary

Dominating all other drug issues in Russia is the continued dramatic increase in the flow of Afghan heroin into the country across the southern border. In 2000, 80 percent of the heroin seized in Russia came from this area; the UNODCCP estimates that the amount of heroin brought into Russia from that region has more than doubled in the last year alone. The sharp increase in the supply of heroin has seen a correspondingly sharp drop in price, which has in turn stimulated demand to an unprecedented extent. The GOR now recognizes that drugs are no longer simply an illicit product in transit to another destination. Although more than half the heroin seized in 2000 was destined for onward transit, Russia is now a consumer as well, and faces a serious drug abuse problem for the first time. Traditionally, the drugs of choice have been opium poppy straw extract, and cannabis products. The Public Health Minister estimated that there were 2 million addicts in Russia, and the head of the Security Council said that there were over 200,000 drug-related crimes in the last year alone. He says the President considers "the problem of the spreading and using of drugs in the category of a direct threat to the national security of the state." While international cocaine traffickers of Russian origin continue to use Russia as a transit point for onward shipment to Europe, Russia continues to be a depressed market for cocaine, which remains priced out of this market for the time being.

In 2000, the Russian government displayed an increased interest in antinarcotics cooperation, and U.S. and Russian law enforcement took significant steps towards deeper bilateral investigative cooperation and intelligence sharing. In June 2000 the Putin Administration indicated an increased interest in exploring a multi-faceted approach including demand reduction and prevention. Russia ratified a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the U.S. in the fall of 2000, and challenged the U.S. Senate to do the same. Russia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Russia is a transit country for heroin and opium, most of which comes from Afghanistan and more than half of which is destined for Europe. It is also a transit country for cocaine averaging in the 50-60 kilograms range trafficked by individual criminals of Russian origin who use the country for transshipment to Europe and elsewhere. Small quantities of amphetamines, cannabis and opium poppy and ephedrine for domestic consumption are produced in Russia; significant quantities of precursor chemicals for export, notably acetic anhydrid are produced in, or diverted from, Russia for the production of Afghan heroin.

Low income levels mean Russia is a negligible market for cocaine. Russian demand for cocaine has fallen abruptly from its peak in the more prosperous 1990's. The demand never equaled that of heroin, which is much cheaper and more plentiful, and more easily imported. Cocaine seized in Russia is typically in transit to Europe. While there have been seizures as large as several tons, such as that seized on a Russian-owned vessel off the coast of a European country in late 1999, there have been no large seizures in 2000, aside from a 64 kilograms DEA controlled delivery in May. Russian law enforcement authorities do not consider that cocaine trafficking presents a major criminal threat.

Heroin trafficking is the major drug problem facing Russia. The Afghan Taliban stepped up production of opium and heroin for export into Tajikistan and Kazakhstan and on into Russia just as the economic crash of 1998 plunged Russia into a period of economic crisis. The crash resulted in a sharp drop in the standard of living for many Russians, high unemployment rates, and a decrease in the technical and financial resources available to law enforcement. Alcohol and substance abuse increased. Coinciding with the widespread availability of cheap heroin, this situation contributed to an increase in serious heroin abuse and addiction, and a concomitant steep increase in HIV and AIDS. Russian authorities resist needle exchange programs for fear of appearing to encourage heroin abuse. HIV suppressing therapies exceed the financial capability of most Russian clinics, and victims remain for the most part untreated, representing a concern for Russian health authorities.

Given the porous nature of the border and the lack of technical and financial support for law enforcement, Russia is ill-equipped to handle the growing inundation of the country with Afghan heroin. Although the bulk of this product finds its way into European or other markets, the proximity of the source and the large quantities available have provoked a precipitous drop in heroin prices, from an average $70 per gram in 1999 to $10 per gram in 2000. Even at these prices, the average Russian cannot support this habit without resorting to some form of criminal activity. Russian authorities estimate the number of drug-related crimes in 2000 at over 200,000.

Domestic distribution of drugs is handled by the same Russian criminal organizations that have long conducted other criminal operations in the various regions of Russia. Trafficking into the country is often handled by groups who tend to specialize in certain categories of drugs in specific areas. Heroin is mainly imported by Afghan, Tajik and other Central Asian groups, and West Africans across the southern border with Kazakhstan into European Russia and western Siberia. Vietnamese and Chinese groups traffic heroin, opium and ephedrine into eastern Siberia, where methamphetamines are also manufactured in kitchen labs for personal use. Ukrainian groups traffic in cannabis, while Nigerian and some other African groups traffic mostly heroin.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs

Until recently, drug trafficking by Russians or through Russia was not given a high priority by Russian policy makers or law enforcement. Russia had little drug abuse and the transit of narcotics through the country received a lower priority than other seemingly more critical criminal activities. Russian authorities now indicate that they recognize that the situation has changed and that drug trafficking is having a profoundly negative effect on their country.

Policy Initiatives. The new Russian Presidential Administration has demonstrated that it places a high priority on law enforcement (raising salaries of all Russian police 13 percent in 2001) and on control of narcotics. Russian authorities have correspondingly stepped up their levels of international antidrug cooperation in interdiction and enforcement. From the highest levels of government down to the working level, Russian authorities have demonstrated increased willingness to cooperate with international counternarcotics efforts and U.S. efforts in particular. Russian counternarcotics efforts rely heavily on law enforcement, but authorities have recently displayed an increased interest in initiating cooperation and accepting assistance in the areas of demand reduction and treatment as well.

Key Foreign Ministry officials characterize cooperation in the area of antinarcotics as one of the top Russian priorities for U.S.-Russian relations, and one of their major priorities internationally. One key official called the drug issue a non-ideological, non-political, truly shared problem, demanding a cooperative and joint response. One of the highest-ranking Russian officials described the Government of Russia as totally committed to this cooperation and said all ministries and agencies were available to work with the U.S. on antinarcotics. He characterized their efforts as seeking to develop a coordinated approach that incorporates education, health, military, intelligence and law enforcement components.

Accomplishments. In October 2000, Russia ratified the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty, and called upon the U.S. Senate to do the same.

The UNODCCP in Moscow continued to implement two domestic projects signed with the Russian government, and four NIS-regional projects in which Russia is a partner. The first was signed in 1999, "Technical Assistance in Control and Prevention of Drugs and Related Organized Crime," and provides equipment and training for counternarcotics units in Russia. The second, "Training Center for CIS Countries at Domodedovo," was signed in 2000 and establishes a program for training representatives of antidrug units of various CIS countries in the Russian police training facility at Domodedovo in Moscow. In addition, the UNODCCP has undertaken an effort to provide equipment and training to the Russian Border Service personnel who police the Tajik-Afghan border to halt the flow of heroin before it reaches the Russian border. The UNODCCP in Moscow reports that all of these projects have the support of the Russian authorities. They note, however, that Russia has not allocated any funding for continued cooperation.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The 1998 Russian Law on Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances criminalized the purchase and possession of drugs and stiffened the penalties for distribution and large-scale trafficking. While this has done little to discourage the growing substance abuse in Russia, it has given law enforcement a somewhat increased ability to deal with serious drug traffickers. However, court sentences continue to be light.

The UNODCCP estimates that the flow of Afghan heroin alone has increased three-fold in the last three years, while Russian law enforcement budgets have remained static, equipment deteriorates and veteran officers are lost to attrition. Little new funding is available for equipment replacement or procurement of new technology. Inadequate budgets, low salaries and a lack of technical resources and support hamper performance and encourage corruption. Funds for training are also extremely limited.

Within these limitations, Russian drug control units continue to strengthen and deepen their interagency cooperation and to reach out to other nations for bilateral and multilateral international cooperation. The recently formed Russian multi-agency Counternarcotics Task Force continues to develop and improve agencies' cooperation. Seizures of heroin are up again this year to 59,000 instances, totaling 655 kilograms, an increase of 134 percent over the first nine months of 1999, which was itself a record number of seizures. Some of the most dramatic increases in trafficking seizures have taken place not in Russia, but on the Afghan-Tajik border where the Russian Federal Border Service provides assistance in cooperation with Tajik forces. According to UNODCCP figures, between July and October 382 kilograms of heroin and 1,916 kilograms of opium were seized. One July seizure alone netted 154.4 kilograms of heroin. In April, Russian border guards eliminated a transshipment base in Tajikistan controlled by Afghan traffickers, seizing 96 kilograms of narcotics.

Corruption. President Putin has said that he will make controlling corruption a priority for his administration, although few concrete steps have been taken to date. Low pay and difficult working conditions continue to foster corruption among law enforcement officials, and there is a reluctance within the law enforcement community to investigate their own.

Agreements and Treaties. Russia is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 Protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In 1995, the Russian Border Service concluded an agreement with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to reinforce Trilateral Counter Narcotics Cooperation on the borders with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. Russia is a party to the 1992 Kiev Treaty on Cooperation in Interregional Drug Investigations. Russia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols in December, 2000.

The Annex of the Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement of 1996 specifically lists any crime associated with trafficking in illicit drugs and psychotropic substances as a basis for making a request for assistance under the agreement. It lists money laundering, government corruption and organized crime as well. In July 1998, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and the Ministry of Internal Affairs signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Counternarcotics Cooperation. A 1995 MOU between the Russian Federal Border Service and the U.S. Coast Guard provides for cooperation in a variety of areas including Maritime Drug Interdiction. The U.S. Attorney General and the Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) signed an MOU in 1999 that provided for the sharing of intelligence on counternarcotics between the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the FSB. No extradition treaty exists between the U.S. and Russia; nevertheless, Russia has been cooperative in assisting in the removal of suspects for purposes of U.S. prosecution.

Cultivation and Production. Although there are no official statistics on the extent of opium cultivation in Russia, the USG has no evidence to suggest that more than 1,000 hectares of opium are cultivated. In the first nine months of 2000, Russian authorities eradicated 5.3 hectares of wild and 7.3 hectares of cultivated opium. Wild cannabis, which is lower in THC than that of cultivated cannabis, is estimated to cover some 1.5 million hectares in the eastern part of the country. Russian authorities eradicated 11,474 hectares of wild cannabis in 2000. There is no statistical data on the harvesting of wild cannabis.

Drug Flow/Transit. Heroin from Afghanistan flows through Central Asia, particularly Tajikistan and Kazakhstan, over the southern border into Russia, for domestic distribution and consumption and for onward shipment to Europe and, to a much lesser extent, the United States. The port city of Astrakhan and the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk are major transit points for Turkish and Afghan heroin into Russia. Vast amounts of daily sea traffic, consisting of passengers, autos on ferries and bulk goods in trucks, are used to conceal heroin trafficked into Russia. All routes mentioned above are also used in reverse to smuggle the precursor chemical acetic anhydride to the clandestine laboratories in Afghanistan and Turkey which produce Afghan and Turkish heroin. The lack of border controls with China and Mongolia facilitates smuggling, including drug trafficking, through that region. In eastern Russia, Chinese drug producers continue to import the precursor ephedrine for the domestic production of methamphetamine in kitchen labs in quantities for personal use. Cocaine traffickers also route Colombian cocaine for transshipment to Europe and elsewhere through Russian seaports and airports.

Demand Reduction. In 2000, Russian authorities demonstrated a marked increase in interest in exploring possible cooperation and assistance in the area of drug abuse prevention and treatment. Russian authorities have expressed interest in developing a comprehensive counter narcotics strategy which would combine education, health and law enforcement, and requested meetings with the U.S. Office of National Drug Control and Prevention to explore the creation of a similar organization in Russia. In 2000, the Ministry of Internal Affairs participated in a U.S. program designed to improve the collection of data on drug abuse and addiction among individuals who have been arrested. Russian law enforcement authorities also have come to support the idea that demand reduction should complement law enforcement efforts to reduce supply. The 1998 Narcotics Law provides for compulsory treatment of drug abusers who come to the attention of the authorities. The law restricts drug abuse treatment to government facilities.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

The principal U.S. goals are to help strengthen Russia's antinarcotics law enforcement capacity to help meet the challenges of international drug trafficking into and across Russia, and to strengthen U.S.-Russian law enforcement cooperation.

In 2000 the U.S. Department of State Anticrime Training and Technical Assistance Program provided counternarcotics, anticorruption and money laundering training conducted by seven U.S. agencies to over 400 students. Students were primarily enforcement personnel from the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), the Federal Security Service (FSB) and Customs. This training also reached out to legislators, court officials, NGO's and health professionals among others involved in demand reduction and drug abuse treatment. The program also brought over U.S. technical advisors working on institutional change such as facilitating use of the Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement to enhance the structures that encourage bilateral investigative cooperation. We also expanded to the regions, preparing for a government ethics anticorruption program in Samara, and a large-scale regional community police program that contains a significant antinarcotics component.

In a significant example of U.S.-Russia cooperation, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration worked with the Russian multi-agency Drug Control Task Force to facilitate a controlled delivery of 64 kilograms of Colombian cocaine found in Miami bound for St. Petersburg for onward shipment to Great Britain. This proved to be a significant confidence- building measure for U.S.-Russian law enforcement, and strengthened and deepened cooperation resulting in a greater number of joint investigations and more open sharing of counternarcotics intelligence.

The Road Ahead. Russia gives an increasingly high priority to counternarcotics efforts and has indicated a desire to deepen and strengthen its cooperation with the United States and other bilateral and multilateral international antinarcotics efforts. We will encourage Russia to develop a comprehensive, long-term national strategy against drugs, which should include measures of effectiveness and be embedded in a national budget. With our Russian counterparts, we will work to develop multidisciplinary sustainable law enforcement assistance projects that combine equipment, technical assistance, and expert advisors in a concerted effort to develop and strengthen the investigative, enforcement and interdiction capabilities of law enforcement units responsible for drug control in Russia.

Slovak Republic

I. Summary

Slovakia remains a transshipment point for heroin to Western Europe along the "Balkan Route" which runs through the Middle East and Turkey to Germany, France and other western European countries. In 2000, the Government of the Slovak Republic (GOSR) funded the fight against narcotics at slightly higher levels than in 1999. Domestic drug use appears to have risen again in 2000. The GOSR is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

One of the main concerns of the GOSR is the continuing use of Slovakia as a transshipment point for smuggling illicit drugs. The GOSR continues to concentrate on East-West smuggling from Ukraine and Russia. Enforcement officials say that Russian organized crime groups have become more active in heroin trafficking this year. Slovak authorities are also placing increased emphasis on the "Balkan Route" and the suspected Albanian criminal organizations that use this route. Slovak officials believe Kosovar Albanian groups are their greatest heroin trafficking threat, and estimate that these organizations control 90 percent of the Slovak heroin market. Albanian traffickers cooperate with criminal organizations in neighboring countries to move heroin to market.

The influence of organized crime on drug sales and use continued to increase in 2000. Slovak police think organized crime has more resources and is masterminding increasingly complex operations. The Slovak police have cracked some organized crime cases, but they admit that they are still unsure of the complete extent of the problem. The GOSR has modestly increased funding to law enforcement, charged with the responsibility for combating illegal narcotics. Slovakia does not have laws that specifically control precursor chemicals involved in the production of illegal narcotics. Authorities do not believe that diversion of these chemicals is a problem in Slovakia.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs

Policy Initiatives. Fighting organized crime and corruption is among the government's top priorities. While the concept of cooperating with other nations in the fight against narcotics trafficking has not been completely absorbed by all branches of the government, the GOSR has cooperated more closely on certain specific cases of international trafficking. Of particular note is the improving cooperation between the Slovak customs directorate, neighboring states and the United States.

Accomplishments. The current government, elected in 1998, has, to a large extent, completed a reorganization of the police and National Drug Service. The Slovak Customs Service is seeking to share more authority with the police in investigating cases of narcotics trafficking.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The number of attempts to smuggle illegal narcotics in 2000 appears to have increased compared with 1999. The majority of those persons apprehended were not Slovak citizens. The border service reports that most seizures at the borders were for marijuana trafficking.

Corruption. The current government is trying to reduce corruption through legal reform and increased education. While observers believe that some progress has been made, most believe corruption is still a serious problem, particularly at the lower levels in the law enforcement community. This corruption affects enforcement of applicable antinarcotics laws. Transparency International continues to advise the Slovak Government on how to draft and implement an effective anticorruption program for government employees.

Agreements and Treaties. The Slovak Republic is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. The bilateral extradition treaty between Czechoslovakia and the United States has continued in force in the Slovak Republic and has, in effect, been updated to encompass drug-related offenses by virtue of the GOSR's ratification of the UN Narcotics Conventions.

Cultivation/Production. Indications are that small amounts of marijuana continues to be grown in all regions of the country, but that it is for domestic consumption only. It does not appear that cocaine, heroin or synthetic drugs are being produced within Slovakia.

Drug Flow/Transit. The shared border with Hungary and Ukraine was the site of the greatest number of attempts to enter Slovakia with illegal substances. The greatest number of attempts to smuggle substances out of Slovakia was noted at the Czech and Austrian borders.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Slovakia enforcement officials have participated in several Department of Justice courses. These classes were designed to increase the resistance to corruptive influences at the working level, and to improve counternarcotics and anti-organized crime skills.

Road Ahead. Through bilateral cooperation, the U.S. continues to encourage the GOSR to maintain its tough stance on drug interdiction and to expand its enforcement and prevention capabilities through modernizing responsible agencies.


I. Summary

Slovenia is not a major producer or a major transit country for illicit narcotics. However, its location in southeastern Europe has the potential to make it an important transit country in the area. Militating against this, however, is a higher standard of living and more professional police and customs organization than in neighboring southeastern European states. As a successor state to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), Slovenia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Slovenian counternarcotics authorities believe that Slovenia's location between the Balkans and Central Europe makes Slovenia a "problematic transit area" for heroin being smuggled into Western Europe, by Albanian, Turkish and Italian organized crime groups. They also cite the northern Adriatic Port of Koper as a transit route for South American cocaine and North African cannabis into the Schengen zone of Western European countries. While drug abuse is still not a major problem in Slovenia, interdiction and seizure records indicate that the problem of illegal drugs in Slovenia is on the rise. Heroin abuse is a growing problem in Slovenia, and while quantities of cocaine seized are still small, indications are that the market for it is also growing.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives/Accomplishments. The GOS has continued to make counternarcotics a priority of its law enforcement entities. In 2000, the GOS took steps to interdict illicit drugs at its borders by cooperating with U.S. officials, including Department of State, Department of Defense, DEA, FBI and Customs, to develop better interdiction, and with EU member states bilaterally and multilaterally to improve interdiction coordination. The Slovenian government signed the SECI Trans-border Organized Crime Center agreement in 2000, and will participate in the SECI center in Bucharest starting in 2001. Slovenia also participates in the European Union's PHARE Multi-Beneficiary Drug Program.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Law enforcement efforts led to an increase in drug seizures in 2000. Law enforcement agencies seized 26,804 ecstasy pills in 2000, compared to 1,749 pills in 1999 and 4,496 pills in 1998. In addition, law enforcement agencies seized 3,431 kilograms of cannabis and 394.8 kilograms of heroin in 2000, compared to 313.8 kilograms of cannabis and 32.2 kilograms of heroin in 1999.

Agreements/Treaties. Slovenia is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and other recent UN narcotics conventions. The 1902 extradition treaty between the United States and Yugoslavia remains in force between the U.S. and Slovenia. Slovenia signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The U.S. has provided bilateral training for Slovenian customs and border patrol personnel in interdiction of contraband goods, including narcotics, and other narcotics and law enforcement development courses.

The Road Ahead. In 2000, the U.S. will continue to provide counternarcotics and other law enforcement training in Slovenia.


I. Summary

Spain is an important transit country to Europe for cocaine smuggled from South America and hashish from Morocco and Algeria. Spain remains active in counter narcotics efforts globally, and has pledged $100 million in financial support for Plan Colombia. Terrorism and drug trafficking remain Spain's highest law enforcement concerns. Spain is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

No opium or coca is grown in Spain, and marijuana production is minimal. However, wide coastlines and dozens of busy year round ports on the Atlantic and Mediterranean make smuggling of cocaine from Colombia and hashish from Morocco and Algeria a profitable business. Spanish law enforcement agencies seize increasing amounts of cocaine each year. Trends indicate that Spain is a chief, and possibly the chief, gateway for cocaine shipments into Europe.

Illicit refining and manufacturing of drugs in Spain is minimal. However, small-scale laboratories which convert cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride are discovered and confiscated each year. Spain has a pharmaceutical industry that produces precursor chemicals. There is control of precursor shipments within Spain from the point of origin to destination, administered under the National Plan Against Drugs (PNSD). The majority of heroin that arrives in Spain is transported via the Balkan route from Turkey. Body carriers from West Africa account for most of the remainder of heroin smuggled into Spain.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The Spanish parliament approved a new national drug strategy for 2000-2008 in December 1999. The new strategy authorizes the government to monitor modern methods of communication used by traffickers, to tap phone lines without notification, and to sell seized assets in advance of a conviction. It gives legal cover to police informers, creates a registry of vehicles (including ships) capable of being used in drug trafficking, and reinforces border controls. The strategy also establishes a new system to assist the social integration of drug addicts.

On the international front, the strategy targets money laundering and illicit commerce in chemical precursors. It also calls for closer counter narcotics cooperation with France, Italy, Portugal, the UK, Germany, and Andorra, and the establishment of permanent channels for collaboration with the Andean countries, Central America, and the Caribbean. Spain is a leading supporter of Plan Colombia. Spain hosted a major donors conference in support of Plan Colombia in Madrid in July and pledged $100 million.

The National Central Drug Unit (OCNE) coordinates counter narcotics operations among various government agencies, including the security forces and Customs Service, and appears to function well. There is no evidence of corruption of senior officials or their involvement in drug trafficking.

Accomplishments. Spanish police continued to seize large amounts of cocaine and hashish in 2000. According to Spanish authorities, half of all cocaine seized in Europe is seized in Spain. Notable events during the year included the Spanish police's seizure of 1,800 kilograms of cocaine paste and powder from a clandestine cocaine laboratory in Malaga. Spanish Customs seized 12,000 kilograms of hashish aboard a ship off the coast of Asturias. The Spanish National Police seized 120,000 tablets of Dutch-origin MDMA (ecstasy) at Barajas airport in Madrid. (Four smugglers had taped the MDMA to their bodies and were seeking to depart Spain for the U.S.) The Guardia Civil (GC) seized 700 kilograms of cocaine from a ship docked in Barcelona. The GC seized several hashish shipments each in the 4,000 kilograms range during the year, mostly on the southern coast. In short, Spanish interdiction efforts were aggressive.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Domestic measures to counter illicit drug trafficking and internal operational cooperation fall under the authority (as of January 14, 1997) of the National Central Drug Unit (OCNE). OCNE is comprised of three agencies: the Spanish National Police (SNP) and the Civil Guard (GC), which are part of the Interior Ministry), and the Customs service which is part of Ministry of Economy.

Spain's National Drug Plan Office (PNSD) is the equivalent of the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy. It is attached to the Interior Ministry and provides political and strategic direction. The establishment of regional police units in designated zones of high intensity organized crime activity has resulted in greater numbers of cocaine seizures.

Cultivation and Production. Coca leaf is not cultivated in Spain. Opium poppy is cultivated for research purposes under strictly regulated conditions. Insignificant amounts of cannabis are also cultivated. While refining and manufacturing of drugs is minimal, small-scale laboratories convert cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. Ecstasy is manufactured in small quantities.

Drug Flow/Transit. Close historic and linguistic ties with Latin America attract Colombian cocaine traffickers, who exploit Spain's position as a bridge to the rest of Europe. Spain's proximity to Morocco and its ample coast result in large hashish shipments.

Demand Reduction. Spain reinforced and extended an antidrug media campaign in 2000. The Office of Spain's National Antinarcotics Coordinator (PNSD) emphasizes a drug prevention message. PNSD has developed mechanisms for dispensing methadone and exchanging needles. PNSD has also developed programs to provide alternative penalties for addicts, making it possible for them to complete their sentences in accredited detoxification and rehabilitation centers. Methadone distribution programs have been extended to all penitentiaries.

Agreements and Treaties. Spain is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. All articles of the convention are applied in Spain. Spain ratified the 1990 Strasbourg convention on August 6, 1998. It entered into force on December 1, 1998. In December 2000, Spain signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols. Extradition between the U.S. and Spain is governed by a 1970 extradition treaty, which has three additional supplements. A mutual legal assistance treaty has been in force between the U.S. and Spain since 1993. The U.S. has signed a Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) with Spain.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. goals and objectives in Spain include maintaining and increasing the existing excellent levels of bilateral and multilateral cooperation in law enforcement and demand reduction efforts. We seek to promote continued contacts between officials of both countries involved in all facets of counter narcotics work and related fields. Latin America continues to be an area of opportunity for counter narcotics cooperation.

Multilateral Cooperation. Spain is an important contributor to the UNDCP and is a member of the UNDCP major donors group. Spain is also a member of the Dublin Group and is the chair for Central America and Mexico. Spain is also actively engaged in providing training and promoting institution-building programs aimed at increasing the effectiveness of the judicial and law enforcement sectors in other nations, particularly in South and Central America. The Spanish government has signed criminal legal assistance agreements with the United States, Australia, Chile, Canada, Argentina, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Morocco.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. will continue to coordinate closely with Spanish counter narcotics officials. Spain will continue to be a key player in the international fight against drug trafficking and money laundering.


I. Summary

Sweden is not a significant illicit drug producing, trafficking or transit country. Swedish drug policy envisions zero tolerance and, longer-term, a drug-free society. The Chair of the National Narcotics Commission announced in December 2000, the need for a special Minister for Drug Issues in Sweden, similar to the U.S. drug czar, to coordinate the efforts of the various departments and agencies. According to law enforcement sources, more drugs are now being seized, and drugs are available in more places in Sweden. For amphetamines, the Swedish drug of choice, purity levels have gone up, and prices have decreased in the last few years, probably due to greater availability.

Swedish authorities remain concerned about the entire drug scene, but in particular continuing brown heroin abuse in immigrant communities, often with Balkan and Middle East connections. Attitudes are slowly changing among the young in Sweden toward a greater willingness to experiment with drugs. Some young people use rohypnol or ecstasy. Drugs from Eastern Europe and the New Independent States (NIS) are a growing problem for Swedish law enforcement. In 2000, Sweden continued its co-operation in international fora, including the UN, the Dublin Group, the Pompidou Group, the EU and cooperated with the Baltic nations to combat drug trafficking and money laundering. Sweden is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Relative to other European countries, Sweden—both the government and the public—is intolerant to drugs. However, increased travel and study abroad, combined with wider Internet availability, have led to increased exposure to drugs and the liberal attitudes toward drugs of other nations. Cannabis and amphetamines are still the most frequently seized and abused drugs. Police report that indoor cultivation of cannabis remains small scale. Brown heroin (smoked) seems to have increased among immigrant youth. Some young people use ecstasy. The media is giving a lot of attention to the newest drug among youth, GHB (Gamma-Hydroxy-Butyrate), which the government classified as a narcotic drug in 2000. Seizures indicate that some Swedes are using a substance in the fungus psilocybe semilanceata.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The GOS aims to reduce the number of new drug abusers, motivate more drug abusers to end the habit, and diminish the supply of narcotic drugs. Swedish customs and police officials continue to train Baltic authorities in drug trafficking, intelligence work, investigation methods and drug recognition among abusers. They are assisting the Baltic nations, Poland and the St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad areas in various projects, including forensic science (analysis of fingerprints), illegal migration, narcotics, witness protection, and organized crime. The program also gives training through the Nordic-Baltic Police Academy.

Since 1999, the Swedish police have been instituting a three-year project in South Africa to improve policing there and to support the South African police service to work toward decreased crime rates, as well as better relations between the police and the community, thus creating an improved level of safety.

In May 1996, the Heads of Governments of the Baltic Sea States established a Task Force on Organized Crime in the Baltic Sea region to combat the increasing levels of organized crime, including, inter alia, drug trafficking and money laundering. Sweden is the chair of the Task Force and the Task Force's Secretariat is housed at the Ministry of Justice in Stockholm. In 2000, there was one expert meeting on narcotics to plan activities. In addition, there have been two meetings on the Amphetamine Project in the eastern Baltic Sea region (profiling of amphetamines in a forensic lab in Warsaw). A seminar on money laundering was held in December 2000 in Finland. The Task Force's mandate has been prolonged to 2004.

Sweden participates in a number of international fora, including the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the UN Drug Control Program (UNDCP), the Dublin Group, and the Pompidou Group. Sweden chaired the regional Dublin Group in Africa 1998-99 and contributed about U.S. $250,000 to the UNDCP "Drug Nexus Study" in Africa in 1998. During 1999 and 2000, Sweden continued actively to promote improvement of multilateral antidrug activities in UNDCP. According to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden gave about U.S. $3.5 million in FY 2000 in contributions to the UNDCP. The 1999 contribution was approximately U.S. $3.5 million and the 2001 pledge was U.S. $3.8 million.

Accomplishments. The Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) received about U.S. $1 million in 2000 for multilateral and bilateral UN Normative Instruments Projects against drugs and tobacco primarily in Africa, and to a lesser extent in Asia. The 2001 projection is for about U.S. $1.2 million. In FY 2000, Sweden's contribution to the UN World Health Organization's substance abuse program was about U.S. $200,000 and the 2001 projection is the same.

The National Narcotics Commission, appointed in 1998, continued its work in 2000, writing broad-based evaluation reports on the drug policy, and proposing ways to strengthen it. The Commission is continuing its work into 2000, with no signal yet that it views its mission as completed. In 1999, Parliament passed new legislation making it punishable to drive under the influence of narcotics or certain medical drugs. To combat the proliferation of synthetic drugs, the criterion "strongly habit-forming" in earlier law text was replaced by "dependence-creating qualities or Euphoria-creating effects" by a Parliament decision in 1999. This will be an easier-to-establish criterion, which the government hopes will speed up investigations. After a decision in the EU Council regarding a joint action on 4-MTA, the substance has been transferred to the Swedish Narcotic Act.

Agreements and Treaties. Sweden is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and is meeting the Convention's goals and objectives. Sweden also is a party to the 1961 Single Convention, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and to the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Sweden signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols in December 2000.

Sweden has bilateral customs agreements with the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, France, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Spain, Poland, Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Hungary, Latvia, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Sweden has, through the EU, agreements with several other nations regarding mutual assistance in customs matters. Sweden cooperates with the United States in extradition matters under a 1963 convention and a 1984 supplement.

Sweden was a driving force in elaborating the EU action plan on drugs. In late 2000, Sweden submitted a formal proposal to the EU Council for two council decisions against synthetic drugs in Europe, one regarding the establishment of a system of special forensic profiling of synthetic drugs, and one concerning a transmission system of drug samples within the EU. Discussions on these proposals should occur in early 2000. The National Narcotics Commission proposed that Sweden, as the Spring 2001 EU President, should prioritize issues concerning illegal European production of narcotics, preventive measures, and drug problems in the candidate nations. Sweden continues to work in many different ways within the EU to combat drug abuse.

Law Enforcement. Swedish law enforcement authorities are effective, but decreased financial and staff resources jeopardize the efficient tackling of narcotics crimes. In 2000, there were 13,949 drug seizures by police and customs (compared to 16,078 seizures-end of year statistics) in 1999. The drug most often seized was cannabis, with 4,909 seizures totaling more than one ton for the first 11 months of 2000 (compared to 5,073 seizures for all of 1999, totaling also more than one ton). The second most commonly seized drug was amphetamine, with 4,264 seizures totaling 91 kilograms over January through November 2000 (compared to 5,073 seizures totaling 124 kilograms in 1999). In the first 11 months of 2000, Swedish police and customs also made 1,127 heroin seizures weighing a total of 30.8 kilograms (compared to 64 kilograms in 1,244 seizures in 1999), and 39 kilograms of cocaine in 336 seizures (413.8 kilograms in 254 seizures in 1999). Also in the first 11 months of 2000, there were 373 seizures of ecstasy, totaling 48,788 tablets (compared to 160 seizures yielding 73,250 tablets in 1999).

In April 2000, there was a major seizure (13 kg) of cocaine in Gothenburg Harbor aboard a banana boat from Costa Rica. In June, two cruisers came to Stockholm with a combined stock of over 12 kilograms of cocaine. In December, Stockholm customs found 40,000 tablets of rohypnol from Lithuania. There is also still some illegal diversion of legally prescribed rohypnol. Despite the increase, year after year, in this abuse, the Swedish Medical Products Agency has not yet changed rohypnol's classification to Schedule 2.

In 2000, Swedish police and customs drug liaison officers were located in Paris, Brussels, St. Petersburg, Bangkok, Athens, Copenhagen, The Hague, London, Warsaw, Tallinn, Riga, Berlin, Budapest, Moscow, and Amman. Sweden has both a customs and a police officer in Europol in The Hague; there are two Swedish policemen at Interpol in Lyon.

Corruption. Corruption is very rare and, when discovered, punished consistently. Anticorruption laws effectively deter public officials from engaging in the illicit production or distribution of drugs, and involvement with money laundering.

Cultivation/Production. No illicit drugs are known to be cultivated or produced in significant amounts in Sweden, but there seems to be a trend toward a small but steady cultivation of cannabis in private homes, using seeds bought via the Internet.

Drug Flow/Transit. In 2000, Sweden remained a destination for synthetic drugs entering through The Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark. Police report an increase in seizures of amphetamines from Estonia, Lithuania, and Poland. Drugs enter the country concealed in commercial goods, overland, by mail, by air, and by ferry, as well as by truck over the new bridge linking Denmark to Sweden. The Netherlands remains the source of approximately half of all amphetamines seized, but a substantial amount originated in Poland, the Czech Republic, and the Baltics. Pakistani brown heroin reportedly is smuggled in by ethnic Albanians from Kosovo, and Macedonia (FYROM), through the Czech Republic or Slovakia, via Germany and Denmark, by ferry to Sweden. Cocaine still is most often smuggled into Sweden by passengers flying in from South America, via EU airports, mainly London, Frankfurt, and Paris. There are also criminal groups from Eastern Europe involved. In 2000, law enforcement officials in Sweden did not discover any drugs intended for the United States.

Demand Reduction. The Swedish National Institute of Public Health coordinates educational initiatives regarding the dangers of drug abuse that is compulsory in Swedish schools. Various private organizations also are active in drug abuse prevention and public information programs. Under Swedish law, individuals who abuse drugs can be sentenced to drug treatment.

"European Cities Against Drugs" (ECAD), an alliance of major cities that espouses zero tolerance policies and no liberalization, is a growing Europe-wide movement founded in Sweden in 1994. The alliance maintains its Secretariat in Stockholm. In September 1999, ECAD opened its first Regional office in St. Petersburg. The organization cooperates with various antidrug organizations in the U.S., including National Families in Action and Drug Watch International, and is expanding its network to Latin America, Asia, and Australia. At present, 236 cities and municipalities in more than 31 European nations are members of ECAD.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

U.S. Policy Initiatives. The U.S. has sought to be engaged with the Swedes and the Baltic Sea Task Force on Organized Crime and maintains a liaison with the Task Force through its DOJ representative in Brussels.

Bilateral Cooperation. Swedish cooperation with U.S. law enforcement authorities continues to be excellent. Under the rubric of the Swedish EU presidency, the U.S. is exploring cooperation against synthetic drugs and training initiatives in the Baltics.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. looks forward to further strengthening its already good counternarcotics cooperation with Sweden, particularly in the Nordic-Baltic context and former Soviet Union region. The U.S. will pursue enhanced cooperation with the Task Force and, through the Swedes, with the EU.


I. Summary

Switzerland is both a transit and destination country for illicit narcotics, especially heroin. The population strongly supports the government's four-pillar counternarcotics policy highlighting prevention, treatment, harm reduction and law enforcement. Switzerland indicated its commitment to fighting drug trafficking and related money laundering when it agreed to address international economic crime in cooperation with the U.S. in the U.S.-Switzerland Joint Economic Commission Declaration signed in Davos in January.

The heroin prescription program is widely accepted as a form of treatment for hard core addicts. The Swiss government is preparing legislation to provide a permanent legal basis for the program. The proposed revision of the narcotics law would also legalize the consumption and possession of cannabis. At the same time, the Federal Department of Health is devising new drug prevention campaigns and bolstering youth antiaddiction programs. Although the Swiss government has delayed ratification of the 1988 UN Drug Convention until the revised narcotics legislation has passed, it adheres to the Convention in practice.

II. Status of Country

Drug use is widespread among Switzerland's 7.1 million inhabitants. An estimated 500,000 to 600,000 people consume cannabis, the most frequently used drug in Switzerland, more or less regularly. Roughly 30,000 people are addicted to heroin and/or cocaine. While the use of heroin has stabilized and even shown a slight decrease in recent years, the use of cocaine, cannabis and synthetic drugs, especially ecstasy, is increasing. Police are concerned about the continuing trend by casual users to mix cannabis and other (usually synthetic) amphetamines according to availability or whim. Health Department reports indicate that "cocktail" consumption (mixture of cocaine and heroin injected together) has also increased. Switzerland is not a significant producer of hard drugs. European neighbors have noted Switzerland's cultivation and export of soft drugs. Domestic cannabis cultivation satisfies local demand and a significant amount is exported, primarily to neighboring countries. Narcotics prices are relatively low, thanks to abundant supplies, often of a high grade of purity. According to statistics of Swiss law enforcement authorities, foreigners play a primary role in distribution. While West Africans dominate cocaine trafficking, Kosovar Albanians control the Swiss heroin market.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Switzerland continued its fight against illicit narcotics with a four pillar program, first established as an intensified government antinarcotics effort in 1991. The program hinges on prevention, treatment, harm reduction and law enforcement. In the last two years, the Federal Council opened discussions on draft legislation to revise the 1951 Narcotics Law. The Federal Health Department conducted consultations with cantons, NGOs and other interest groups. Under consideration were Federal Council proposals striving to eliminate loopholes and inconsistencies in the existing law, tighten regulations prohibiting the sale of alcohol and tobacco to youths under 16, and establish a permanent legislative basis for the heroin prescription program. The consultation report revealed broad support for the four pillar policy, for the heroin prescription program, and for increasing the federal government's leading role in national drug policy.

The consultation process also indicated growing support for the Federal Council proposal to revise the status of cannabis under the Narcotics Law. Widespread consumption and legal ambiguities surrounding cannabis led the Federal Council to suggest a cautious course leading to cannabis legalization. At the same time, it called for increased prevention and youth protection measures. Although the consumption of all other narcotics is to remain prohibited, a proposed "opportunity principle" in the draft legislation would grant authorities the power to refrain from prosecuting consumers of narcotics other than cannabis in certain clearly defined situations. The Federal Council will not finalize its proposed legislative changes concerning cannabis legislation until questions relating to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of cannabis and cannabis products are studied further. The Department of the Interior will address concerns about how best to prevent the export of cannabis products and so-called "drug tourism." The Health Agency of the Department of the Interior has been instructed by the Federal Council to draft the legislation for narcotics law revisions and draw up an accompanying interpretative report analyzing the implications and possible international ramifications of such revisions. These reports, along with the final draft legislation, are expected to be presented to parliament in spring 2001, but a vote on the legislation probably will not occur until 2003.

Accomplishments. Through therapy and treatment programs, Switzerland has improved the physical and mental well being of many addicts and reduced incidents of drug-related crime. The total number of cocaine and heroin addicts in Switzerland has stabilized at roughly 30,000 in the last years. Swiss officials credit needle exchange programs with reducing drug-related AIDS and hepatitis infections. Drug-related mortality declined from 209 deaths in 1998 to 181 in 1999. Of these, 103 persons were over 27 years old. The average age of newcomers into the heroin treatment program is 31.9 years.

A new law, which was introduced as the "Efficiency Bill" and passed by parliament in December 1999, aims to make the prosecution of organized crime, money laundering, corruption and other white-collar crime more effective by increasing personnel and financing of the criminal police section of the Federal Police Office. The new law confers on the Federal Police and Attorney General's office the authority to take over cases that have international dimensions, involve several cantons, or which deal with money laundering, organized crime, corruption and white-collar crime. The law comes into effect January 1, 2002.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The number of apprehensions under the narcotics law dropped slightly to 44,307 (from 45,726 in 1998). Approximately 80 percent of those offenses were for consumption. While cannabis seizures were cut almost in half, undoubtedly due to a shift of resources and emphasis toward combating harder drugs, slightly more cocaine and LSD was seized in 1999. In the course of the ongoing investigative police action known as "sippe" (translated as gang or clan), 98 drug dealers and couriers were arrested in 30 operations between 1996 and 1999. Drugs, weapons and over 1.2 million Swiss Francs in cash were seized. The most significant prosecution involved two Kosovar brothers, deputy heads of a Kosovo-Albanian drug ring, who were arrested on suspicion of money laundering and dealing up to 100 kilograms of heroin. In March, a Zurich court sentenced the brothers to 10.5 and 8.5 years imprisonment respectively.

Approximately 200 hemp shops operate throughout Switzerland. They sell a variety of cannabis products, including tea, oil, foods and beverages, cosmetics, textiles and so-called "sachets." Ostensibly sold to freshen-up closets and drawers, the sachets contain a quality of marijuana suitable for smoking. Following a series of police raids on hemp shops, a federal court ruled in March 2000 that selling hemp products with a THC level above 0.3 percent, at high prices, was a violation of the narcotics law regardless of how the shop had labeled the hemp.

Corruption. Incidents in which low-level public officials are allegedly involved in corruption related to narcotics trafficking are virtually unknown.

Agreements and Treaties. Switzerland and the U.S. cooperate in law enforcement matters through bilateral extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties. Switzerland has been re-elected to the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). It supports and is a major donor to the UNDCP, and works closely with the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Council of Europe's cooperative Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Drug Trafficking (Pompidou Group). Switzerland fully adheres to the 1988 UN Drug Convention in practice and has adopted legal instruments to implement its provisions. Formal ratification, however, is delayed until revisions to the narcotics law are completed. Revisions allowing for a more liberal policy on personal drug consumption and granting cantonal courts more discretion in sentencing may require the federal government to ratify the convention with two reservations. Ratification will likely take place in 2003. In 2000, Switzerland signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.

In 1996, Switzerland became party to the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The government intends to conform national law to the Chemical Action Task Force (CATF) recommendations and new European Union regulations.

Cultivation and Production. Police estimate that over 200 tons of hemp will be harvested in Switzerland this year. Easily satisfying domestic demand, Swiss hemp is also exported, primarily to neighboring countries. The existing Swiss narcotics law permits the cultivation of hemp if the harvest is not destined for narcotics use. Government subsidies are available to farmers growing hemp with THC levels below 0.3 percent. Production appears to be increasing, but exact figures are not available. Indeed, last year police estimated production at 300 tons; the quasi-illicit nature of the crop makes estimating its production an uncertain science at best. Much of the increased production is likely illegal. Police have also expressed concern over the increase in domestic production of ecstasy and other synthetic drugs.

Drug Flow/Transit. Switzerland is both a transit country for drugs destined for other European countries and a destination for narcotics deliveries, especially heroin and cocaine.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. Switzerland focuses heavily on prevention and early intervention to prevent casual users from developing a drug addiction. Youth programs encouraging abstinence and promoting a healthy lifestyle cost the Government of Switzerland U.S. $22-25 million annually. A new nation-wide program aimed at high-risk youths was announced in November 1999. With over 100 public and private institutions providing drug counseling therapy, and an annual budget of U.S. $160-$190 million, Switzerland has the capacity to provide therapy to two-thirds of its approximately 30,000 cocaine and heroin addicts.

In September the Federal Health Department published a new comprehensive assessment of the heroin prescription program. In 1999 a total of 148 kilograms of heroin were used by treatment centers. Eighty-four percent of this (or 124 kilograms) was for injection and the rest was in tablet form. Two hundred and thirty kilograms were imported (the stored amount is generally larger than actually required to prevent program disruption through delivery or harvest fluctuations). In 1999, 1,065 addicts were in the heroin prescription program. The Department of Health reviewed all patients who had been in treatment for at least two years and found that their physical and mental well being, social conduct and consumption habits had improved significantly. Of the 180 people who left the program in 1999, 60 percent (or 107) of these switched to methadone treatment or to abstinence-oriented treatment. Sixteen heroin treatment centers operated in Switzerland at the end of 1999 and the government has approved the establishment of five additional centers.

The Health Department plans to continue evaluating the program, researching special addict groups and increasing international consultation and dialogue. An international workshop on heroin-assisted treatment is to take place in Switzerland in early 2001.

Measures are aimed at limiting harm and seeking to protect the health of addicts during the addiction period as much as possible. Because of the high risk of HIV and hepatitis infection among intravenous drug users, the federal government supports various harm reduction measures. These include needle exchange programs, injection rooms, housing and employment programs (because the risk is inversely proportional to the level of social integration). Compared to the late 1980's, the incidence of new HIV infections among addicts has decreased significantly.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. officials continue to receive excellent cooperation from their Swiss counterparts in justice and law enforcement efforts to combat narcotics trafficking and money laundering. Over the past few years, Swiss cooperation with embassy agencies have resulted in prosecutors freezing over $300 million in illicit drug-related assets in Swiss banks.

Organized within the framework of the bilateral Joint Economic Commission, Swiss and American government and private sector officials met in December for two days of anti-money laundering/economic crime consultations in Bern, Switzerland. The event reflected the growing cooperation between the U.S. and Switzerland in law enforcement/anti-money laundering cooperation.

The Road Ahead. The USG will continue to build on its strong bilateral cooperation in the fight against narcotics trafficking and money laundering. It will monitor Switzerland's revisions of its narcotics law and urge Swiss authorities to ratify the 1988 UN Drug Convention without reservations. The U.S. will seek further expert-level meetings between U.S. and Swiss finance and law enforcement officials in the framework of the U.S.-Swiss Joint Economic Commission in order to deepen cooperation. The U.S. will continue to express concern that Switzerland's heroin treatment program is not in the long-term interest of Swiss society.


I. Summary

Tajikistan is not a major producer of narcotics but is a major transit country for heroin and opium from Afghanistan through Central Asia and on to Russian and European markets. The volume of drugs following this route via multiple methods of transportation is significant and growing. Although there were notable gains in the total volume of drugs seized, the government continued to demonstrate little overall ability to combat drug trafficking and other narcotics-related problems in a coordinated manner. Drug abuse of heroin, opium and cannabis is a serious and growing problem. Tajikistan's medical infrastructure is highly inadequate and cannot address the population's growing need for addiction treatment and rehabilitation. The government remained committed during the year to implementing a counternarcotics strategy and cooperative programs with the UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODCCP). It also participated in the UN Six Plus Two counternarcotics initiative, signing the Regional Action Plan, which it helped to draft. Tajikistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Geography and economics have made Tajikistan an attractive transit route for illegal narcotics. Its border with opium-producing Afghanistan, which is dominated by mountainous terrain, is thinly guarded, difficult to patrol, and easily crossed without inspection at a number of points. The disruption of normal economic activity during the 1992-1997 civil war gave rise to a warlord class whose leaders continue to jostle for control of the lucrative narcotics trade. With average monthly income in the country remaining at less than $10, the temptation to become involved in narcotics-related transactions remains high for many segments of the society. In-country cultivation is minimal, and the government is unaware of any processing or precursor chemical production facilities. The amount of narcotics cultivation of cannabis and opium poppies within Tajikistan is relatively small, and the government claims to have reduced it through rigorous law enforcement efforts.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The Presidential Office's Drug Control Agency (DCA), created in 1999 with UNODCCP support, began to engage in and implement a number of programs with the UNODCCP designed to strengthen Tajikistan's drug control capacity. The programs are part of a "Security Belt" strategy to stem drug trafficking from Afghanistan. The DCA aims to centralize government counternarcotics efforts and support drug treatment and rehabilitation efforts. While political pressures, or worse, can be used against authorities to deter them from focusing on major traffickers and their organizations, the government appears to be giving counternarcotics law enforcement a higher priority than in the past. Resources, however, remain limited.

Accomplishments. Despite a slow start due to a lack of resources and infighting with other government security organs, the DCA became fully operational in April and was officially inaugurated in October 2000. It recruited and trained a capable staff well regarded by the UNODCCP.

Law Enforcement Efforts. During the first nine months of 2000, Tajikistan officials reportedly seized 4.2 tons of illegal narcotics, including 1,218 kilograms of heroin and 2,954 kilograms of opium—a notable increase over the previous year's totals of 709 kilograms of heroin and 1,269 kilograms of opium. Russian Border Guard personnel were responsible for more than half the seizures by volume. Although national and Russian border forces are Tajikistan's first and main line of defense against illegal narcotics trafficking, they remain unequal to the task. Given low pay and incentives for corruption, they are often, in fact, part of the problem.

Corruption. Influential figures from both sides of the civil war, many who now hold government positions, are widely believed to have a hand in the drug trade. While it is impossible to determine how pervasive drug corruption is within government circles, it is a fact that salaries for even top officials are low and often seem inadequate to support the lifestyles many officials maintain. Even when arrests are made, the resulting cases are not always brought to a satisfactory conclusion. As a matter of policy, however, Tajikistan does not encourage or facilitate illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions. While accusations of drug-related corruption are routinely made by political figures against their enemies, there is no direct evidence of senior officials of the government engaging in, encouraging, or facilitating illicit production or distribution of such drugs or substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions.

Agreements and Treaties. Tajikistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and other UN narcotics-related agreements as well. It signed the Central Asian Counternarcotics Protocol with the UNODCCP and neighboring Central Asian countries. Tajikistan is a party to the World Customs Organization's International Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance for Prevention, Investigation, and Repression of Customs Offenses (the Nairobi Convention), Annex X on Narcotics Cases. Tajikistan signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December 2000.

Cultivation/Production. Opium poppies and, to a lesser extent, cannabis, are cultivated in limited amounts, most in the northern Aini and Pendjikent districts. Cultivation has been limited by law enforcement efforts as well as the fact that it is cheaper and safer to cultivate opium poppies in neighboring Afghanistan.

Drug Flow/Transit. An estimated 80 percent of the narcotics produced in Afghanistan are smuggled across the border into Tajikistan's Shurobod, Moskovski, and Panj districts, according to government figures. While the government may be overestimating the percentage of Afghanistan's drug production that transits Tajikistan, the total volume of drugs is certainly high. One UN estimate put the amount of heroin from Afghanistan going through the country at roughly between 30 to 50 tons a year. Hashish from Afghanistan also transits Tajikistan en route to Russian and European markets.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The new DCA began to implement some experimental initiatives aimed at increasing drug awareness, primarily among school children. The number of young addicts continues to grow.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The USG is committed to providing counternarcotics and law enforcement training to Tajikistan. In spite of the security restrictions that prohibit USG training personnel in Tajikistan, law enforcement training was provided in venues outside the country.

The Road Ahead. The UNODCCP will remain the principal agency supporting counternarcotics efforts in Tajikistan. The U.S. will continue to provide law enforcement training, encourage similar support from Western European countries, and promote regional cooperation as essential to improve counternarcotics performance for all countries in the region.


I. Summary

Turkey continues to be a major transit route for Southwest Asian opiates moving to Europe. Turkish law enforcement organizations continue to focus efforts on stemming this transit and on disrupting illicit laboratories within Turkey, which process smuggled opiate raw materials into heroin. There is neither appreciable cultivation of illicit narcotics in Turkey nor any indication of any diversion from Turkey's licit opium production program. The U.S. discontinued its annual assistance program to Turkey in 2000 when Turkey did not accept human rights language in the bilateral letter of agreement. Turkey is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Turkey remains a major transshipment point for heroin passing from Southwest Asia, primarily through Iran, to European markets. Although there is no reliable data on heroin and other illicit opiates transiting Turkey, DEA estimates that the flow to Europe remains at between four and six tons of heroin each month. The continued discoveries of processing labs and seizures of illicit precursor chemicals, such as acetic anhydride, indicate that refining heroin in Turkey remains a problem. Turkey is one of the world's two traditional licit opium poppy growing countries, as recognized by the USG and the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB). The Government of Turkey (GOT) maintains strict controls on its licit poppy program, which provides opiates for the international pharmaceutical market.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. The GOT and its law enforcement and antinarcotics forces have long attached top priority to disrupting narcotics trafficking and continued to do so in 2000.

Accomplishments. In 2000, the GOT staged a major campaign against corruption. The Interior Minister, in conjunction with the Turkish National Police and Customs, conducted widespread operations against fictitious exports and government corruption, particularly in Turkey's eastern and southeastern provinces. The GOT hosted a UNODCCP conference on acetic anhydride as part of its increased efforts to crack down on illegitimate importers of precursor chemicals. In cooperation with the UNODCCP, Turkey opened a training academy to provide instruction to counternarcotics officers from Turkey and regional countries.

Law Enforcement Efforts. During 2000, Turkish law enforcement agencies, including the Turkish National Police, the Jandarma (rural police), Customs and the Coast Guard, seized over 5.9 tons of heroin, 25.6 tons of hashish and thousands of pills. There were 6,131 drug-related arrests (a 20 percent increase from 1999) and a significant increase in seizures of precursor chemicals, including acetic anhydride. Much of the increase in seizures, particularly of hashish, came from operations in eastern Turkey, particularly around Lake Van. The Jandarma, with responsibility for patrolling Turkey's vast rural areas, also made several significant seizures this year. Turkish officials continue to maintain a close relationship with USG and European counternarcotics counterparts, as well as with the UNODCCP. GOT counternarcotics forces increased the sophistication of their operations, including their ability to conduct controlled deliveries domestically and internationally.

Corruption. While corruption remains prevalent in Turkey, it is rarely associated with narcotics. The Interior Minister's campaigns against corruption, particularly in the government, have received widespread public support.

Agreements and Treaties. The GOT has long-standing bilateral treaties covering extradition and mutual legal assistance in criminal matters with the USG. It is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. It has signed various bilateral and multilateral agreements with countries in the region for cooperation in counternarcotics and other law enforcement efforts. Turkey signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols in December 2000.

Cultivation/Production. The Turkish Grain Board (TMO) strictly controls licit opium poppy cultivation, with no apparent diversion into illicit channels. Illicit cultivation of narcotic plants, primarily marijuana, is minor and has no impact on the U.S.

Drug Flow/Transit. Heroin and morphine base are smuggled through Turkey's eastern border to European markets. Morphine base is refined in illicit labs, most often in Turkey's rural southeast or near Istanbul. Heroin is most commonly transferred to Europe hidden in containers on TIR (trans-international route) trucks, which are only subject to customs investigations in source and final destination countries. Historically, there has been little evidence that significant amounts of heroin from Turkey enter the U.S., either directly or through another transit state. Nevertheless, Turkey remains a country of concern to the USG.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The incidence of substance abuse in Turkey remains low, although surveys indicate that the abuse rate among school children continues to grow and is beginning at an earlier age. Turkey's oldest drug prevention and substance abuse clinic, the Istanbul AMATEM, has broadened its outreach to local schools and doctors in an effort to better educate children about the dangers of drugs. The Ministry of Health has been working on preparing a national plan to combat drug abuse for several years. The GOT established a national council with representatives of all concerned ministries, the Istanbul AMATEM and university faculties, which meets monthly to discuss strategies and coordinate efforts. While Turkish society is increasingly aware of the need to combat drug addiction, and the government is committed to address the problem, the government agencies charged with primary responsibility for drug awareness and treatment remain chronically underfunded and must compete for increasingly scarce GOT funds.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Policy Initiatives. U.S. policy remains to assist Turkey to strengthen its law enforcement capability to combat narcotics trafficking. The USG has provided Turkish law enforcement entities with training and equipment through an annual program of assistance. Under this program, the USG has also helped the GOT improve its licit poppy production program to prevent its diversion into illicit channels. In 2000, the GOT did not sign the bilateral agreement on assistance because of USG language on human rights. As a result, once previous year assistance funds are used, no further funding for training and equipment will be provided.

Bilateral Cooperation. USG and GOT law enforcement entities have steadily increased cooperation on counternarcotics efforts. Turkish counternarcotics forces have also become increasingly professional, in part based on training and equipment they received from the USG.

Road Ahead. Law enforcement cooperation will continue between the USG and GOT entities to stem the flow of narcotics. As Turkey prepares to join the European Union, it will need to significantly improve its narcotics interdiction capability. For the next several years, tight budgets will limit the ability of Turkish counternarcotics forces to obtain the equipment they need to pursue their primary focus of interdicting and disrupting narcotics flows across Turkey.


I. Summary

Turkmenistan is not a significant producer or source country for illegal drugs or precursor chemicals. However, largely due to its rugged and remote 1,180-kilometer border with Afghanistan and an 800-kilometer frontier with Iran, Turkmenistan remains a crucial transit route for drug trafficking to Turkish, Russian and European markets and precursor chemicals to Afghanistan. Counternarcotics efforts in Turkmenistan are carried out by the Committee for National Security (KNB), the Border Guards, and the State Customs Committee. The Government of Turkmenistan is committed to supporting a vigorous counternarcotics effort but its law enforcement agencies are hampered by a widespread lack of equipment, resources and training. Although statistics are difficult to obtain, government officials and non-government organizations believe that domestic drug abuse, more often of opium and marijuana, is steadily increasing. Turkmenistan participates in the UN Six Plus Two narcotics initiative, although it did not sign the Regional Action Plan it helped to draft. Turkmenistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

Turkmenistan's use as a 2-way transit country for drugs and precursor chemicals is aided by heavy commercial truck traffic with Iran, Caspian Sea ferry boat traffic from Turkmenistan to Azerbaijan and Russia, and international flights connecting Ashgabat with nine international airports around the world. The bulk of Turkmen law enforcement resources and manpower are directed at stopping the flow of drugs from Afghanistan, exposing Turkmenistan's considerable border with Uzbekistan to increased use by narcotics smugglers.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Earlier this year the Turkmen parliament approved new legislation allowing police to legally search a residence only after presenting evidence of the presence of weapons, explosives or more than five kilograms of narcotics to a city, county or regional government-appointed commission, which then decides whether to issue a search warrant. The Turkmen criminal code allows for the death penalty in certain trafficking cases; however, a 1999 presidential moratorium on capital punishment remains in force.

Accomplishments. A national drug intelligence information center sponsored by the UN Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODCCP) should be completed and operational beginning in 2001. It connects a central server in the Ministry of Internal Affairs with computer systems in the State Drug Control Commission, the Committee for National Security, the Border Guards, the General Prosecutor, and the Ministry of Health to facilitate collection, analysis and exchange of drug-related intelligence and enhance the effectiveness of Turkmen counternarcotics efforts. At the October 2000 UNODCCP/OSCE international conference on drugs, organized crime and terrorism, the Government of Turkmenistan formally approved its participation in the UNODCCP-sponsored precursor control project for Central Asia and signed the conference draft agreement on priority areas of cooperation.

Law Enforcement Efforts. The Government of Turkmenistan continues to give high priority to counternarcotics law enforcement. Despite a lack of modern equipment and sufficient transport, Turkmen border forces are remarkably effective in detecting and interdicting illegal crossings by armed smugglers. According to government reports, in the first six months of 2000 Turkmen law enforcement agencies detained 181 border violators and seized 1,111 kilograms of narcotics. In addition, Turkmen border forces intercepted 17 smuggling groups and were involved in 7 armed clashes in which 9 smugglers were killed. On March 29, 2000, Turkmen border forces on the Iranian frontier clashed with ten armed smugglers in which seven smugglers were killed and 701 kilograms of opium seized.

Corruption. Statistics or information concerning police corruption in Turkmenistan are difficult to obtain. However, low salaries combined with broad general powers, fosters an environment in which corruption could readily occur.

Agreements and Treaties. In 1996, Turkmenistan became a party to the 1998 UN Drug Convention, the 1961 UN Single Convention and its 1972 protocol, and the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It has signed agreements on counternarcotics cooperation with its Central Asian neighbors.

Cultivation and Production. Turkmenistan is not a significant producer of illegal drugs, although small-scale opium and cannabis cultivation is thought to occur in remote mountain and desert areas. Each spring, the government conducts limited aerial inspections of outlying areas in search of illegal cultivations, which are eradicated immediately.

Drug Flow/Transit. Turkmenistan remains a primary corridor for transit of morphine base and heroin to Turkey and opium and heroin to markets in Russia and Europe, and for the shipment of precursor chemicals, mainly acidic anhydride, to heroin laboratories in Afghanistan. According to government officials, the quantity of drugs and precursor chemicals intercepted this year along the Afghan border, as well as the total number of drug seizures, has significantly decreased compared to recent years, because of the concentration of Turkmenistan's law enforcement efforts along this border. However, the nearly 1,800-kilometer Uzbek frontier remains thinly staffed by Border Guard forces in comparison to its boundaries with Afghanistan and Iran.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The Turkmen Ministry of Health estimates that approximately 6 to 7 percent of the population use illegal drugs, though unofficial estimates put the user population at 8 to 9 percent. The Ministry of Health operates six drug treatment clinics located in the capital Ashgabat and each of its five provinces. Addicts may receive treatment at these clinics without revealing their identity and all clinic visits are kept strictly confidential. In September 2000, the government permitted the implementation of a UNODCCP/UN AIDS project for the prevention of drug abuse, aids and sexually transmitted disease among Turkmen youth. The project calls for a drug abuse assessment of five to six Turkmen cities over a one or two month period.

IV. U.S. Policies and Initiatives

Bilateral Cooperation. The USG seeks to assist Turkmenistan in updating its law enforcement institutions and body of law to more effectively counter the illegal drug trade. Turkmen officials participated in USG-sponsored training programs in 2000, including courses for narcotics interdiction for border forces, regional and in-country drug enforcement seminars, and law enforcement seminars at the International Law Enforcement Academy in Budapest, Hungary.

The Road Ahead. The USG will continue to cooperate with Turkmenistan in its fight against the illegal drug trade. Through international and non-government organizations and programs, such as UNODCCP and the American Bar Association, the USG plans to assist Turkmenistan enhance its judicial and legal institutions to combat narcotics smuggling organizations and crime associated with illegal drugs. The USG will encourage long-term demand reduction efforts and foster supply reduction through interdiction training, law enforcement institution building and the promotion of regional cooperation.


I. Summary

Trafficking in and use of narcotics continue to increase in Ukraine in 2000. The government of Ukraine continued to take concrete steps to limit illegal cultivation of poppy and hemp. The transit of narcotics through Ukraine remains problematic. Ukraine is a party to the 1988 UN Dug Convention, and follows the provisions of the convention in enacting antinarcotics legislation. Combating narcotics trafficking continues to be a national priority for law enforcement bodies, though insufficient funding seriously hinders Ukrainian efforts. Coordination between law enforcement agencies responsible for antinarcotics work has improved but still remains a problem for regulatory reasons.

II. Status of Country

Although Ukraine is not a major drug producing/transit country, Ukrainian officials state that trafficking of narcotics through Ukraine is increasing due to its geopolitical location. The domestic use of narcotics is also rising and the number of drug addicts has been reported to be increasing. Ukraine is becoming a significant transit corridor for narcotics originating in central and Southeast Asia. Numerous ports on the Black and Azov Seas and porous borders, poorly financed and under-equipped border and customs controls make Ukraine attractive to drug trafficking activities.

According to preliminary statistics for the first 11 months of 2000, approximately 41,657 criminal cases involving narcotics were prosecuted, a minor increase over last year's figures. About 20,107 people have been confined during the first 11 months of 2000 for drug-related offenses. Approximately 30,535 persons were administratively fined for minor drug-related violations, a one-third increase over last year's figures. Unemployed persons under the age of 30 committed most crimes connected with drugs.

The number of officially registered drug addicts in Ukraine now exceeds 100,000, an increase of approximately 15,000 over last year's figures. The number of unregistered abusers is estimated to be three to four times that number. Marijuana is getting more popular with young people. Nevertheless, opium straw extract remains the main drug of choice for addicts. The younger generation uses synthetic drugs more frequently. Hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin are still too expensive for Ukrainian drug users, but law enforcement officials indicate a rise in heroin use due to the reduced price for this drug. Ukrainian efforts to combat narcotics are seriously hampered by the lack of resources (e.g. Financing, personnel, equipment) available to combat narcotics.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. During the last five years the Ukrainian parliament has passed a package of drug control laws. The laws are well drafted and constitute a solid legal basis for combating narcotics effectively. These laws are in line with the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Ukrainian law enforcement officials praise the drug control legislation for being an effective tool in drug enforcement.

Under this legislation, the counternarcotics enforcement responsibility is given to the Ministry of Interior (MVD), the State Security Service (SBU), the state customs service and the border guards. In 1993, the Drug Enforcement Department (DED), an independent department within the MVD, was created. The DED reports directly to the MVD and is staffed presently by 1,725 personnel. Despite understaffing, the DED has achieved positive results in combating drug trafficking.

The national antinarcotics coordinating council, established in 1994 in the cabinet of ministers to coordinate the efforts of government and public organizations to combat drugs, is currently drafting a 2001-2005 antidrug program. Although many of the steps under the previous antidrug plans (1994-1997, 1998-2000) were restrained by lack of funds, the MVD is giving top priority to antidrug actions and is providing overall support to the extent available.

Drug trafficking groups are increasingly using Ukrainian seaports to transport drugs to the west. Therefore, in 1997, the government tasked the state security service to interdict the shipment of drugs by sea. The authorities have also increased counternarcotics measures to interdict drugs at Ukrainian airports.

Accomplishments. As stated above, Ukraine's efforts to implement its antidrug plans have been hampered by the severe lack of funding for law enforcement and social agencies. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Health and the Ministries of Education and Culture are working with the MVD to intensify national antidrug educational programs.

According to Ukrainian government statistics, Ukrainian law enforcement agencies were successful in seizing approximately 29 tons of narcotic drugs during the first eleven months of 2000. This included in- country seizures of 12 kilograms of heroin, 6.5 tons of marijuana, 110 kilograms of opiates, 10 kilograms of hashish, 22 tons of opium poppy straw, 26 doses of ecstasy and 4,707 doses of LSD. The MVD was successful in uncovering 1,572 drug-dens as well as 78 laboratories, some of which were producing synthetic drugs. The government conducted a large-scale operation named "poppy" to destroy poppy and hemp fields. In 2000, government authorities destroyed 195,000 square meters of opium poppy fields, 34,000 square meters of marijuana and 15,000 square meters of wild cannabis. Local consumption absorbs most of what is grown. Law enforcement bodies succeeded in breaking up 2,341 criminal groups involved in drugs activities, with most consisting of just a few people.

Ukrainian drug enforcement units remain understaffed and under funded. Approximately 1,725 officers have been assigned to drug units throughout Ukraine. Cooperation between law enforcement agencies combating narcotics (mainly MVD, SBU, customs and border guards) is improving; though it is still severely hampered by conflicts over investigative jurisdiction.

Corruption. Ukrainian politicians, private citizens, and international experts, point out that corruption remains a major problem hampering the investment climate and economic reforms. Corruption in Ukraine has an impact on the effectiveness of efforts to combat organized crime, which is involved in the narcotics business. The Ukrainian government has adopted a set of laws and decrees to combat corruption. The president signed the latest anticorruption decree in November.

Agreements and Treaties. Ukraine is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. It is also a party to the agreement of the police forces of the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, which provides for coordination of operational drug control activities, and bilateral antinarcotics agreements were signed with the security services of Belarus and Russia. Intergovernmental agreements providing for joint enforcement efforts against illicit drug trafficking have been signed with the Czech Republic, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. The Ukrainian parliament ratified the U.S.-Ukraine Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty in criminal matters in September. Ukraine signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December, 2000.

Cultivation and Production. Opium poppy is primarily grown in western, southwestern and northern Ukraine, while hemp cultivation is concentrated in the eastern and southern parts of the country. Small quantities of poppy and hemp are grown legally by licensed farms, which are closely controlled and guarded. The cabinet of ministers has approved such cultivation for the food industry in late 1997. In 2000 special licenses were issued to 26 farms to grow poppy on 3,147 hectares and to 53 farms to cultivate hemp on 2,559 hectares.

Drug Flow/Transit. Ukraine continues to experience an increase in drug trafficking from central and Southeast Asia, Russia, Romania and Poland. In 2000, 41 channels of international drug trafficking were closed. Shipments are usually destined for the west, and arrive primarily by road, rail or sea. While some are produced locally, synthetic drugs are basically imported from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Germany and other European countries.

The importance of Ukraine to drug traffickers as a transit corridor to western and central Europe continues to increase. This is evidenced by the seizures in 2000 of drugs transiting Ukraine: 3.6 kilograms of heroin (originating from Pakistan), 550 kilograms of opium straw (destined for Belarus), and 2.5 ton of marijuana. The DED reports a reduction of cocaine seizures (total 77 grams), as a result the closure of the drug channel from Ecuador.

Demand Reduction. Ukrainian officials are trying to reduce drug demand through preventive actions at schools since most Ukrainian drug abusers are under the age of 30. Drug information centers have been opened in the cities with the highest levels of drug abuse. A number of rehabilitation programs have been conducted throughout the country by NGOs with the assistance of international institutions.

IV: U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. U.S. mission priorities and objectives for law enforcement-related assistance are to assist Ukrainian law enforcement authorities to develop more effective programs on border control, money laundering, protection of intellectual property rights, and trafficking of women and children. In support of these objectives, U.S. assistance programs have included training on drug interdiction, combating organized crime and corruption, combating money laundering and financial crimes, antitrafficking efforts, forensic science and related areas. The U.S. has also provided assistance in the development of new draft laws on money laundering, a criminal code, a criminal procedure code and a law on the judiciary.

Road Ahead. Compared to international standards, Ukraine does not yet have a serious drug problem. However, trafficking of narcotic drugs from Asia and South America to European destinations through Ukraine is increasing as the drug traffickers look for new ways to circumvent western European customs and border controls. Demand reduction and treatment of drug abusers are problems requiring close attention. Law enforcement agencies need continued assistance in modern techniques to fight drug trafficking. Ukrainian authorities have expressed interest in more U.S. training and assistance to combat narcotics trafficking.

United Kingdom

I. Summary

The United Kingdom (UK) is a consumer country of illicit drugs. In the course of legitimate business it produces and exports precursor and essential chemicals that could be used to manufacture illicit drugs. The UK strictly enforces national precursor chemical legislation in compliance with European Union (EU) regulations. Implementation of stricter legislation appears to have reduced the vulnerability of British financial institutions throughout the Crown dependencies and overseas territories to money laundering, but offshore banking facilities in the Channel Islands, Isle of Man, and Caribbean Overseas Territories (COTS) remain attractive to drug funds. Crime syndicates from around the world tap into the underground narcotics market, and use the UK as a major shipping route. Like other developed nations, the UK faces a serious domestic drug problem. The UK is in the third year of a ten-year drug strategy, monitored by the UK Antidrug Coordinator (UKADC), Keith Hellawell. The U.S. and the UK held their first drug summit in October 1999. The UK is party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

II. Status of Country

British drug policy addresses both supply and demand reduction, while the Government's antidrug strategy addresses international, national, regional, and local plans and initiatives. Marijuana remains the most-used illicit drug in the UK. With an estimated 200,000 problem opiate users, however, a major concern is heroin and other more harmful drugs (notably powder and crack cocaine). Cocaine use seems to have been on the increase over the last four years, especially among young people. The region around Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland is particularly hard hit by heroin problems, but virtually all parts of the UK, including many rural areas, confront the problem of drug addition to at least some degree. The death toll from heroin and morphine rose from 445 in 1997 to 632 in 1998 in England and Wales. Similarly, in Scotland the figure rose from 73 in 1997 to 163 in 1999. Deaths from heroin misuse in Northern Ireland probably amount to no more than one or two per year. British authorities are also concerned about the use of powder cocaine, amphetamines and ecstasy (MDMA), particularly among young people in London and other large cities' popular club scenes. Some British narcotics experts believe that ecstasy use, after having leveled off in the past two years, is on the rise again.

The number of people dealt with by the Criminal Justice System for possession of crack or powder cocaine has roughly doubled, from 2,012 in 1997 to 4,143 in 1998. In the 1999/2000 British fiscal year, Customs seized Class A (Schedule One) drugs valued at $1.9 (1.2BPS) billion. Seizures of some other drugs (e.g., cannabis), however, have gone down, reflecting shifts in priorities in the government's antidrug strategy and in targeting by enforcement agencies. However, increased arrests and seizures have failed to make a serious dent in the drug trade: the value of drugs confiscated amounts to only a fraction of the estimated revenue and overall profits from drug dealing.

The National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) reports that Britain faces its worst-ever threat from national and international organized crime. Drugs are linked to about 80 percent of all organized gangland crime in London, and about 60 percent of UK crime overall.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs

Policy Initiatives. The British Government has developed a ten-year strategy, first outlined in an April 1998 White Paper, that emphasizes the importance of all sectors of society working together to combat drugs. Drug problems do not occur in isolation, but are often linked to other social problems. Trends in drug abuse reflect wider UK Government reforms in the welfare state, education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and the economy.

The strategy focuses on four elements: young people, to help them resist drug misuse and to permit them to reach their full potential in society; communities, to protect them from drug-related, antisocial and criminal behavior; treatment, to enable people with drug problems to recover and live healthy, crime-free lives; and drug availability, to limit access to narcotics on the streets. Key performance targets have now been set in each of these four elements.

The UK plays a leading role within the EU in combating drugs. Under the 1998 UK presidency, work was begun on a new EU drug strategy for 2000-2004; the Cardiff European Council (June 1998) endorsed its essential elements. In a speech to the Scottish Parliament in March 2000, Prime Minister Tony Blair spoke of his concern about the serious drug problems that EU member states share with applicant countries. He called for EU action against drugs to be given a much higher priority and made a number of proposals for member states to increase exchange of information, develop common key indicators for measuring their progress in tackling drug-related problems, make early progress in developing common sanctions for drug traffickers, and provide more practical help to the EU candidate countries in dealing with their drug problems.

These and other proposals were subsequently included within the EU Action Plan on Drugs 2000-2004, developed under the Portuguese Presidency and approved by the European Council at Feira in June 2000. The UK has acted swiftly to increase its help to EU applicant countries, particularly those on the heroin smuggling route through the Balkans. New assistance projects include an 18-month, cooperative antidrug program with Bulgaria.

At the G-8 Summit in Okinawa in July 2000, the UK proposed that there should be meetings at the expert level designed to step up global cooperation on drugs. The first ad hoc meeting of experts took place in Miyazaki, Japan in December 2000. Chaired jointly by Japan and the UK, it addressed the issues of synthetic drugs and chemical precursors. The second meeting, a seminar on the economics of drug markets, is to be held in London in March 2001.

The head of the Drugs and International Crime Department (DICD) at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), Michael Ryder, is the UK Special Representative for international drug issues.

The UK works closely with the UNDCP and was its third-largest bilateral donor in 1999-2000. The British play a leading role in a number of international drug-control fora, including the Council of Europe's Pompidou group, the Dublin group, EUROPOL's drug unit and other EU forums, and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). The UK chairs the South Asian region of the Dublin group and is an active counternarcotics advocate in the many mini-Dublin groups throughout the world. During the UK's 1999-2000 fiscal year, the UK disbursed approximately $9.2 (BPS 6) million in aid and assistance focusing on the primary Southwest Asian and Balkan heroin routes and on the Latin American and Caribbean cocaine routes.

In July 2000, the UK Government's Spending Review targeted expenditures on the root causes of drug misuse that will rise significantly to approximately $1.5 (1 BPS) billion by 2003-2004. By then, expenditure on treatment services will be approximately $617.5 (401 BPS) million, a 70 percent increase over current figures. A range of drug-prevention activities, targeting young people, has already been taken. In particular, a program to develop new drug-prevention services for young people at risk of drug misuse will be an integral component of the first 121 of the government's new Health Action Zones (a broader health-policy initiative).

Legislation was passed in 2000 under the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act, which gives police the power to test criminal suspects for drug use when an offense may be linked to hard-drug misuse. Courts will be required to weigh a positive test-result when deciding bail, and testing will be extended to offenders serving community sentences and those on parole. These proposals will be pilot tested before wide scale introduction.

New Scotland Yard appointed in January 1999 its first antidrug coordinator for the London metropolitan police, who will work closely with the UKADC on coordinated drug programs for the capital. In Scotland, the government is cracking down on drugs in prisons. Inmates in open prisons caught using drugs are sent immediately to a high-security prison.

Accomplishments. The Drug Treatment and Testing Order is a community-based sentence, authorizing local courts to require offenders to undergo treatment and submit to mandatory and random drug testing. The Order began as a pilot program in September 1998 in three areas of England. It was rolled out nationally in England and Wales on October 1, 2000 after the pilot program demonstrated that the combination of treatment and random testing (to monitor progress) significantly reduced illegal drug use and criminal activity of offenders subject to the Order. Accelerated by a centrally funded, three-year endowment of approximately $30.8 (BPS 20) million in 1999, arrest referral schemes for all local police-custody facilities in England and Wales have achieved almost 90 percent coverage and are well ahead of the 2002 target for full coverage.

In January 1999, the Home Secretary announced a new initiative to reduce smuggling of drugs into prisons, and the government launched a prison service drug treatment program. Counseling, Assessment, Referral, Advice and Throughcare services (CARATs) were available in every prison in England and Wales by the end of 2000.

The Drugs Prevention Advisory Service, launched in April 1999, is now supporting local drug action teams (DATS) in delivering all four aims of the drug strategy. In May 1999, the UKADC published the UK's first comprehensive antidrug plan, which set tough, binding targets to be monitored by appropriate government departments. Key targets include reductions in the number of young people using heroin and cocaine; availability of heroin and cocaine among young people; and recidivism by drug-misusing offenders (all by 25 percent by 2005, and 50 percent by 2008). Another key target is to increase the number of people accessing treatment services (by 66 percent by 2005, and 100 percent by 2008).

According to the UKADC Annual Report for 1999/2000, published on November 7, 2000, most targets are being met on schedule. These include: establishing the Drugs Prevention Advisory Service (DPAS); implementing a drug-education policy in 93 percent of secondary schools and 75 percent of primary schools; and targeting prevention work for young people at risk through Health Action Zones.

Results of the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS) indicated that, two years after treatment, former users' drug consumption and related offenses are significantly reduced, supporting the strategy's aim of getting offenders into treatment. The survey of arrestees, using the "New-Adam" urine analysis, to monitor recent and long-term drug use and availability produced a second report, which showed that 69 percent of arrestees in five locations tested positively for at least one drug. In future years, reports covering up to 16 sites will provide more extensive data.

Law Enforcement Efforts. Law enforcement in the UK comprises a multi-agency effort. HM Customs and Excise, the National Crime Squad and regular police forces—supported by the National Criminal Intelligence Service and the security and intelligence agencies—work effectively to reduce the supply of drugs which enter and are distributed within the UK. In Scotland, the Scottish Drug Enforcement Agency (similar to the U.S. DEA) was established in 2000.

Corruption. Narcotics-related corruption of public officials is not considered a problem in the UK. When identified, corrupt officials are vigorously prosecuted.

Asset Forfeiture. UK forfeiture law applies to proceeds of all indictable offenses. The USG enjoys good cooperation from the UK. The UK honors U.S. freeze requests and was one of the first countries to enforce U.S. civil forfeiture judgments. In October 1999, Prime Minister Blair asked the Cabinet Office Performance and Innovation Unit (PIU) to assess the government's efforts at confiscating criminal proceeds. In June 2000, the PIU published its detailed report criticizing the effectiveness of the UK's efforts both in pursuing and collecting on confiscation orders and finding that existing powers are under used. The PIU has, among other things, proposed the creation of a National Confiscation Agency dedicated to recovering criminal assets, the adoption of civil forfeiture laws, and the promotion of greater international cooperation. More information can be found on the Internet at www.cabinet-office.gov.uk/innovation.

Agreements and Treaties. The U.S.-UK Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) took effect in December 1996. The UK is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and complies fully with its provisions. It was the first country to ratify the Council of Europe's directive on money laundering, as well as the first EU member to ratify the agreement establishing EUROPOL. The U.S.-UK Extradition Treaty was updated most recently in 1985. The UK is party to the WCO International Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance for Prevention, Investigation and Repression of Customs Offenses ("Nairobi Convention") Annex X on assistance in narcotics cases. The U.S.-UK Customs Mutual Assistance Agreement (CMAA) dates from 1989. In December 2000, the U.K. signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols.

Cultivation/Production. Marijuana is cultivated in limited quantities for personal use, and occasionally sold commercially for illegal use. Most illicit amphetamines and ecstasy are imported from continental Europe, but some are manufactured in the UK in limited amounts. Authorities destroy crops and clandestine facilities as detected.

Drug Flow/Transit. Steady supplies of heroin and cocaine enter the UK. Heroin comes primarily (95 percent) from Southwest Asia, chiefly Afghanistan, but also Pakistan. Most of these drugs go through Iran, Turkey (where much of it is processed), and Eastern/Central Europe. The past year, however, has seen the rise of ethnic-Pakistani gangs in the UK to rival traditional ethnic-Turkish dominance of heroin distribution inside Great Britain—reputedly a $1.5 (1 BPS) billion market. The UK has a much larger and more geographically dispersed ethnic-Pakistani population than an ethnic-Turkish community. Facilitated by direct airline connections between Pakistan and Manchester, ethnic-Pakistani drug rings are using heroin "mules" to profit from their strategy of "little-but-often." In contrast, Turkish and ethnic-Turkish-Cypriot drug runners have tended to rely on larger shipments by truck. UK authorities, however, are stepping up efforts to counter cross-channeling smuggling (including tobacco and illegal immigrants, as well as drugs) with increasing success.

The UNDCP believes that drug traffickers increasingly use some of the Central Asian Republics of the former USSR as alternative smuggling routes to the UK. British authorities have not been able to verify this.

Hashish comes primarily from Morocco. Large cocaine shipments arrive directly from South America or via mainland continental Europe. The street price of cocaine is much higher than in the U.S., making the UK an attractive market. A synthetic drug supply originates out of Western and Central Europe; amphetamines, ecstasy, and LSD have been traced back to sources in the Netherlands, Poland, as well as the UK.

The UK helps fund a UN antidrug program as well as offering bilateral assistance for drug interdiction efforts in Iran, a key country on the heroin transit route. The UN project covers training and equipment primarily to strengthen counternarcotics work at the borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan. British assistance includes direct training (by HM Customs and Excise) and equipment to strengthen Iran's exit border with Turkey, which addresses gaps in UNDCP coverage.

Domestic Programs. The UK Government's demand reduction efforts focus on school and other community-based programs to educate young people and to prevent them from ever starting on drugs. New guidelines were enacted in November 1998 to help teachers and youth-workers warn young people about the dangers of drugs. As noted above, the Drug Prevention Advisory Service (DPAS) was established in 1999 to provide school and community teams to give specialist prevention advice to all locally based drug action teams. The Standing Conference on Drug Abuse has also published guidance for teachers on managing drug problems in school.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. Since 1989, the U.S. and UK governments have conducted periodic consultations at the senior level to coordinate and harmonize policies, plans and programs on all counternarcotics fronts. Law enforcement cooperation between the two countries is excellent and growing. The first U.S.-UK drug summit, held in London in October 1999, revealed near unanimity on U.S.-UK drug issues, ranging from drugs in prisons to doping in sports, and demonstrated that domestic and foreign drug-policy issues have merged.

Moreover, as noted in the section on UK Caribbean Overseas Territories, practical bilateral cooperation—including joint naval operations, and deployment of USCG Law Enforcement Detachments on RN warships—is ongoing and productive in the Caribbean region. Joint efforts in the money-laundering arena have also been effective but could be enhanced. Cooperation from the Channel Islands and Isle of Man has improved significantly in the past few years.

The Road Ahead. The U.S. looks forward to continued close cooperation with the UK on all counternarcotics fronts.


I. Summary

Uzbekistan is not a major producer of narcotics or precursor chemicals, but is a major transit country for Afghan heroin, opium and hashish going to Russia and Western Europe. The Government of Uzbekistan has demonstrated commitment to stemming this flow, but resource constraints and lack of trained personnel and centralized coordination hamper drug control efforts. Drug abuse and addiction is increasing, although adequate official statistics are not available. Uzbekistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and the government considers the fight against drugs to be a high priority.

II. Status of Country

The explosive growth in heroin and opium production in Afghanistan has increased the volume of narcotics crossing Uzbekistan, mostly from Tajikistan. Precursor chemicals have in the past traveled the same routes in reverse to laboratories in Afghanistan and Pakistan, but there were no seizures of precursor chemicals in 2000. Drug abuse and addiction are increasing, but little is being done in prevention and rehabilitation. A lack of resources prevents adequate attention to drug issues, although political will is high.

III. Country Actions Against Drugs in 2000

Policy Initiatives. Uzbekistan is a strong participant in regional and bilateral counternarcotics initiatives, taking a leadership role when necessary. Under a new narcotics law mentioned below, the State Drug Control Commission has been given clear responsibility for coordination of narcotics issues in the country.

Accomplishments. A new law on narcotic substances and psychotropic agents took effect January 1, 2000. The law sets out a legal framework for the regulation of production, use and transport of narcotics and precursors. Licensing is now required for all legitimate activities, including medical use, of these substances. In addition, import and export activities require explicit permission of the State Commission on Drug Control. The law also contains a section on combating illegal trafficking in narcotics, directing the State Commission on Drug Control to coordinate counternarcotics efforts and authorizing law enforcement agencies to take such measures as conducting searches, confiscating contraband and compelling blood testing for suspected criminal drug use. The law's final section guarantees medical treatment for addicts. Although the law's scope is comprehensive, it is not detailed. Officials are currently drafting the regulations necessary to implement the law. In September, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan signed an agreement on regional cooperation in fighting transnational crime, including narcotics. Uzbekistan agreed to establish an information and analysis clearinghouse for the partners, which is supported by the UN Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODCCP).

Law Enforcement Efforts. According to the State Commission on Drug Control, law enforcement agencies seized 1.5 metric tons of opium and 450 kilograms of heroin in the first nine months of 2000. The Customs Service in particular has improved its drug interdiction record over the last year. The Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), the National Security Services (NSS), and the State Customs Committee have separate counternarcotics jurisdiction, including domestic crime, international organized crime and foreign intelligence, and border control, respectively. Despite this apparently clear delineation of responsibilities, the lack of operational coordination diminishes the effectiveness of counternarcotics efforts. In addition, all entities face a severe lack of money for equipment and training and must rely on international assistance to improve their capabilities. The State Commission on Drug Control was designed to minimize internecine problems and duplication of efforts, but has had limited success.

Corruption. While there were no major narcotics-related corruption cases in 2000, corruption and bribery among law enforcement officials are common and sometimes related to narcotics.

Agreements and Treaties. Uzbekistan is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. Uzbekistan has signed various bilateral and multilateral agreements over the years that include ongoing narcotics cooperation with its Central Asian neighbors and other countries in the region and with various European governments and the USG. Uzbekistan is party to the Commonwealth of Independent States Multilateral Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreements. As an active participant in the UN Six Plus Two counternarcotics initiative, Uzbekistan signed the Regional Action Plan, which it helped to draft. Uzbekistan also signed the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime in December 2000.

Cultivation/Production. Cannabis and opium poppies are cultivated in the mountainous areas of Uzbekistan, particularly in the regions of Samarkand and Syrhandarya. Uzbek officials report that successful eradication efforts have significantly decreased the level of drug cultivation.

Drug Flow/Transit. The quantity of opium and heroin drugs crossing Uzbek territory continues to grow. Since the only Afghan-Uzbek border crossing is closed, most narcotics transiting Uzbekistan come via Tajikistan through various crossing points. Transport police and customs officials regularly also apprehend drug smugglers on the Dushanbe-Moscow train. Chemical precursors from Russia and Ukraine bound for laboratories in Southwest Asia have transited Uzbekistan in the recent past, although no seizures were made in 2000.

Domestic Programs/Demand Reduction. The government youth agency, KAMOLOT, has a public relations campaign against drug use. Registered addicts are subject to compulsory treatment. Most observers agree that there are around 200,000 drug abusers among Uzbekistan's 24 million inhabitants. The problem is growing.

IV. U.S. Policy Initiatives and Programs

Bilateral Cooperation. The USG continued to provide assistance to Uzbekistan's counternarcotics efforts in 2000 either bilaterally or through UNODCCP projects. This included support of the UNODCCP project for the Uzbek Institute of Genetics research into an opium-destroying pathogen and the State Drug Control Commission's Regional Narcotics Information Center. The USG provided various training courses for law enforcement entities and judicial and prosecutorial officials. The USG also provided nine jeeps with spare parts packages for counternarcotics use by the State Customs Committee.

The Road Ahead. The USG will continue to support Uzbekistan's counternarcotics efforts by providing training and equipment. It will also support UNODCCP efforts to increase project support from major donors.


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