Consensus of Miami: Declaration by Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures: Recommendations to the Summit-Mandated Special Conference on Security
Meeting of Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures
The Meeting of Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, assembled in Miami, Florida, from February 3-4, 2003, to fulfill the mandate of the Plan of Action emanating from the Second Summit of Americas, in which the Heads of State and Government instructed the Committee on Hemispheric Security to "analyze the meaning, scope, and implications of international security concepts in the Hemisphere, with a view to developing the most appropriate common approaches by which to manage their various aspects, including disarmament and arms control," and to "pinpoint ways to revitalize and strengthen the institutions of the Inter-American System related to the various aspects of Hemispheric Security," with a view to holding a Special Conference on Security under the auspices of the OAS once these tasks have been completed.
The Heads of State and Government, at the Third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City, called for "an experts meeting, before the Special Conference on Security, as a follow-up to the regional conferences of Santiago and San Salvador on CSBMs, in order to evaluate implementation and consider next steps to further consolidate mutual confidence."
OAS General Assembly resolution AG/RES.1880 (XXXII-O/02) convened the Meeting of Experts as follow-up to the first Meeting of Experts in Buenos Aires (1994) and the regional conferences of Santiago (1995) and San Salvador (1998) on confidence- and security-building measures in order "to evaluate implementation and consider next steps to further mutual confidence," and "to transmit the conclusions and recommendations of the Meeting of Experts to the preparatory body of the Special Conference on Security as a contribution to the preparation of that Conference."
General Considerations and Conclusions
We, the experts from the member states, have identified the following general considerations and conclusions to be transmitted to the Special Conference on Security:
Reaffirm that respect for international law, human rights, humanitarian international law, democracy, faithful compliance with treaties, the peaceful settlement of disputes, international cooperation, respect for the sovereignty of states and for the principle of nonintervention, and the prohibition of the use or threat of the use of force, in accordance with the terms of the Charters of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, are the basis for peaceful coexistence and security in the Hemisphere, and constitute the framework for the development of confidence- and security-building measures. They also affirm that an essential condition for achieving an effective international security system is that all states submit to universal, equal, and binding rules.
Confidence- and security-building measures contribute to enhancing security, safeguarding peace, and consolidating democracy in the Americas, as well as to building transparency, dialogue, and trust in the Hemisphere.
Recognize that economic, social, and cultural development is inextricably linked to international peace and security. Within this context, the adoption of CSBMs is a significant contribution to transparency, mutual understanding, regional security, and the attainment of development goals, including efforts to overcome poverty, generate more jobs, protect the environment, overcome trade barriers, and prevent and mitigate of natural disasters.
It is necessary to deepen and strengthen existing CSBMs and implement them fully, with a view to consolidating peace and security in the Hemisphere. The consolidation of mutual confidence at the bilateral, subregional and regional level will contribute positively to the efforts undertaken with the aim of overcoming traditional threats and confronting new threats, concerns, and other challenges to security in the region.
Taking into account the Declaration of Santiago of the Fifth Conference of Ministers of Defense of the Americas, we agree that the development of confidence- and security-building measures is part of the emergence of a new, flexible security architecture in the Americas. Confidence- and security-building measures are a substantial and irreplaceable component of a network of bilateral, subregional, regional, and hemispheric cooperative agreements, which have been developed in addition to the security institutions forged by the inter-American system throughout its history, including those of a collective nature.
New CSBMs and transparency measures have to be implemented in the region to overcome the traditional threats to security and confront the new threats, concerns and other challenges of the twenty-first century and to address the security realities of the subregions of the Americas.
The application of CSBMs helps create a climate conducive to arms control, limitation of conventional weapons, nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and disarmament, which makes it possible to devote more resources to the economic and social development of member states, which is a basic purpose of the OAS Charter, taking into account compliance with international commitments, as well as legitimate and defense needs of member states.
It is prudent to monitor, evaluate, and otherwise ensure implementation of agreed CSBMs through the exchange of information regarding the implementation efforts of individual OAS member states to the Committee on Hemispheric Security through the OAS Information System (OASIS).
The peaceful settlement of disputes is an essential principle for peaceful relations in the Hemisphere.
It is important to recognize the work of the OAS Secretary General through the specific Fund for Peace: Peaceful Settlement of Territorial Disputes and to continue support for his efforts.
Progress has been achieved in the identification and application of confidence- and security-building measures relating to the majority of areas identified in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador, which has contributed to the reduction of tensions and factors generating distrust and the promotion of friendly and cooperative relations among states in the Hemisphere, in accordance with the Charter of the Organization of American States and international law.
The Conferences of Ministers of Defense of the Americas are a mechanism that contributes to strengthening confidence, transparency, and an exchange of viewpoints on defense and security issues.
The inventory of confidence- and security-building measures undertaken in other regions of the world, prepared by the Inter-American Defense Board, as well as their annual report on CSBMs implemented in the Hemisphere, have been important contributions to the ongoing dialogue on CSBMs within the OAS.
There has been significant progress made in the adoption, ratification, entry into force, and implementation of the various international legal mechanisms mentioned in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador on CSBMs, including: the Amended Protocol II to the UN Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects; the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and On Their Destruction; the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction; the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction; and the full participation of the states of Latin America and the Caribbean in the Treaty of Tlatelolco, noting that the accession of Cuba to the Treaty has strengthened the first inhabited nuclear-weapons-free zone.
There has also been significant progress made in the adoption, ratification, entry into force, and implementation of the various international legal mechanisms that address new threats, concerns, and other challenges, such as: the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions; the Inter-American Convention on the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials; and the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism.
There have been subregional advances and progress made in the area of confidence- and security-building measures and in other matters relating to hemispheric security since the San Salvador Regional Conference on CSBMs, held in February 1998, inter alia:
- The completion of the study "Common Standardized Methodology for the Measurement of Defense Expenditures," developed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in November 2001 at the request of the Governments of Argentina and Chile, as well as the advances achieved between Chile and Peru in the adoption of said methodology.
- The recommendations on confidence- and security-building measures emanating from the Second-High Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States, held from January 8 to 10, 2003, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
- The significant contribution to hemispheric security made by the various conventions, prohibitions, moratoria, and other restrictions on anti-personnel landmines that have been adopted by member states, noting that efforts have been made to address the matter of antipersonnel landmines in other fora, including the United Nations, the Conference on Disarmament, and other regional groups and organizations.
- The progress made toward completing mine action efforts in the Americas, in large part due to the important success of the Mine Action Program in the region, which has enjoyed the participation and support of an increasing number of member states, permanent observers, and other states, recognizing that these important steps forward are contributing to the goal of converting the Western Hemisphere into an Antipersonnel-Landmine-Free Zone.
- The progress achieved in the Andean Community of Nations in both the examination of the proposal contained in the Declaration of Santa Cruz in terms of the lowering of defense expenditures with the aim of allocating more resources to the fight against poverty, as well as in the formulation of a common Andean foreign policy in terms of security, according to what was established in the Lima Commitment-Andean Charter for Peace and Security.
- The progress achieved in South America in the Declaration on the South American Zone of Peace, signed in Guayaquil in July 2002.
- The progress achieved in the framework of MERCOSUR in the Declaration of MERCOSUR, Bolivia, and Chile as a Zone of Peace, signed in Ushuaia in 1998.
- The contribution to hemispheric security made by the efforts and actions of the countries of the Central American Integration System (SICA) with regard to confidence- and security-building measures, which have strengthened the Central American Democratic Security Model, which was furthered in the meetings of the Committee on Security.
- The implementation by the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security in Central America by its signatory and ratifying states.
In accordance with the multidimensional approach to security, contained in the Declaration of Bridgetown approved by the 2002 General Assembly, new measures have to be developed to address the "threats, concerns, and other challenges" to peace and security in the Hemisphere, in accordance with the geographic, political, social, cultural, and economic conditions of each country or subregion.
New threats, concerns, and other challenges are crosscutting problems that require multifaceted responses by different national organizations, all acting appropriately and in accordance with democratic norms and principles.
We, the experts, in order to build upon the recommendations contained in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador and taking into account the foregoing considerations and conclusions, recommend to the member states, as and where appropriate and in accordance with each state's legal and constitutional framework, the application of voluntary military and general measures set forth, respectively, in the following list:
Section I: Military Measures
- To implement a program of notification and observance of joint exercises and routine operations, as each state considers necessary.
- To undertake defense visit programs whereby the representatives from participating OAS member states visit defense installations and military academies in fellow OAS states, and to encourage the exchange of civilian and military personnel for both regular and advanced training between OAS member states.
- To participate in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, including the provision of information on national production, and exchange such information with OAS member states.
- To participate in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and to exchange such information with OAS member states.
- To develop common standardized methodologies for measuring defense expenditures among neighboring states.
- To develop and exchange defense policy and doctrine papers (defense white papers) among OAS member states, taking into account the guidelines approved by the Permanent Council of the OAS, by the next Defense Ministerial of the Americas in 2004.
- To exchange information on the functions, procedures, and institutional organization of ministries of defense and security, and related and pertinent institutions.
- To invite the Chair of the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security to observe joint exercises to be conducted in the Hemisphere.
- To establish, use, and exchange joint procedural manuals and credentials among armed forces and security bodies deployed in border regions.
Section II: General Measures
- To consider establishing, as appropriate, mutual confidence or security zones in border areas, in accordance with the security, freedom of movement, and economic and commercial development needs of each state.
- To encourage necessary coordination among all OAS bodies and specialized agencies so the OAS can serve as a clearing-house of hemispheric efforts to address threats, concerns, and other challenges.
- To intensify cooperation in increasing security for transport by land, sea, and air, as each state deems necessary, in accordance with international law.
- To intensify cooperation, within the framework of the OAS, in the fight against terrorism, drug interdiction, preventing illicit small arms and light weapons trafficking, combating piracy, preventing smuggling, search and rescue operations, and the protection of natural resources and archaeological goods.
- To establish national points of contact regarding natural disaster response, environmental security, transportation security, and critical infrastructure protection, and to consider establishing a hemispheric directory of national points of contact on these matters, in addition to exchanging information regarding scientific and meteorological research related to natural disasters.
- To exchange information on security issues, such as the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, within the framework of the UN and OAS, as appropriate.
- To identify excess stocks of small arms and light weapons as well as seized small arms and light weapons and, in accordance with national laws and international agreements in which they participate, to define programs for the destruction of said weapons and to invite international representatives to observe their destruction.
- To enhance multilateral cooperation among member states through the development and application of policies, programs, and activities aimed specifically at the issues that are identified by the small island states as concerns, threats, and challenges to their security.
- To consider the following actions for early implementation aimed at enhancing the security-building capabilities of the small island states:
- To establish a Virtual Private Network to facilitate regional sharing of criminal intelligence and other relevant databases in the fight against terrorism.
- To share critical information among border control authorities to strengthen border control capacity in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism.
- To create joint training programs to allow existing entities to meet new challenges.
- To engage in joint strategic planning and cooperation in the fight against these common threats.
- To exchange and share information at the bilateral, subregional, and regional levels to strengthen the capacity of small island states to address their special security concerns, including, but not limited to, information on health, environment, customs, and the illicit trafficking in drugs and firearms.
- To hold high-level hemispheric meetings to follow up on the actions taken by the member states to promote confidence and security and respond to the recommendations of the Second High-Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States.
- To cooperate closely to implement commitments agreed to at the 1998 Transportation Ministerial, active participation at the July 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, and to work together toward the continued strengthening of international standards regarding the maritime transport of potentially hazardous materials, including petroleum and radioactive materials.
- To hold high-level meetings involving the ministries of defense and foreign affairs at the bilateral, subregional, and regional levels in order to provide for frank and direct dialogue on the joint evaluation of various aspects of defense and security and to exchange ideas and views with respect to the objectives of national defense policy, as well as the shared means of addressing common problems in this area.
- To conduct combined exercises between armed forces and/or public security forces, respectively, in compliance with the legislation of each state.
- To comply with OAS General Assembly resolution 1288 by submitting a comprehensive inventory of CSBMs that each member state is conducting in the Hemisphere.
- To exchange information among states in a position to do so on the organization, structure, size, and composition of defense and security forces.
- To strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among police, law enforcement, and military authorities of neighboring states in accordance with their border situation.
- To promote dialogue among hemispheric legislators within existing fora on confidence-building measures and on matters of peace and hemispheric security, including the exchange of visits and the convening of meetings.
- To recommend the possibility of holding a conference of hemispheric civil society representatives on confidence-building measures and on matters of peace and hemispheric security, including the exchange of visits, in accordance with the Summit of the Americas process.
- To extend to diplomatic training institutes, military academies, research centers, and universities the seminars, courses, and studies envisioned in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador on confidence- and security-building measures, and other issues related to peace and hemispheric security, with participation in those activities by government, civilian, and military officials and by civil society; likewise, to encourage exchanges and contacts between students, academics, and experts in defense and security studies.
- To use the OAS Information System (OASIS) for the exchange of defense and security information, data, and communications.
- To exchange and share experience and ideas on transparency and CSBMs with other regional security fora, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the African Union (AU).
- To implement the relevant aspects of the program Education for Peace in the Hemisphere, adopted by the OAS Permanent Council through resolution CP/RES. 769/00.
- To continue consultations and the exchange of ideas within the Hemisphere to advance the limitation and control of conventional weapons in the region.
- To consider cooperative activities that develop regional peacekeeping skills and capacity through common training, combined exercises, and exchange of information on peacekeeping.
- To increase cooperation in accordance with the guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Natural Disaster Reduction and to mitigate the consequences of such disasters, based on the request and authorization of affected states.
With the aim of more effectively facing the new threats, concerns, and other challenges to hemispheric security, we the experts recommend strengthening, and, when applicable, developing measures to deepen cooperation and coordination among states. These measures are in themselves new CSBMs, as they propose a different approach to strengthening mutual confidence and cooperation in the Hemisphere.
Traditional military CSBMs do not necessarily address the new threats, concerns, and other challenges to hemispheric security. Non-military measures would complement the activities and actions undertaken by other fora in the inter-American system that contribute to the enhancement of confidence among states.
We recommend confronting the new threats, concerns, and other challenges to the security of the states of the Hemisphere by means of cooperative actions designed and carried out by governments in the framework of the appropriate OAS specialized organizations.
We recommend that member states consider the ratification of the conventions mentioned in the "General Considerations and Conclusions" section of this document and we encourage their full implementation by the states parties, recommending that member states seek methods of cooperating among themselves for the full achievement of the goals of the said conventions.
In order to further stimulate the development of additional measures within the Hemisphere, the experts propose that the governments of the OAS member states agree to release a Miami Group of Experts "Illustrative List of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures for Countries to Consider Adopting on the Bilateral, Subregional, and Regional Level."
We recommend to the Special Conference on Security that it consider the adoption and promotion of the measures identified.
We also recommend to the Special Conference on Security that the Committee on Hemispheric Security periodically constitute itself as the Forum for Confidence- and Security- Building Measures in order to review and evaluate existing CSBMs and to discuss, consider, and propose new CSBMs.
We, the experts, express our conviction that the Special Conference on Security is an important opportunity to consolidate progress and achievements made in the area of CSBMs, as well as to strengthen cooperation in this area.
We, the experts, recommend that the Special Conference on Security report to the General Assembly of the OAS and the next Summit of the Americas on these achievements in order to continue to make progress regarding cooperation in this area.
We, the experts, express our special appreciation to the Government of the United States for the warm welcome extended as well as the excellent work in preparing for and conducting the Meeting of Experts on CSBMs in Miami, Florida, from February 3-4, 2003.