January 15, 2003


Second High-Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States
January 8-10, 2003
Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Declaration of Kingstown on the Security of Small Island States
(Adopted at the Fourth Plenary Session held on January 10, 2003)

The Member States of the Organization of American States, meeting in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, on the occasion of the Second High-Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States,

Recall that Article 1 of the Charter of the Organization of American States, states that the Organization has been established "...to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, and their independence";

Recall also that according to article 2 of the Charter two essential purposes of the Organization are "to strengthen the peace and security of the continent" and "to prevent possible causes of difficulties...";

Recall further the support expressed by the Heads of State and Government at the Third Summit of the Americas (Quebec City, April 2001) for the efforts of the small island developing states to address their special security concerns, and of the recognition accorded to the multidimensional nature of security for the smallest and most vulnerable states in the Hemisphere;

Bear in mind the spirit of the different General Assembly resolutions addressing the special security concerns of the small island states, and in particular AG/RES. 1886 (XXXII-O/02);

Reaffirm the Declaration of Bridgetown, AG/DEC. 27 (XXXII-0/02), through which the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation "recognized that the threats, concerns and other challenges to the Hemisphere are diverse in nature and multidimensional in scope, and that the traditional concept and approach must be expanded to encompass new and nontraditional threats, which include political, economic, social, health and environmental aspects";

Note that paragraph 1 of the above mentioned resolution AG/RES. 1886, the General Assembly entrusted the Second High-Level Meeting with, inter alia, the consideration of "appropriate multilateral strategies to address these threats and concerns in an effective and coordinated manner" and adoption of "a management model or better coordinating approaches through which these special security threats and concerns of small island states can be appropriately and adequately addressed";

Note also the General Assembly request "to transmit the conclusions and recommendations of the Second High-Level Meeting to the preparatory body of the Special Conference on Security as a contribution to the preparations for that Conference";

Take into account that, in July 2001, the 22nd Meeting of Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) states, established a Crime and Security Task Force "to examine the major causes of crime and recommend approaches to deal with inter-related problems of crime, illicit drugs and firearms, as well as terrorism" and "to deal with overall threats to regional security ... [including] crime and violence, regional cooperation to interdict the illicit trafficking in drugs and firearms, the impact of deportees on crime and security in the Region, counter terrorist plans, information and intelligence sharing, and the legal framework required to facilitate collaboration and cooperation among the security forces within the region"; and

Take into account also that in July 2002, the 23rd Meeting of the said Conference recognized the efforts by this Task Force to develop "a formula to ensure more effective, preemptive and response measures to the upsurge in crime and threats to security at the national and regional levels";

Convinced:

That an effective and holistic management mechanism should be established and maintained to assist the small island states in addressing the multidimensional and transnational threats to their security in a coordinated and cooperative manner;

That multilateral, financial, technical and political cooperation should be enhanced to enable the small island states to address their special security concerns; and

Recognize that it may become necessary to consider other coordinating approaches for addressing the small island states' special security threats, concerns and challenges,

DECLARE:

1. That the small island states have peculiar characteristics which render these states specially vulnerable and susceptible to security risks, threats, concerns and other challenges of a multidimensional and transnational nature, involving political, economic, social, health, environmental and geographic factors.

2.That the special security concerns of small island states is a priority issue for the Hemisphere that requires renewed and on-going attention, and appropriate instruments and strategies for addressing these concerns in the inter-American system.

3.Their adoption of the security management model for small island states, attached hereto, as a framework for the establishment of policies and systems for appropriately and adequately addressing the new threats, concerns and other challenges to the security of these states.

4.Their support for the efforts of small island states to define goals and develop an implementation plan for this security management model, for consideration by the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security and the Special Conference on Security to be held in Mexico in May, 2003.

5.That the small island states will consider the following actions, for early implementation, aimed at enhancing their security-building capabilities:

i. A Virtual Private Network to facilitate regional sharing of criminal intelligence and other relevant databases in the fight against terrorism;
ii. Sharing of critical information among border-control authorities to strengthen border-control capacity in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism;

iii. Joint training programs to allow existing entities to meet the new challenges; and

iv. Joint strategic planning and cooperation in the fight against these common threats.

6.Their adoption of the recommendations, attached hereto, to the Special Conference on Security to be held in Mexico City, Mexico, in May 2003.

7.Their adoption of the confidence- and security-building measures attached hereto and recommend that these measures, relative to enhancing transparency in the Hemisphere, be forwarded for adoption of these measures by the Meeting of Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, to be held in Miami, Florida, in February 2003.

8.That there should be a periodic assessment, at the hemispheric level, of the implementation of this security management model.

9.That multilateral cooperation, including the exchanging and sharing of information, among member states should be encouraged in order to strengthen the capacity of small island states to address their special security concerns.

10.That it is important that the organs, agencies and entities of the inter-American system develop and strengthen programs and activities particularly aimed at addressing the special security concerns of small island states.

11.That the organs, agencies and entities of the inter-American system should take necessary steps to protect small island states from potential threats to their security.

12.That they are aware that the small island states and other coastal states of the Hemisphere are deeply concerned about the possible threats posed to their economic and maritime environment should a ship transporting hazardous waste, in particular nuclear waste, have an accident or be the target of a terrorist attack while transiting the Caribbean Sea.

13.That the establishment of a specific fund should be considered in the context of existing multilateral funding instruments and mechanisms, in order to assist small island states, at their request, in urgent security situations.

14.That this Declaration and the recommendations attached hereto should be presented as a contribution to the above-mentioned Special Conference on Security.

APPENDIX I
SECURITY MANAGEMENT MODEL ON SPECIAL THREATS, CONCERNS AND CHALLENGES OF SMALL ISLAND STATES

Declaration of Kingstown Appendix 1 security management model on special threats, concerns and challenges of small island states.

1- Objectives:
- Establish an effective management policy framework to assist the small island states in dealing with multidimensional and transnational threats to their security in a coordinated and cooperative manner.
- Set a collective security approach to cope with the various threats confronting the small island states.
- Set a cooperative approach to cope with other challenges and concerns in the region.
2- Internal Actors and Policies:
Internal Actors: Government in consultation with civil society and other actors.
- Identification of threats, concerns, challenges and their sources.
- Analysis and assessment of the threats, concerns and challenges including a determination of their gravity
- Establishment of policies to address security, political, economic, social, health and environmental threats identified.
- Determination of approaches and procedures to be followed in case of the realization of the threats.

3- Cooperation with External Actors: multilateral cooperation and consultations upon request of the affected small island state
- Adoption of resolution and / or other measures for bilateral and multilateral action
- Special meetings
- Invoking bilateral, sub-regional, regional and international treaties, conventions and agreements
- Funding
- Technical and other cooperation
- Information sharing
- Confidence- and security-building measures

4- Preparedness: Precautionary and preventive action
- Determination by the affected small island state of the need for precautionary and preventive action, according to the nature and the degree of the threat
- Training
- Information sharing
- Legislative action
- Action simulation
- Public awareness
- Multilateral funds to address the needs.

5- Implementation of Policies
- In the case of precise threats, implementation of the established policies and triggering of regional and international cooperation.
- For each category of threat, the constituted pertinent bodies intervene, maintaining the links and coordination among them.

6- International Dialogue
- Maintaining the topic on the agenda of international organizations.
- Regular meetings of pertinent international organizations, especially the OAS, on the matter of the security of small island states.

7-Follow-up
- Review and assessment of response policies, strategies and plans to counter targeted threats.
- Small Island States will consider the applicability of existing arrangements or the need to create mechanisms for the coordination of action to address their multi-dimensional security needs.
- Consider the need to adopt legal instruments, at the national and international levels, to formally address the issue and ensure its follow-up.

Notes on the Security Management Model on Special Threats, Concerns and Challenges of Small Island States


1- Background

The General Assembly, through Resolution AG/RES. 1802 (XXXI-O/01) decided that the Second High Level Meeting on the Special Security concerns of Small Island States should adopt a management model to properly address their security threats, concerns and challenges. This mandate was confirmed by the General Assembly at its XXXII Regular Session in Barbados, through Resolution AG/RES. 1886 (XXXII-O/02), through which it was also resolved that the Second High-Level Meeting would "consider adopting a management model or better coordinating approaches through which these special security threats and concerns of small island states can be appropriately and adequately addressed." The model sets a collective and cooperative security approach to cope with the various threats and challenges confronting, and concerns of, the Small Island States.

Similarly, in the Declaration of Bridgetown, the General Assembly recognized the multidimensional approach to hemispheric security and stated that the security of the Hemisphere "encompasses political, economic, social, health and environmental factors". This approach goes far beyond the traditional security concept linked with defense of sovereignty and territorial integrity. It aims at human security and stresses prevention. Furthermore, its cooperative component plays a very important role, given the interdependency among traditional actors, the transnational nature of the threats and the particular vulnerability of the small island states.

The five security factors listed in the Declaration of Bridgetown are key elements for the stability of those states. According to the degree threats related to these factors impact the small islands, even their survival can be at risk. The management model includes all those elements, stressing furthermore the role of the actors, interaction among them, policies and procedures to address the threats to and attacks on their security.

As acknowledged in the Declaration of Bridgetown, the nature of many of these threats, challenges and concerns necessitates the formulation and application of multi-level (national, regional, hemispheric, and international), coordinated and cooperative response policies, strategies, and programs in order to counter the threats and challenges and their impact.

In this context, cooperation with external actors is vital to the security management of the small island states. Internal and external actors interact in the process of enhancing the preparedness level of these states, implementing the established policies, encouraging international dialogue and ensuring the follow-up and development of the model.

2- Objectives and scope of the Model

The Security Management Model establishes a holistic effective management mechanism to assist the small island states in dealing with multidimensional and transnational threats and challenges to, and concerns about, their security in a coordinated and cooperative manner. It establishes a collective and cooperative security approach to cope with the various threats and challenges confronting, and concerns of, those states.

The model is cyclical in application and is based on six inter-related processes (internal actors and policies, cooperation with external actors, preparedness, implementation of policies, international dialogue, follow-up). The model:


- Focuses on coherent inter-institutional co-ordination at the national level;

- Provides a cyclical framework for considering and addressing security-related issues, including a determination of their gravity;

- Does not delve into or specifically identify micro-level aspects of management actions and responses by the State (i.e. operational and tactical issues or organisational mechanisms and structures which could be established to support the application of this model); and

- Encourages wider participation in the security management process through the incorporation of inputs from relevant non-state organisations and institutions.

The model provides a process which:

- The small states could apply in the management of their responses to the special security threats and concerns which confront them;

- Facilitates consultation and coordination with, and input from, governmental Ministries, departments and agencies, and from relevant civil society bodies within the State, including academia;

- Incorporates input from relevant regional, hemispheric and international institutions and arrangements. This takes into account the multidimensional and trans-national nature and scope of the security threats and concerns confronting small states;

- Facilitates informed strategic decision-making and integrated policy formulation which is based on sound strategic analyses;

- Facilitates structured, focused, coherent and cooperative responses to identified threats and timely reviews of policies and strategies to determine the effectiveness of such responses.

3- Internal Actors and policies

Governments form the core foundation of multi-level and multilateral security management processes. They consult with civil society and other actors in this endeavour. The interaction between these internal actors leads, inter alia, to the following results:

- Identification of threats, concerns, challenges and their sources
- Analysis and assessment of the threats, concerns and challenges, including a determination of their gravity
- Prevention of threats from becoming reality and preparedness.
- Establishment of policies to address political, economic, social, health and environmental threats identified.
- Determination of approaches and procedures to be followed in case of realization of the threats

4- Cooperation with External Actors
The internal actors are encouraged to resort to external actors to get cooperation. Upon request of an affected small state, the following measures may be adopted in the framework of the international organizations:


- Adoption of resolution and / or other measures for bilateral and multilateral actions,
- Special meetings,
- Invoking treaties
- Funding
- Technical and other cooperation
- Confidence- and security-building measures

The internal actors may also resort to any other kind of external actors, according to their needs and policies.

5- Preparedness

Prevention and preparedness are key in managing the security of the small island states. They include:

- Precautionary and preventive so that threats do not become a reality
- Determination by the affected small state of the need for precautionary action, according to the nature and the degree of the threat
- Training
- Information sharing
- Legislative action
- Action simulation
- Public awareness
- National, bilateral, regional and multilateral funds to address the needs

6- Implementation of Policies

Policies established by internal actors are very important tools to address the security threats, concerns and challenges. They need to be clear, well articulated, well known. Their review is essential to keep them up to date. Their due implementation reinforces the confidence and boldness of the actors.

The following elements should be taken into account:

- In case of precise threats, implementation of the established policies and triggering of the international cooperation

- For each category of threat, the constituted pertinent bodies intervene, maintaining the links and coordination among them.

7- International Dialogue
Given the special vulnerability of the small island states, the issue of their security should remain permanently on the agenda of international organizations. Bilateral, sub-regional, regional and international fora would convene regular meetings to review the functioning of the system put in place through the model.

8- Follow-up

To ensure the sustainability of the system, internal and external actors will contemplate, in due course, the creation of a sub-regional body to address the multidimensional security needs mentioned.

International organizations will contemplate the adoption of legal instruments related to the matter.

Internal and external actors will review and assess the response policies, strategies and plans to counter targeted threats, concerns and challenges.

APPENDIX II
R
ECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE SECOND HIGH-LEVEL MEETING ON THE SPECIAL SECURITY CONCERNS OF SMALL ISLAND STATES TO THE SPECIAL CONFERENCE ON SECURITY

The Member States of the Organization of American States, meeting in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, on the occasion of the Second High-Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States,

Recalling the General Assembly request set out in its resolution AG/RES. 1886 (XXXII-O/02 "Special Security Concerns of Small Island States", that this Second High-Level Meeting contribute to the Special Conference on Security by forwarding its conclusions and providing recommendations for consideration; and

Bearing in mind that, in compliance with the General Assembly instruction to the Permanent Council contained in the above-mentioned resolution, the OAS Secretary General is currently conducting, in coordination with relevant regional, hemispheric and international organizations and institutions, a study on defense and security planning for small island states in order to adequately respond to an incident or a terrorist attack on nuclear waste-bearing ships crossing the Caribbean Sea,

Present to the Committee on Hemispheric Security, in its capacity as preparatory body of the Special Conference on Security, the following recommendations:

1. That the Special Conference on Security consider the concept and definition of security of small island states set out in the Declaration of Kingstown on Security of Small Island States so that the multidimensional and transnational nature and scope of security is included in its conclusions on hemispheric security, the determination of common approaches to manage security, and the revitalization and strengthening of the inter-American security system's institutions, instruments and mechanisms.

2. That the Declaration of Kingstown on Security of Small Island States, including the Security Management Model and the Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, together with the Final Report of that High-Level Meeting and its conclusions, be transmitted to the Special Conference for consideration.

3. That the Special Conference on Security consider endorsing the Security Management Model adopted by the Second High-Level Meeting in accordance with the Declaration of Kingstown on the Security of Small Island States.

4. That the Special Conference on Security affirm that it is imperative to maintain on the hemispheric security agenda, the issue of the multidimensional and transnational nature and scope of security and the special impact of these security concerns, threats and challenges for small island states.

5. That the Special Conference on Security affirm that multilateral cooperation and coordination are necessary to enhance the security of small island states and that efforts in this regard promote confidence among all member states.

6. That the Special Conference on Security consider the need to establish a specific fund in the context of existing multilateral funding instruments and mechanisms to address urgent security needs of small island states.

7. That the Special Conference on Security take into account the conclusions of this High-Level Meeting with respect to the transshipment of nuclear waste through the Caribbean Sea.

8. That the Special Conference on Security recognize the value of follow-up high-level meetings on the special security concerns of small island states and so recommend to the General Assembly.


APPENDIX III
CONFIDENCE- AND SECURITY-BUILDING MEASURES TO ENHANCE THE SECURITY OF SMALL ISLAND STATES

The Member States of the Organization of American States, meeting in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, on the occasion of the Second High-Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States,


Reiterate the statement in the Declaration of Santiago on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, adopted in 1995 in Santiago, Chile, that "confidence- and security-building measures must be adapted to the geographic, political, social, cultural and economic conditions of each region, and they have their own scope...";

Reiterate also the recognition in the Declaration of San Salvador on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, adopted in 1998 in San Salvador, that "... the concept of security for the small island states of the Hemisphere is multidimensional in scope, involving state and non-state actors, and includes political, economic, social, and natural components. The small island states have concluded that among the threats to their security are illegal drug trafficking, the illegal trade in arms, increasing levels of crime and corruption, environmental and economic vulnerability, particularly in relation to trade, susceptibility to natural disasters, transportation of nuclear waste, and increased levels of poverty...";

Recall that the member states have adopted 21 confidence- and security-building measures at the regional conferences of Santiago (1995) and San Salvador (1998);

Recall further that through its resolution AG/RES. 1880 (XXXII-O/02), the General Assembly convened the Meeting of Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures" and requested that this Meeting formulate recommendations to the Special Conference on Security;

Recall also that in its resolution AG/RES. 1886 (XXXII-O/02 "Special Security Concerns of Small Island States", the General Assembly requested that this Second High-Level Meeting contribute to the Special Conference on Security by forwarding its conclusions and providing recommendations for consideration;

Noting the efforts of the international community to prevent and suppress acts of terrorism against shipping, in particular the IMO Diplomatic Conference of Contracting Governments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life of the Sea (1974) held in December, 2002, and recognizing concerns about the potential for damage to arise in the event of an accident or incident during the maritime transport of potentially hazardous materials, including petroleum and radioactive materials;

Desiring to fully contribute to a complete agenda for the Special Conference on Security, and

Considering that social, human, political, and economic development and stability, as well as environmental sustainability, are prerequisites for the security of small island states, and that confidence- and security-building measures would contribute to such development, stability and sustainability,

Agree to adopt and forward for the consideration of the said Meeting of Experts and the Special Conference on Security, the following confidence- and security-building measures for enhancing the security of small island states and the wider Hemisphere:

1. Multilateral cooperation among member states through the development and application of policies, programs and activities aimed specifically at the issues that are identified by the small island states as concerns, threats and challenges to their security.

2. That the small island states will consider the following actions for early implementation aimed at enhancing their security-building capabilities:

i. A Virtual Private Network to facilitate regional sharing of criminal intelligence and other relevant databases in the fight against terrorism;

ii. Sharing of critical information among border-control authorities to strengthen border-control capacity in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism;

iii. Joint training programs to allow existing entities to meet the new challenges; and

iv. Joint strategic planning and cooperation in the fight against these common threats.

3. The exchanging and sharing of information at the bilateral and multilateral levels to strengthen the capacity of small island states to address their special security concerns, including, but not limited to, information on health, environment, customs, and the illicit trafficking in drugs and firearms.

4. Holding of high-level hemispheric meetings to follow-up on the actions taken by Members States to promote confidence and security and respond to the recommendations of the Second High-Level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States.

5. Closer cooperation to implement commitments agreed to at the 1998 Transportation Ministerial, active participation at the July, 2003 IAEA Conference on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Material, and to work together towards the continued strengthening of international standards regarding the maritime transport of potentially hazardous materials, including petroleum

[This is a mobile copy of Declaration of Kingstown]