The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is committed to ensuring that all claims for refugee and asylum protection are treated with fairness, respect, and dignity. Shortly after passage of the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA), the INS began to assess existing asylum and refugee training programs in order to address the specific training topics required with the IRFA. The INS has formed a working group to coordinate compliance under the law, including training, development of guidelines relating to potential hostile biases, and enforcement of the new inadmissibility provision relating to foreign government officials who have committed particularly severe violations of religious freedom. This appendix summarizes the agency's actions during FY2001, as required under Section 102 (b)(1)(E) of the IRFA.

I. Section 602 (a): Training of Refugee Adjudicators

Section 602(a)(1) of the IRFA amends section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act by requiring that the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, provide "all United States officials adjudicating refugee cases under this section with the same training as that provided to officers adjudicating asylum cases under section 208." This training must include "country-specific conditions, instruction on the internationally recognized right to freedom of religion, instruction on methods of religious persecution practiced in foreign countries, and applicable distinctions within a country between the nature of and treatment of various religious practices and believers."

Prior to the IRFA, no specific statute or regulation governed the training of officers adjudicating refugee cases in the overseas refugee program. Refugee adjudications have traditionally been done by Immigration Officers stationed overseas who receive, in addition to basic immigration law training, specialized training consisting of a survey of refugee law and procedure, as well as in-country training. In recent years the majority of officers detailed for specific short-term refugee processing work have been Asylum Officers, who receive approximately 5 weeks of specialized training related to international human rights law, nonadversarial interview techniques, and other relevant national and international refugee laws and principles.1

To comply with IRFA training requirements prior to FY2001, non-Asylum Officers adjudicating overseas refugee cases attended portions of the 5-week Asylum Officer Basic Training Course (AOBTC). In FY2001, the Office of International Affairs, Refugee Branch, developed a specialized 2-week training in refugee law and overseas refugee procedure. This course focused specifically on the United States Refugee Program and consisted of concentrated presentations of refugee law materials adapted from the Asylum Officer Basic Training Course (AOBTC) curriculum, as well as overseas refugee procedure materials developed specifically for the training. The curriculum mirrored those portions of the AOBTC that are applicable to adjudication of overseas refugee cases. Twenty-four overseas officers attended the training. All persons who adjudicate refugee requests will continue to receive country conditions training and materials provided primarily by the INS Resource Information Center (RIC) in the Office of International Affairs, as well as copies of the Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom mandated by Section 102 of the IRFA.

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II. Section 603 (b): Training of Asylum Officers Adjudicating Asylum Cases, and Immigration Officers Performing Duties under section 235 (b) of the INA (Expedited Removal).

Asylum

Asylum Officers have received focused training on claims involving religious issues since the Asylum Division's inception in 1991, and this was augmented in FY2001 both with basic asylum training and continuing training in the field offices. Two AOBTC classes were conducted during FY2001 in which a total of 52 new Asylum Officers were trained. The course also included a specific lesson devoted to the IRFA and, throughout the course, additional emphasis was placed on religious persecution issues.

Local Asylum Office trainers continue to follow a policy of including a discussion of religious persecution whenever relevant during training on country conditions. In addition, all offices in FY2001 had training specifically on religious persecution, and many of these sessions were presented by outside experts. During FY2001 the Asylum Division continued to promote online research and train officers both in the field offices and at the AOBTC, and examples of religious groups and religious persecution in different countries were used as exercises to conduct online research.

The RIC has published an online guide to web research on the INS Intranet, and an area was created for and devoted to government and nongovernment links to religious persecution websites. The RIC serves both the Asylum Division and the Refugee Branch and is responsible for the collection and/or production and distribution of materials regarding human rights conditions around the world. The RIC separately catalogs religious freedom periodicals and separately codes RIC responses to field queries that involve religious issues. A list of documents focused specifically on religious persecution and distributed to the asylum field offices is attached. There are also numerous reports distributed by the RIC that are country or region-specific and do not focus on religion but which contain some information on religious persecution in the particular country or region.

Expedited Removal/Credible Fear

Approximately 4,500 Immigration Inspectors and 2,500 Detention and Deportation Officers may at some time be involved in the expedited removal/credible fear process and therefore are subject to the training provisions of Section 603(b). A training video is currently in production. The video will be used to ensure that all officers who may be involved in the expedited removal/credible fear process under INA Section 235 (b) understand the need for sensitivity to persecution claims.

Section 602 (c): Guidelines for Addressing Hostile Biases: Employees Hired Abroad

Preliminary guidelines have been drafted for the hiring of personnel abroad who work in refugee-related situations, and revisions to these drafts are under discussion within the INS working group. The INS and the Department of State (DOS) are discussing ways in which IRFA obligations can be included in the standard DOS contract entered into with non-governmental agencies involved in refugee processing. DOS anticipates developing the guidelines more fully through consultation with overseas personnel officers and the relevant DOS components in the course of the following fiscal year.

Section 603 (a): Guidelines for Addressing Hostile Biases: Interpreters

Guidelines for interpreters of conversations between aliens and Immigration Inspectors/Asylum Officers are to be developed jointly by DOS and the Department of Justice. In the asylum field offices, applicants for asylum currently provide their own interpreters. In the expedited removal/credible fear process, the INS provides interpreters through the use of contracted services. Officers at ports-of-entry currently employ various means of interpretation. The ports may use an Immigration Officer or the INS Interpreters' Unit in New York, if available, or they may use one of several commercial services, if funding permits. All ports-of-entry employees have been notified of the provisions of the IRFA relating to use of interpreters with hostile biases, and have been advised to avoid the use of airline employees as interpreters, whenever possible, for secondary inspection.

Language Services Associates (LSA) is the only interpreter service currently used by Asylum Officers in the Asylum Pre-Screening program. The contract between LSA and the INS has special provisions to ensure the security and confidentiality of the credible fear process, and efforts are underway to include specific antibias provisions in future interpreter contracts. A list of language service providers developed by the Asylum Division can now be used by any INS division needing language translation and interpreter services.

Freedom of Religion Articles Distributed by the INS Resource Information Center

Below is a comprehensive, chronological list of the specialized documents on religious practices and abuses of religious freedom distributed by the INS Resource Information Center (RIC) to the Asylum Division since 1992. They were distributed at the time they came to the attention of the RIC, which, in some cases, was one or more years after the date of publication. This list does not include articles the RIC makes available to asylum field offices in the biweekly News Summary for Asylum Adjudicators.

Immigration and Refugee Board Documentation Centre. Mohajirs: Issue Paper (Ottawa: IRBDC, September 1990), 24 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board Documentation Centre. Ghana: Freedom of Religion (Ottawa: IRBDC, May 1991), 9 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board Documentation Centre. The Ahmadiyya (Ottawa: IRBDC, June 1991), 31 p.

Amnesty International. Pakistan: Violations of Human Rights of Ahmadis (London: AI, ASA 33/15/91, September 1991), 11 p.

Asia Watch. Freedom of Religion in China (New York: Human Rights Watch, January 1992), 77 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board Documentation Centre. Pakistan: Treatment of Ahmadis Who Return (Ottawa, IRBDC, February 1992), 16 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, CIS, Baltic States and Georgia: Situation of Jews (Ottawa: IRB DIRB, July 1992), 35 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Pakistan: The Mohajirs (Ottawa: IRB DIRB, September 1992).

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center. Information Packet Series. Syria: Syrian Jews: Historical Perspective and Current Events (Washington, DC: INS RIC, IP/SYR/92.001, August, 1992).

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Israel: Jews from the Former Soviet Union (Ottawa: IRB DIRB, February 1993).

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, Syria, Persecution of Syrian Jews, distributed by US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Master Exhibit Series, (Washington, DC: HIAS, ME/SYR/93.001, 1993)

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Nigeria: Religion and Conflict (Ottawa: IRB DIRB, March 1993).

Baha'i International Community, The Baha'i Question: Iran's Secret Blueprint for the Destruction of a Religious Community (New York: BIC Publications, 1993), 55 p.

Kenvin, Helene. Civil War, Ethnic Strife, and the Disintegration of Jewish Life in Georgia January 1992 through March 1993 (Esopus, NY: Caucasus Network, 2 April 1993), 15 p.

Amnesty International. Persecution of Christians in China: Appeal for Zhang Lezhi, Yan Peizhi and Xu Zhihe (London: AI, ASA 17/23/93, June 1993), 3 p.

Kenvin, Helene. Anti-Semitic Violence in Georgia (Esopus, NY: Caucasus Network, 22 July 1993), 3 p.

Kenvin, Helene. Brutalization of Georgia's Jewish Community (Esopus, NY: Caucasus Network, 19 September 1993), 4 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Nigeria: Christians in Kano, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, NGA94-01.ZHN, 8 October 1993), 8 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Georgia: Treatment of Jews, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, GEO94-01.ZNK, 30 December 1993), 8 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Ahmadis in Pakistan: Update December 1991 to October 1993, Question and Answer Series (Ottawa, Canada: IRB DIRB, January 1994), 27 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Egypt: Coptic Christians, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, EGY94-01.ZNK, 10 February 1994), 4 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Profile Series, Russia: The Status of Jews in the Post-Soviet Era (Washington, DC, INS RIC, PR/RUS/94.001, September 1994), 39 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Lebanon: Status of Jews, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, LBN94-01.ZNK, 7 March 1994), 10 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Pakistan: Muslims Who Convert to Christianity, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, PAK94-03.ZHN, 10 March 1994), 16 p.

Human Rights Watch/Middle East. Egypt: Violations of Freedom of Religious Belief and Expression of the Christian Minority (New York: HRW/Middle East, Vol.6, No. 2, November 1994), 36 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Russia: Jews, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, RUS94-01.ZSF, 14 April 1994), 16 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Armenia: Baptists/Evangelicals, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, ARM94-01.ZLA, 19 April 1994), 3 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Anti-Semitism in Latvia: The Current Situation, Question and Answer Series (Ottawa, Canada: IRB DIRB, September 1994), 13 p.

Lambert, Anthony, P.B., What is the Size of the Chinese Church? Special Report (Santa Ana, CA: News Network International Syndicate, 19 September 1994), 23 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Anti-Semitism in Estonia: The Current Situation, Question and Answer Series (Ottawa, Canada: IRB DIRB, November 1994), 9 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information, and Research Branch, Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union: Chronology 1727 to 1 January 1992, Question and Answer Series (Ottawa, Canada: IRB DIRB, November 1994), 23 p.

UNHCR, RE: Asylum Claim by Christian Woman from Syria, Letter from Scott Busby, Associate Legal Counselor, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, with attachments (Washington, DC: UNHCR, 15 November 1994), 16 p.

Gauhar, Altaf, ed., "Letter from Gujranwala: A Short Course in Blasphemy", Index on Censorship (London, UK: Writers & Scholars International Ltd, Vol. 24, No. 3, May 1995), p. 99-105.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, China: Christians, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, CHN95-01.ALL, 8 March 1995) 3 p.

Spiegel, Mickey. "Religion in China", China Rights Forum (New York: Human Rights in China, Spring 1995), p. 14-17.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center, Armenia: Pentecostals, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, ARM95-02.ZLA, 31 March 1995) 5 p.

Amnesty International. China: Christians Arrested during Easter and Others Serving Sentences (London: AI, 12 May 1995), 3 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information and Research Branch, India: Sikhs in Punjab 1994-95, Question and Answer Series (Ottawa: IRB DIRB, February 1996), 31 p.

UN Commission on Human Rights. Implementation of the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief: Report Submitted by Mr. Abdelfattah Amor, Special Rapporteur: Addendum: Visit by the Special Rapporteur to the Islamic Republic of Iran (Geneva: UN, E/CN.4/1996/95, 9 February 1996), 24 p.

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society. On the Persecution of Jews around the World: Hearing before the U.S. House of Representative Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights (Washington, DC: HIAS, 27 February 1996), 1 v. (various pagings).

Immigration and Refugee Board, Documentation, Information and Research Branch. Pakistan: Update on the Situation of Ahmadis, October 1993-June 1996 Question and Answer Series (Ottawa: IRB DIRB, November 1996), 27 p.

Shea, Nina. In the Lion's Den (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1997), p. 27-84

Boyle , Kevin / Sheen , Juliet. Freedom of Religion and Belief : A World Report (London: Routledge, 1997), 462 p.

The Oxford Dictionary of world Religions (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1997), 1111 p.

Marshall, Paul. Their Blood Cries Out: The Worldwide Tragedy of Modern Christians Who Are Dying for Their Faith (Dallas, TX: Word Inc., 1997), 335 p.

Dumbaugh, Kerry and Johnson, Deborah. CRS Report for Congress: China's Treatment of Religious Practices (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 17 November 1997), 10 p.

Sikh Human Rights Group. Sikh Human Rights Group: Selected 1997 Asylum Reports (United Kingdom: 1997) 50 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center. Bangladesh: Sufism in Bangladesh, Query Response (Washington, DC: INS RIC, BGD97002.ZNK, 11 March 1997), 3 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center. Information Packet Series, Tibet: Human Rights Conditions (Washington, DC: INS RIC, IP/CHN/98.001, January, 1998)

UN Commission on Human Rights. Implementation of the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief: Report Submitted by Mr. Abdelfattah Amor, Special Rapporteur... (Geneva: UN, E/CN.4/1998/6, 22 January 1998), 31 p.

LAW - The Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment. Summary of LAW's Annual Human Rights Report 1997: Human Rights Violations in Palestine (29 March 1998) 8 p.

National Conference on Soviet Jewry. Country Reports: Inside the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, Winter 1997-98 (Washington, DC: NCSJ, 9 February 1998), 56 p.

Advisory Committee on Religious Freedom Abroad. Interim Report to the Secretary of State (Washington, DC: ACRFA, 23 January 1998), 54p.

Spiegel, Mickey. "Control 'According to Law' Restrictions on Religion," China Rights Forum (New York: Human Rights in China, Spring 1998), p. 22-27.

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Research Directorate. The Russian Federation: Situation of Jews (Ottawa: IRBC RD, August 1998) 15 p. [Internet] URL: http://www.irb.gc.ca [Accessed 2 August 1999].

International Christian Concern (ICC). Top-Ten Priority List of Countries Where Christians Are Persecuted (Washington, DC: Vol. 29, August 1998), 8 p.

US Immigration and Naturalization Service, Resource Information Center. Tunisia: Information on the Status of Christian Conversions in Tunisia (Washington, DC: INS RIC, TUN99001.ZNK, 6 November 1998), 2 p.

Keston Institute. Torture of Religious Believers in Uzbekistan (Oxford: Keston Institute, [1999]), p. 6. [Internet] URL: http://www.keston.org/UzbekTortureReport.htm [Accessed on 12 July 2000].

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Research Directorate. Ukraine: Situation of Jews (Ottawa: IRBC RD, January 1999), 7 p. [Internet] URL: http://www.irb.gc.ca [Accessed 2 August 1999].

UN Commission on Human Rights. Civil and Political Rights, Including Religious Intolerance: Report Submitted by Mr. Abdelfattah Amor, Special Rapporteur... (Geneva: UN, E/CN.4/1999/58, 11 January 1999), 29 p.

Musalo, Karen; Moore, Jennifer; Boswell, Richard A. Refugee Law and Policy: Cases and Materials (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1997), 1012 p.

Center for Religious Freedom. Egypt's Endangered Christians (Washington, DC: Freedom House, December 1998).

Board of Immigration Appeals. Administrative Decisions Under Immigration and Nationality Laws of the United States: Interim Decision Nos. 3243 to 3340, March 1995 to March 1998 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Vol. 21, [1999]), 1258 p.

Campaign for Peace and Life in Guatemala. Refusing To Forget: Joining With Guatemalans to Recover Our Historical Memory: A Study Guide on Guatemala: Never Again (Washington, DC: CPLG, 1999), 56 p.

United Christian Forum for Human Rights. A Register of Atrocities Against Religious Christians: Report on the Violence in the Dangs District In South Gujarat: Executive Summary (New Delhi: UCFHR, [1999]), 7 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 18 June 1999].

Mision de Verificacion de las Naciones Unidas en Guatemala. Suplemento Al Noveno Informe Sobre Derechos Humanos De La Mision de Verificacion de Las Naciones Unidas En Guatemala: Casos de Violaciones a Los Derechos Humanos (Guatemala: MINUGUA, March 1999), 41 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 13 July 1999].

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Fascism and Antisemitism in Saint Petersburg, Russia: A Case Study of Russion Antisemitism (Washington, DC: UCSJ, March 1999), 27 p.

UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research. Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Angola (Geneva: UNHCR, April 1999), 33 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 18 June 1999].

Center for Religious Freedom. Egypt's Endangered Christians 1999 (Washington, DC: Freedom House, June 1999), p. 128.

Human Rights Watch. India: Behind the Kashmir Conflict: Abuses By Indian Security Forces and Militant Groups Continue (New York: HRW, Vol.11, No.4 (C), July 1999), 43 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Research Directorate (Canada) Pakistan: Sectarian Violence (Ottawa, Canada: DIRB, July 1999), [Internet] [Accessed on 12 May 2000].

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Chronicle of Antisemitism in Russia: May 1998-July1999 (Washington, DC: UCSJ, July 1999), 13 p.

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Chronicle of Antisemitism, Religious Persecution and Human Rights Violations in Belarus: June 1998-July 1999 (Washington, DC: UCSJ, July 1999), 3 p.

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Chronicle of Antisemitism in the Baltic States: June 1998-July 1999 (Washington, DC: UCSJ, July 1999), 4 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Indonesia: Information on Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia (Washington, DC: INS/RIC, IDN99001.ZNY, 23 July 1999), 3 p.

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. The Escalation of Antisemitic Violence in Russia (Washington, DC: UCSJ, August 1999), 17 p.

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Antisemitism in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia (Washington, DC: UCSJ, August 1999), 7 p.

Henderson, Robert C. Letter from Robert C. Henderson, Secretary-General, National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States to Doris Meissner, Commissioner, INS. (Wilmette, IL: National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States, 18 August 1999), 1 p.

Amnesty International. Armenia "Respect my human dignity": Imprisonment of Conscientious Objectors (London: AI, EUR 54/06/99, September 1999), 18 p.

Amnesty International. Malaysia: Human Rights Undermined: Restrictive Laws In A Parliamentary Democracy (London: AI, September 1999), 91 p.

Human Rights Watch. Politics By Other Means: Attacks Against Christians in India (New York: HRW, September 1999), 37 p.

U.S. Committee for Refugees. Gross Negligence Dressed Up in Legalese: Restrictive Interpretations on "Agents of Persecution" and their Impact on Algerian Asylum Seekers in Germany and France (Washington DC: Immigration and Refugee Services of America, September 1999), 38 p.

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Chronicle of Antisemitism and Religious Persecution in Ukraine (Washington, DC: UCSJ, September 1999), 3 p.

Amnesty International. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (London: AI, AI Index: EUR 70/111/99, October 1999), 16 p.

Amnesty International. Azerbaijan: Comments on the Initial Report Submitted to the United Nations Committee Against Torture (London: AI, AI Index: EUR 55/02/99, October 1999), 45 p.

Human Rights Watch. Class Dismissed: Discriminatory Expulsions of Muslim Students (New York: HRW, Vol.11, No.12 (D), October 1999), 39 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Human Rights In Cuba Since the Papal Visit (Washington, DC: INS RIC, October 1999), 62 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Research Directorate. China: Freedom of Religious Practice and Belief in Fujian Province (Ottawa: IRB/RD, 8 October 1999), [Internet]

INS Resource Information Center. Ghana: Information on the "Queen Mother" Tradition Among the Kwahu People of Ghana (Washington, DC: INS RIC, GHA00001.ZAR, 18 October 1999), 43 p.

Amnesty International. Pakistan: Open Letter to General Parvez Musharraf (London: AI, AI Index: ASA 33/28/99, 20 October 1999), 7 p.

Amnesty International. People's Republic of China: Reports of Torture and Ill-Treatment of Followers of the Falun Gong (London: AI, AI Index: ASA 17/54/99, 22 October 1999), 9 p.

Amnesty International. Iraq: Victims of Systematic Repression (London: AI, AI Index: MDE 14/10/99, November 1999), 20 p.

UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research. Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from the People's Republic of China (Geneva: UNHCR, November 1999), 42 p.

Amnesty International. Women in Afghanistan: Pawns in Men's Power Struggles (London: AI, AI Index: ASA 11/11/99, 11 November 1999), 9 p.

Amnesty International. Children Devastated by War: Afghanistan's Lost Generations (London: AI, AI Index: ASA 11/13/99, 13 November 1999), 10 p.

Amnesty International. Afghanistan: Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (London: AI, AI Index: ASA 11/15/99, 15 November 1999), 8 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Burma (Myanmar): Information on Rohingya Refugees (Washington, DC: INS RIC, MMR00001.ZNK, 7 December 1999), 3 p.

Minority Rights Group International. The Chinese of South-East Asia (London: MRG, January 2000), 35 p.

U.S. Committee For Refugees. Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Indonesia: West Timor, Aceh, and Lombok: Findings and Recommendations from USCR Site Visit (Washington, DC: Immigration Services of America, January 2000), 9 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Nigeria: Information on the "Egbesu Boys of Africa" and the "Niger Delta Volunteer Force" (Washington, DC: INS RIC, NGA00002.ZSF, 14 January 2000), 3 p.

Minority Rights Group International. Minority Rights in Yugoslavia (London: MRG, February 2000), 32 p.

US Dept. of State. Annual Report: International Religious Freedom 1999 (Washington, DC: USDOS, February 2000), 460 p.

Russian Evangelistic Ministries. Report to the Helsinki Commission on the Persecution of Christians in Turkmenistan (San Diego, CA: REM, March 2000), 7 p.

UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research. Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers From Pakistan. (Geneva: UNHCR, March 2000), 31 p.

US Dept. of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. Somalia: Profile of Asylum Claims and Country Conditions (Washington, DC: USDOS/DRL, March 2000), 22 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Nepal: Information on Yolmo Sherpa (Washington, DC: INS RIC, NPL00001.ZNY, 3 March 2000), 9 p.

Immigration and Refugee Board, Research Directorate (Canada) China: Summary of a Report of a Fact-finding Mission to Fuzhou by Political Counsellor, Canadian Embassy, Beijing (Ottawa, Canada: DIRB, CHN34099.E, 14 March 2000), 12 p. [Internet]

Legesse, Asmorom. The Uprooted, Part III: Studies of Urban Eritreans Expelled from Ethiopia, Villagers Expelled from Tigrai and Communities in Eritrea Displaced by Bombardment (Asmara, Eritrea: Citizens for Peace in Eritrea, 30 March 2000), 46 p.

Amnesty International. India: Persecuted for Challenging Injustice: Human Rights Defenders in India (New York: AI, April 2000), 96 p.

International Federation of Human Rights Leagues (FIDH) Burma: Repression, Discrimination and Ethnic Cleansing in Arakan (Paris: FIDH, No.290/2, April 2000), 55 p.

U.S. Committee For Refugees. No Way In, No Way Out: Internal Displacement in Burma (Washington, DC: Immigration and Refugees Services of America (USCR), April 2000), 48 p.

Amnesty International. India: Persecuted for Challenging Injustice Human Rights Defenders in India (London: AI, 26 April 2000), 14 p.

Amnesty International. Amnesty International's Concerns at the 88th International Labour Conference, 30 May-15 June 2000, Geneva (London: AI, May 2000), 14 p.

US Commission on International Religious Freedom. Staff Memorandum For The Chairman: Religious Freedom in Sudan, China, and Russia (Washington, DC: USCIRF, Copy 1 Copy 2 Copy 3 Copy 4, 1 May 2000), 158 p.

US Commission on International Religious Freedom. Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (Washington, DC: USCIRF, 1 May 2000), 79 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Cuba: Religious Group Believing in Miraculous Properties of Water (Washington, DC: INS RIC, CUB00004.REF, 8 June 2000), 2 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Iraq: Information on Chaldean Christians (Washington, DC: INS RIC, IRQ00001.ZLA, 23 June 2000), 15 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 27 April 2001].

INS Resource Information Center. News Summaries for Asylum Adjudicators: January 1996-June2000 (Washington, DC: INS RIC, Vol. 5, No. 2, June 30, 2000).

Union of Councils for Soviet Jews. Antisemitism Mid-Year Status Report: Current Threats Facing Russian Jews (Washington, DC: UCSJ, 1 August 2000), 8 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Information on Residence and Citizenship Status by Marriage to a Gambian Citizen and the Legality of Islamic Marriage (Washington, DC: INS RIC, GMB 01001.ZHN, 10 Oct 2000), 1 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 27 April 2001].

WriteNet. Somalia: A Situation Analysis (Geneva: UNHCR Centre for Documentation and Research, WRITENET Paper No. 07/2000, November 2000), 21 p. [Internet] .

INS Resource Information Center. Turkey: Information on the Islamic Welfare Party (IWP) and Islamic Virtue Party (IVP) and Protests Against the Headdress Ban (Washington, DC: INS RIC, TUR01001.SND, 19 December 2000), 4 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 27 April 2001].

Compassion: A Journal of Falun Dafa Around the World (New York: Falun Dafa Information Center, Issue 2, January 2001), 37 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Ethiopia: Information on the Hadiya Ethnic Group (Washington, DC: INS RIC, ETH01002.ZAR, 10 January 2001), 3 p. [Internet] [Accessed on 27 April 2001].

INS Resource Information Center. Georgia: Political and Human Rights Situation Update (Washington, DC: INS RIC, GEO01002.IAO, 22 February 2001), 2 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Bangladesh: Information on Situation of Rohingya Refugees (Washington, DC: INS RIC, BGD01001.ZCH, 28 March 2001), 9 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Burma: Information on Situation of Rohingyas (Washington, DC: INS RIC, MMR01001.ZCH, 28 March 2001), 25 p.

Falun Dafa Information Center. Women of Conscience: A Report on the Persecution of Female Practitioners of Falun Gong in the People's Republic of China (New York: FDIC, April 2001), 35 p.

INS Resource Information Center. Uganda: Information on the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the Human Rights Record of Government Security Forces (Washington, DC: INS RIC, UGA01001.OGC, 12 April 2001), 6 p.

1) Asylum Officers complete an initial 5-week Immigration Officer Basic Training Course, and 5 additional weeks of the Asylum Officer Basic Training Course (AOBTC). The AOBTC, held approximately twice per year, includes international human rights law, asylum and refugee law, interviewing techniques, decision-making and decision-writing skills, effective country conditions research skills, and computer skills. Compulsory in-service training for all asylum officers is held weekly.