Trafficking in Persons Report
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
June 11, 2003
Report

QATAR (Tier 2)

Qatar is a destination country for women who are put into situations of coerced labor, where they may endure physical abuse or other extreme working conditions. Victims come primarily from East Asia, South Asia, and Africa to work as domestic servants. They often have their passports withheld, contracts altered, and suffer non-payment of salaries. Qatar is also a destination country for boys trafficked from Sudan and to a lesser extent Pakistan and Bangladesh as camel jockeys.

The Government of Qatar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government is strongest in preventing domestic servitude and protecting victims. The government needs to take additional steps to prevent the use of children in camel jockey races.

Prevention
The government works actively with labor attaches from South Asian countries to resolve cases of labor contract disputes and cases involving the abuse of domestic servants. Strict controls on immigration and willingness to enforce labor contracts have for the most part prevented sex trafficking and forced labor. The government runs a 24-hour hotline staffed by the Ministry of Interior and Supreme Council for Family Affairs personnel to advise and assist women and children in abusive situations. The Camel Racing Association established a new minimum weight for jockeys to minimize the chances that children would be involved in these races. There are planned increases in minimum weight for the coming racing seasons. Banning children in the camel racing industry outright would be the most effective method of preventing children from being used as camel jockeys.

Prosecution
Qatari law specifically prohibits trafficking in persons. In addition, in 2002 the government passed a new money laundering law, in which Article 2 specifically defines the handling of money related to trafficking of women and children as a crime. Law enforcement agencies actively investigate allegations of trafficking. Last year two individuals were charged as traffickers; one was found guilty. The Qatari Labor Department charged 105 companies in court for non-payment of wages and maintains a "black list" of companies that have severely violated labor laws or abused their workers. The government strictly monitors its immigration and emigration patterns for evidence of trafficking. Immigration officials refer suspect travel documents or birth certificates establishing family relationships to local embassies for verification. Governmental authorities and individual members of government do not facilitate, condone or act in an otherwise complicit manner in trafficking.

Protection
The government provides assistance to domestics who have suffered from abuse in the form of payment of back wages and repatriation. Runaway domestics are provided shelter by the government in deportation centers. The Qatari Labor Department is active in resolving labor disputes and in ensuring that employers meet contractual obligations. Disputes arise frequently, and the vast majority of problems are resolved through mediation. With the approval of the Ministry of Interior, sponsorship of employees who filed valid complaints of abuse by employers can be transferred without the current employer's agreement. Employers are required to repatriate workers at the end of their contracts, or earlier if either party wishes to terminate the contract with notice.

ROMANIA (Tier 2)

Romania is a source and transit country primarily for women and girls trafficked from Moldova and Ukraine to Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Greece, Italy, and Turkey for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The Government of Romania does not meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The Government's efforts stood out in the past year as it continued to establish itself as a leader in regional law enforcement cooperation and maintenance of comprehensive records. The government showed relative weaknesses in securing final convictions against traffickers, and while it made efforts to root out official corruption, this area needs further improvement, especially among the ranks of law enforcement.

Prevention
All relevant ministries participate in an IOM-coordinated Counter-Trafficking Steering Committee. Together with IOM, the government developed and distributed course materials on trafficking to schools, taught an anti-trafficking course for teachers of various subjects and levels, and conducted mass media prevention campaigns targeting the public at large. A related preventive effort involves a two-year ILO program, supported through international assistance, to alleviate child labor and to keep children in school. The government continues to improve its ability to monitor its borders and keeps statistics on illegal migration and movements of persons.

Prosecution
Trafficking is criminalized pursuant to a special anti-trafficking law prescribing sentences from 3 to 28 years, depending on aggravating factors; however, no convictions were brought under this law during the reporting period. One hundred and fifty persons were convicted for an aggregate 168 offenses under various provisions of the law, and 303 victims were identified during the course of these criminal investigations. A number of related crimes in the criminal code were used to prosecute, convict, and sentence traffickers, such as 190 charges for slavery and 329 for pimping. The Ministry of Interior has a specialized unit devoted to trafficking, migration, and adoption with seven persons at headquarters and investigators in 15 regions throughout the country. The Prosecutor General's office assigned prosecutors throughout the country specifically to prosecute trafficking and related crimes. The Government of Romania played a substantial role in organizing and coordinating the SECI-led Operation Mirage. Border monitors have procedural guidelines for identifying and responding to trafficking situations, and police interdicted several trafficking operations at the borders. The police have traveled to destination countries on occasion to bring victims home and conduct investigations. In the past year, Romania and France agreed on cooperation on prosecution of child trafficking rings and protection of Roma children trafficked to France.

Protection
The government drafted regulations for implementing the victim protection aspects of the anti-trafficking law. The regulations were finalized in the latter part of the year, but without budget allocations, law enforcement conducted victim referrals and protection during investigations without financial support. Due to some changeovers in the government agencies tasked with anti-trafficking, some NGOs complained that referrals and protection mechanisms suffered. The government provides space and police protection at a refugee center turned trafficking shelter, although the shelter did not operate consistently throughout the year. The government actively assists in preparing documents for repatriations but relies on IOM to carry out repatriations from destination countries. The Government generally respected the legal prohibition against punishing victims for crimes committed through the course of the trafficking. Foreign and domestic victims are provided support services, including rights presentations and legal assistance. Foreign victims' right to work is regulated per domestic law on work permits and they are free to leave unless they are participating in a criminal proceeding.

RUSSIA (Tier 2)

Russia is a major source country for women trafficked to numerous countries globally for the purposes of sexual exploitation. Russia is also reported to be a transit and destination country for trafficking in persons for sexual and labor exploitation. Reportedly, women from former Soviet countries are transited through Russia to Gulf States, Europe, and North America for the purposes of sexual exploitation. Russia is also increasingly understood as a destination country for labor trafficking both within the former Soviet Union and from neighboring countries. Internal trafficking is also reported to exist.

The Government of Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Efforts made in the reporting period will need to be strengthened in light of the scale of the trafficking problem. However, central government officials showed a strong increase in political will to recognize and confront their trafficking problem, and recent efforts to initiate new reforms were positive. Russia's legal structure still does not allow for effective prosecution of traffickers, nor for victim assistance, and efforts to prosecute traffickers for related crimes have been largely unsuccessful. The Government of Russia must adopt and actively implement both the criminal and protective elements of the proposed legislation, and as a major source country, focus on a nation-wide, effective prevention campaign is also strongly needed.

Prevention
The government did not sponsor a comprehensive anti-trafficking campaign, but engaged in a number of public awareness events, aimed both at the general public and potential victims. The Deputy Chair of the Duma Legislative Committee chaired a legislative working group, which conducted a series of national and international conferences to educate various constituents of the anti-trafficking community and design a national action plan. The working group participated in over 50 press events arranged by the group's press liaison, including placing articles with discussion of trafficking in Russia in major newspapers and magazines, conducting discussions on Russian television and radio, showing a dramatic film on the trafficking of a young Russian girl to a cross-cutting group of public professionals and leaders with educational discussions before and after the film. Regionally, the Governments of Irkutsk and Khabarovsk established anti-TIP commissions which include information-sharing and research, and some regional governments and police sent their officers to trainings offered by NGOs. In one region, Yekaterinburg, the local government encourages its officers to work with the NGOs in prevention programs. The regional response is not directed by the central government and while the geographic immensity of Russia requires a local government approach, it has not been consistent or widespread.

Prosecution
Russia does not currently have anti-trafficking legislation, although it does have legislation against slavery, rape, and falsification of documents. One major obstacle to active investigations and prosecutions has been the weak legal structure related to trafficking crimes, and the small number of investigations conducted in the past year mostly failed for lack of evidence. A high level multi-agency legislative review working group drafted a comprehensive new anti-trafficking draft law criminalizing trafficking in persons and establishing victim assistance and protection. As of April 2003, the criminal trafficking elements were being incorporated into the President's omnibus criminal code revision while the special law proceeded through readings in Parliament. The government passed a new criminal procedure code which allows greater protections for victims and witnesses in court proceedings, and which allows prosecution in Russia of Russian citizens who engage in crimes abroad, including trafficking-related crimes. The Prosecutor General's office established a new office on international cooperation mandated to fulfill requests from foreign governments on mutual legal assistance. The Ministry of Internal Affairs cooperated in two ongoing international trafficking investigations with the US, and assisted French law enforcement in investigation of a trafficking ring dismantled in October of 2002. In 2002, the Governments of Russia and the United States conducted a joint operation against child exploitation and trafficking in Russia, resulting in several ongoing investigations in Russia, and some final convictions. Regarding investigations against employment and recruitment agencies, agents of two firms were prosecuted in relation to the preparation of false documents. Police do not respond actively to victims' complaints pursuant to the belief that any criminally proscribed behavior, such as slavery and rape, mostly happens after victims have left their jurisdiction. In the far eastern region where trafficking from China is a concern, the Ministry of Internal Affairs created a special unit to focus on migration-related crimes and sexual exploitation of migrants, with a particular interest in trafficking. In an effort to decrease the incidence of corruption in the police and judiciary, President Putin quadrupled the salary of judges and doubled the salary of police. The government instituted a Code of Civil Service Behavior also in an attempt to prevent corruption.

Protection
NGO's active throughout Russia mostly report positive cooperation with local police and government counterparts, but many also report corruption as a major hindrance. The central government does not provide assistance to victims nor does it support NGOs providing assistance, but some regional governments cooperate with local NGOs. Central government authorities did not establish a referral mechanism, but some regional governments did, most notably in the high-risk region of Irkutsk. Current federal law provides mechanisms for victim rights and witness protection during court proceedings, including the right to question the defendant and seek compensation from the defendant without filing a separate civil suit. As trafficking in persons is not yet a prosecutable crime, this cannot yet be measured for trafficking victims. Amendments to witness protection laws will enhance existing protection, and the Ministry of Interior established a new witness protection unit.

RWANDA (Tier 2)

Rwanda is a source country for victims internationally trafficked to South Africa. Internal trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation, particularly of children, occurs. Child prostitution is a serious problem; an international organization estimates that there are 2,140 child prostitutes in the major cities and tens of thousands of street children who are exploited for labor. There were reports that Rwandan-backed Congolese militias operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo abducted men, women, and children for forced labor and sexual exploitation and to serve as combatants in early 2002. Children and young men are abducted from roadsides, markets, and their homes and then trained in military camps.

The Government of Rwanda does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking in persons; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. The government should implement additional sensitization campaigns designed to increase public awareness on the exploitation of children, investigate allegations of exploited children living and working in the streets, and take concrete steps to implement recently ratified international protocols related to trafficking. The government should also discontinue support for its allies that forcibly conscript child soldiers and encourage them to release those abducted from servitude; and punish those officials or soldiers that carry out such recruitments.

Prevention
The government participates in an international program to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and a regional program to prevent children from being involved in armed conflict. As part of the government demobilization of child soldiers, it also began training its military's officers and enlisted soldiers on child rights to include monitoring and promoting child rights, international and legal instruments that protect children in armed conflicts, provision of assistance to children in armed conflict, and creation of a regional network of military trainers on children's issues. At least 25 of 100 designated training officers have completed this training. The government is assisting street children with vocational and other educational opportunities. The Ministry of Local Government has organized seminars on child rights for government officials, civil society groups, and police. In collaboration with donors and non-governmental organizations, the government established micro-credit programs for rural women to strengthen their families economically and protect themselves and their children from exploitation.

Prosecution
There is no specific anti-trafficking law, but laws against slavery, prostitution by coercion, kidnapping, rape, and defilement are used to prosecute traffickers. The government actively prosecutes cases of sex crimes, but does not keep trafficking statistics separately. In 2002, there were 479 cases recorded of sex crimes against children. All but a few cases brought to court were fully prosecuted. The government recently ratified seven key international conventions, including the UN Trafficking Protocol. We have no information on government efforts to punish Rwandan soldiers, Rwandan-backed militia, or citizens for supporting the forcible recruitment of individuals in Rwandan-controlled DROC.

Protection
The Ministry of Local Government has opened childcare centers that serve as safe-houses for street children in each of the country's 12 provinces. The government continued to reunite children separated from their families, who remain vulnerable to traffickers, during the genocide and civil unrest. The government has released and reintegrated all children imprisoned for participation in the 1994 genocide.

SAUDI ARABIA (Tier 2)

Saudi Arabia is a destination country for trafficked persons. Victims come primarily from the Philippines, Bangladesh, Sudan, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka to work as domestic servants and menial laborers. Some persons who come to Saudi Arabia in search of work are forced into situations of coerced labor or slave-like conditions, and in some of those cases they also suffer extreme working conditions and physical abuse. Some female domestic servants work in conditions of forced labor, and in some cases those trafficking victims are also physically and sexually abused. Many low-skilled foreign workers have their passports withheld, contracts altered, and suffer non-payment of salaries of varying degrees and durations.

The Government of Saudi Arabia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government's strengths in combating trafficking are in the areas of prevention and protection. The government is taking steps to increase the enforcement of trafficking by revising its visa system.

Prevention
The Ministries of Labor and Interior work closely with their counterparts from the Philippines and Sri Lanka on foreign labor issues. Various ministries have supported public awareness campaigns advising abused domestic workers to seek refuge in government-sponsored shelters, and brochures are distributed to domestic servants in their own languages upon arrival, advising them on how to report abuse. Foreign workers must now use licensed agencies in the Kingdom and nationally licensed recruitment agencies in the source country. The Saudi Arabia National Recruitment Committee instituted a unified labor contract for foreign workers clarifying requirements and expectations of recruitment agencies and workers. The government is funding an awareness-training program in Sri Lanka for women seeking work in Saudi Arabia as domestics where they receive information on their rights and useful telephone numbers. A senior religious figure has warned Saudis against abusing their foreign workers, reminding them that Islam does not permit the oppression of workers regardless of their religion.

Prosecution
The Government of Saudi Arabia outlawed slavery in 1962. Islamic law prohibits sexual relationships outside the context of marriage and provides for strict penalties if the law is breached. Law enforcement investigates cases of large-scale mistreatment of workers and allegations of abuse. Some abusive household employers have been arrested. Although domestics are exempt from the labor law, the Social Welfare Office works as a mediator between employee and sponsor. Arbitration runs in favor of foreign workers up to 90% of the time. As part of the standard curriculum for all officers, police academies include a class on labor regulations, including how to handle cases of abused foreign workers. The government has shifted worker visa issuance authority to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs to rein in the practice by which Saudi sponsors request more visas than needed and sell them to middlemen. The police worked together with law enforcement from Morocco to break up a Moroccan trafficking ring consisting of 40 family members. There are no indications of government involvement or complicity in trafficking.

Protection
The Government of Saudi Arabia operates three shelters, called Welfare Camps, in the largest cities for abused or trafficked female foreign workers. Police bring runaway domestics to the shelters. Women stay there, receiving food and medical care, while law enforcement investigates their cases. Foreign embassies have access to their citizens. These shelters have resulted in foreign embassies no longer needing to harbor domestics on their compounds.

SENEGAL (Tier 2)

Senegal is a source and transit country for women and girls trafficked to Europe, South Africa, and the Middle East for sexual exploitation, and a destination country for children trafficked from surrounding countries. Large numbers of Senegalese children are forced to beg in the streets for food and money by religious leaders. Nigerian criminal organizations use Dakar as a transit point for women trafficked for purposes of prostitution to Europe, especially Italy. Some religious instructors in Koranic schools bring children from rural Senegal to Dakar and hold them under conditions of involuntary servitude.

The Government of Senegal does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. Appropriate next steps would include drafting anti-trafficking legislation, continuing efforts to centralize and streamline government anti-trafficking efforts, enforcing current statutes, and carrying out nationwide public awareness campaigns.

Prevention
The government participates in a pilot project with an international organization that is creating a migration statistics unit for West Africa. The Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, and Justice cooperated to produce a handbook of definitions, a regional work plan, and a survey of migration data sources. All cases of clandestine prostitution and trafficking have been entered from 1998-2001. Government programs are underway to make women more self-sufficient, improve educational opportunities for children (particularly girls), assist children in Koranic schools, foster income-generating projects in their villages, and eliminate the worst forms of child labor. In conjunction with international organizations, the government is implementing 10 programs to withdraw children from the worst forms of child labor and build capacity of civil society to protect children. Senegal is participating in a regional plan of action to combat trafficking in persons.

Prosecution
Senegal has no law against trafficking, but existing laws do cover abduction, hostage taking, and the sale of persons and are used against traffickers. Senegal has had some success in trafficking-related law enforcement efforts. In 2001, a high-profile attempt to traffic Senegalese women to Libya was prevented. In 2002, the Senegalese police responded to the allegations of an escaped Nigerian trafficking victim with several arrests and also broke up a Chinese brothel ring. The government provides anti-trafficking awareness training and capacity reinforcements for government officials. The government and NGOs are working together to develop a training manual on trafficking for police and for military peacekeepers.

Protection
The government works with several international organizations and NGOs to provide assistance and protection to trafficking victims.

SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO1 (Tier 2)

Serbia and Montenegro is a transit country and, to a lesser extent, a source and destination country, for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. Victims, mostly from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, and Bulgaria, end up in Kosovo, Bosnia, Albania, and Western Europe. Roma children are trafficked through Serbia and Montenegro for begging and theft in Western Europe.

The Government of Serbia and Montenegro does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. In the past year, the federal and republic governments increased their capacity to protect victims and to cooperate with NGOs, but lack of proper treatment of victims in court, low court convictions, and potential government complicity are still serious weaknesses in the government's ability to meet the minimum standards.

Prevention
Through their anti-trafficking task forces, both republics continued local prevention coordination mechanisms with NGOs. The Republic of Montenegro institutionalized the government anti-trafficking coordinator position and established three local offices to coordinate its preventive activities. The National Project Board in Montenegro organized awareness campaigns, including television spots donated by government stations. Access to government schools and other public facilities was provided for awareness campaigns.

Prosecution
The Serbian Parliament passed anti-trafficking amendments to the criminal code in the spring of 2003. Before the amendments, trafficking crimes were pursued under related laws. In the past year, Serbian police arrested 104 individuals for trafficking-related crimes and all cases advanced to pre-trial investigation or court proceedings. The Montenegrin Parliament passed a republic-wide anti-trafficking law used to prosecute 22 suspects for human trafficking and 14 individuals for facilitating prostitution. The majority are in court proceedings, four are in pre-trial investigation, 12 were dismissed and three individuals were convicted and sentenced to one-two years' imprisonment. Despite enhanced law enforcement capacity, court adjudication generally was weak. In several instances, courts dismissed cases for lack of evidence or allowed confusing and degrading testimony in trial. Police forces in both republics have anti-trafficking units that receive specialized training, and the border police and police academy in Serbia have anti-trafficking training as well. A notable case in the Republic of Montenegro against a public official included allegations of government complicity2. Police placed the government suspect in detention and the case is currently in pre-trial investigative procedure.

Protection
In the absence of an institutionalized system of victim protection, federal and republic governments signed memoranda of understanding with victim services organizations to ensure protection and assistance for victims. Some police were trained to identify victims as defined in the United Nations Anti-Trafficking Protocol and to make referrals to NGOs for assistance. Both republics have victim shelters and in Serbia, the Ministry of Social Services provides the premises for a national counseling center. Police receive ongoing training and awareness to decrease detention and deportation of victims. Victims do not have the right to temporary residency, but may stay in the trafficking shelter for 30 days. They are obligated to stay as long as necessary if they are assisting in criminal proceedings. The government signed the Stability Pact Ministerial agreement on shelter and residency for victims, and the Ministerial agreement between Stability Pact countries to exchange trafficking information. Victims may file civil suits and seek compensation, but foreign victims have no right to work and there is no victim compensation fund. In the notable Montenegrin case mentioned above, the victim in question was referred to the shelter and, although she was subject to intense publicity and prolonged questioning, her treatment during the pretrial investigation appeared to proceed according to international standards and she was eventually resettled in a third country. Cooperation between the republic government's anti-trafficking coordinator and some NGOs serving on the National Project Board declined after the coordinator admitted to being a close friend of one of the four suspects in the case.

Kosovo
Kosovo, while technically a part of Serbia and Montenegro, is currently administered under the authority of the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) pending a determination of its future status in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1244. Since the adoption of UNSCR 1244 in June 1999, UNMIK has provided transitional administration for Kosovo including in the area of rule of law, UNMIK is aware of the serious trafficking problem in Kosovo and conducts anti-trafficking efforts. The Special Representative of the UN Secretary General promulgated a trafficking regulation with the force of law in 2001, and a specialized anti-trafficking police unit made up of UN police and Kosovo Police Service officers actively enforces the regulation.

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1On February 4, 2003, the Yugoslav parliament adopted the Constitutional Charter and Implementation Law, marking the end of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the beginning of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. Since June 1999, Kosovo has been administered under the authority of the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK).

2The Minister of Interior, after backing the arrest and investigation of the deputy public prosecutor and three other suspects on suspicion of trafficking and facilitating prosecution, was not included in the Prime Minister's new government--a move widely interpreted as a virtual dismissal.

SIERRA LEONE (Tier 2)

Sierra Leone is a source country for trafficked persons. Tens of thousands of men, women, and children were trafficked internally in Sierra Leone throughout the civil war, which ended in January 2002. During the course of a 10-year conflict, rebels of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) abducted individuals and forced them to work as laborers, mainly in the country's diamond fields. Women and girls were used as sex slaves and for domestic labor. Despite the end of the conflict and the release of some victims, the number of girls released was an extremely small percentage of the estimated number of girls used as sex slaves during the conflict. Moreover, it is likely that small groups of captured individuals are still being held for forced labor or sexual servitude. Children are reportedly being trafficked to Liberia as forced conscripts, and some children are being trafficked to Europe in false adoption schemes. Child prostitution is on the rise as well.

The Government of Sierra Leone does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. Sierra Leone can make additional progress through undertaking a comprehensive public awareness campaign, stepping up law enforcement efforts, and committing additional resources for victim protection and repatriation of victims.

Prevention
The government conducts a survey of trafficking victims, works with international and non-governmental organizations on trafficking, and now includes trafficking issues in its ongoing reconstruction. The government's primary focus is on demobilization of child soldiers and reunification of families separated during the war. Government officials and non-governmental organizations provided briefings and counseling to local communities which accepted returned children. The government supports Voice of the Children, a radio program run by children for children. Sierra Leone is participating in a regional plan of action to combat trafficking in persons.

Prosecution
Although there is no specific anti-trafficking law, there are laws against procuring a female by threats or coercion for the purpose of prostitution. The government assists a special UN court in the trials of the former Interior Minister and other rebel commanders on charges of kidnapping and recruitment of child soldiers in March 2002. The police are actively compiling a database of trafficking cases. Police raided brothels in February 2003, breaking up a Nigerian trafficking ring. The ringleader escaped from custody. Police officials receive training in trauma healing and sexual and gender-based violence from non-governmental and international organizations. Police work closely with child protection advisors attached to the peacekeeping mission.

Protection
The government and international organizations have demobilized an estimated 5,200 former child combatants and reunited 2,363 non-combatant separated children, a significant number of whom were trafficked. The police are also actively involved in locating and securing the release of others still held captive, directing minors to UN programs, including the Child Protection Unit of the peacekeeping force, and others to NGOs for assistance.

SLOVAK REPUBLIC (Tier 2)

The Slovak Republic is an origin, transit and destination country primarily for women trafficked into sexual exploitation. Slovak women have been trafficked to Spain, Greece, Italy, Switzerland, France, Mexico and Japan. Women from former Soviet republics and Eastern Europe transit through the Slovak Republic on their way to Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and other European countries and may be trafficked into prostitution during transit.

The Government of the Slovak Republic does not meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government significantly increased its focus on trafficking and showed strong law enforcement capacity to investigate and prosecute trafficking crimes. Efforts were relatively weaker regarding prevention and protection, and petty corruption in the police and lack of resources continued to hamper the government's overall ability to respond effectively.

Prevention
The government has relatively few resources to devote to trafficking, but the Ministry of Labor provided a small grant to one NGO for its trafficking prevention programs. From the transit country perspective, the government's strongest preventive strategy was in strengthening law enforcement's ability to recognize potential trafficking schemes and share information between agencies and neighboring countries. The anti-trafficking unit in the Bureau of Organized Crime investigates travel and employment schemes while the Border and Alien Police coordinate information sharing between ministries about border crossings.

Prosecution
In 2002, the government passed new amendments to existing anti-trafficking legislation. The amended legislation brings domestic law closer in line with the UN Anti-Trafficking Protocol provisions by including all forms of trafficking and prescribing a penalty of three to ten years, with an increased penalty if the activity was organized or if the victim is under 18. During the year, there were 17 reported arrests for trafficking in adults with six persons convicted, and two arrests for trafficking in children. The Ministry of Interior created a specialized police unit to investigate trafficking and sexual exploitation, which achieved some initial success; however, the unit lacks training and resources. The government cooperates with a number of neighboring countries on investigations and capacity building, and cooperated closely with German law enforcement in a recent operation against a trafficking ring. To tighten controls at the borders, the government instituted stronger anti-corruption measures, including firing certain officials in customs and border agencies and arresting others.

Protection
In early 2003, the government initiated an inter-agency task force, with NGO representation, to discuss improving witness protection and victim assistance for all crime victims, including trafficking victims. The Slovak Republic cooperates with foreign governments and concluded bilateral cooperation agreements with its neighbors, which have facilitated joint law enforcement investigations. The government does not have mechanisms in place to protect trafficking victims who could be detained, charged with related crimes, and deported. Witness protection is available and witnesses in a major anti-trafficking operation in the past year were provided protection and assisted police in a successful investigation. Still, lack of trust in the police often prevents potential witnesses from cooperating.

SLOVENIA (Tier 2)


Slovenia is primarily a transit, and secondarily a destination, country for women and teenage girls trafficked from Southeastern, Eastern, and Central Europe to Western Europe, the United States, and Canada. Slovenia is also a country of origin for a small number of women and teenaged girls trafficked to Western Europe.

The Government of Slovenia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government showed a strong preventive approach, and improved law enforcement response in the past year.

Prevention
The Government of Slovenia increased public awareness through programs to sensitize potential victims through distribution of leaflets about trafficking both at embassies and consulates for visa recipients within vulnerable categories, and for middle and high school-aged girls regarding recruitment methods. The government also funded a mass-media information campaign on trafficking and domestic violence. Members of the Interdepartmental Working Group participated in radio interviews, panel discussions, and arranged the TV airing of a video on trafficking victims. The government adequately monitors its borders; however, valid work permits are often misused to facilitate trafficking.

Prosecutions
Slovenia lacks a law specifically prohibiting trafficking, although such legislation is pending. In the meantime, the government continues to investigate and prosecute traffickers under pimping, procurement of sexual acts, inducement into prostitution, rape, sexual assault, bringing a person into slavery or similar conditions, or the transportation of slaves. The Inter-Departmental Working Group for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings reports that in 2002 police made 55 trafficking-related arrests and prosecutors initiated 21 prosecutions, involving 28 victims, 15 of whom are considered victims of enslavement. During the reporting period, a special task force of prosecutors was established to handle trafficking cases. During the past year the government put into practice a nation-wide Standard Operating Procedure for handling potential trafficking cases which requires police officers to direct suspected trafficking cases to a centralized office in the criminal police directorate that specializes in such crimes. The government has an independent anti-corruption office and it has participated in the Stability Pact Task Force on Trafficking in Human Beings and other regional anti-trafficking efforts.

Protection
An adequate and sustainable system of shelter and protection for victims and witnesses has not yet been fully established. Many victims trafficked to Slovenia enter legally and carry work permits as "artistic dancers" and are therefore not under threat of deportation. Those who lose the protection of the permit and who are subject to deportation may be referred to a new NGO shelter, or to a detention facility for illegal migrants awaiting deportation. The government funds NGOS working on trafficking-related issues. In particular, the government works closely with one Slovenian NGO which offers reintegration services to Slovenian victims as well as counseling, legal support, and shelter to all victims. Victims who wish to return to their home country are referred to the local IOM office, while those requesting asylum are referred to the government's immigration officials and UNHCR.

SOUTH AFRICA (Tier 2)

South Africa is a destination country for women trafficked from other parts of Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, and the former Soviet Union for commercial sexual exploitation. South African women and children are also trafficked internally for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Powerful trafficking syndicates from Russia, Thailand, China, and Nigeria control much of the sex trade. Sex tourism is also increasing. South Africa is a country of transit for trafficking operations between developing countries and Europe, the United States, and Canada.

The Government of South Africa does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. South Africa should expedite the enactment of anti-trafficking legislation, commit more resources to understaffed police units, provide temporary status and protection for foreign trafficking victims, and enhance witness protection programs, particularly for child victims.

Prevention
The Ministry of Labor has established ten Child Labor Inter-Sectoral Groups, which include several government ministries, international organizations, NGOs, unions, and employers. These entities coordinate services, help raise public awareness, and enforce labor laws against the worst forms of child labor. The government provided a school building for NGOs to educate street children, funded free school uniforms for 1,900 poor children, and established 167 child societies to promote awareness of children's rights. Despite a media campaign against child prostitution, high crime, child rape, domestic abuse, and HIV/AIDS remain overwhelming social priorities. The government is working with an international organization to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and provides child support grants and family allowances to high-risk groups, especially child-headed household and HIV/AIDS orphans.

Prosecution
South Africa does not have a comprehensive anti-trafficking law. An anti-child trafficking provision was inserted into the Child Welfare Act, and the South African Law Commission began drafting a comprehensive anti-trafficking law. The government is currently prosecuting a high profile case against a prominent brothel and several child prostitution cases in Cape Town. Victim reluctance to testify and the deportation of foreign victims continue to hamper investigations and prosecutions. The government established an anti-trafficking unit at Johannesburg International Airport, and border police incorporated protection of women and children into their training curriculum. Police and judicial officials received training on the commercial sexual exploitation of children, and labor inspectors were trained and performed inspections of businesses and agricultural farms throughout 2002. South Africa cooperates with neighboring countries, but police units handling trafficking issues are understaffed and information sharing with neighbors is hindered by corruption.

Protection
South Africa uses 20 Sexual Offenses courts to handle trafficking cases, but relies heavily on NGOs to provide witness protection. Non-governmental organizations provide shelter, medical, and legal assistance for child prostitutes and a hotline for victims of child abuse. The government has donated land and buildings for various shelters for victims of sexual abuse, street children, and orphans.

REPUBLIC OF KOREA (Tier 1)

South Korea is a source, transit and destination country for women trafficked for sexual exploitation. Victims come mainly from Southeast Asia (particularly the Philippines and Thailand), China, Russia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan. Women often enter South Korea on "entertainer" visas and are forced to work as prostitutes in bars and private clubs. South Korean women are also trafficked abroad to Japan and the United States.

The Government of South Korea fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The government recognizes that trafficking is a national problem and undertakes comprehensive efforts to prevent it, protect victims and prosecute traffickers. The government's decision to apply stricter standards in the issuance of "entertainer" visas is a positive move and will require further monitoring. The government has taken important steps to reduce police corruption associated with trafficking.

Prevention
Many government agencies undertake education and prevention campaigns. The Korean National Police Agency prints materials in various languages explaining the dangers of trafficking and detailing the assistance and services offered to victims by the government. Thousands of police officers visit schools to discuss trafficking issues with children. The highest-ranking woman police officer has reached out to foreign embassies and potential trafficking victims. South Korean embassies in source countries distribute leaflets warning visa applicants of sex trafficking.

Prosecution
South Korea has no anti-trafficking law, but uses a variety of criminal statutes to prosecute traffickers. In 2002, the government reported that it detained and investigated 450 suspected traffickers, indicted 90, and convicted 68 perpetrators. Penalties varied based on the criminal statute applied, but three years was the average sentence. South Korea cooperates internationally on law enforcement, working with INTERPOL and national governments to identify and arrest traffickers. Senior police officials have addressed incidents of corruption in their lower ranks, and two Korean consular officials were indicted for accepting bribes to issue visas.

Protection
Government protection efforts are comprehensive and officials are aware of the need to protect victims. The Ministry of Gender Equality provides assistance for temporary and long-term shelters, which offer trafficking victims free lodging and food, medical assistance, counseling, and legal services. The government also provides funding to domestic NGOs, which offer victims shelter. The rights of foreign victims are generally respected, and they are not charged with illegal employment or residency. Victims are provided with free legal services to seek compensation for unpaid wages. When trafficking victims report a crime or act as a witness in court, their identity and personal information are kept confidential for their personal protection.

SPAIN (Tier 1)

Spain is both a destination and transit country for trafficked persons for the purposes of sexual exploitation and, to a lesser degree, forced labor. Victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation come primarily from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Nigeria, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Russia, but an increasing number of victims come from Romania. Occasional cases involve victims trafficked for forced labor in agriculture, sweatshops, and restaurants. Reports increased of trafficking in Latvian boys and adolescents for both labor and sexual exploitation. Spain is a transit country for trafficking victims destined for Portugal and Italy.

The Government of Spain fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Effective law enforcement measures continued, with some additional international operations taken since last year's report.

Prevention
The government, under its Strategic Plan on Immigration, explicitly recognizes the need to fight trafficking in persons, operates information awareness literature campaigns, funding for information and prevention campaigns in major source countries, and a referral system by the police for trafficking victim support.

Prosecution
Spanish law adequately prohibits internal and international trafficking in persons. The law assigns stiff penalties to traffickers, depending on the severity of the trafficking, and contains a specific provision for labor trafficking. Within the last year, the government broke up approximately 217 networks and arrested 880 individuals, including 164 in Madrid and 71 in Murcia, for involvement in human trafficking. In March, the National Court sentenced eight people to 4-15 year prison sentences for trafficking persons from Ukraine into forced labor and debt bondage. Exploitation of prostitutes and minors through coercion and fraud is prohibited. Immigration authorities are especially active in dismantling human trafficking organizations and regional and local governments provide significant law enforcement assistance to control illegal immigration and dismantle trafficking networks. The National Police Academy offers courses on trafficking in persons and document fraud, as well as methods for identifying traffickers. Spain cooperates with other governments on trafficking cases via INTERPOL and Europol; however, cooperation with Latvia, a known source country, remains weak.

Protection
The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs investigates substandard working conditions and provides funding to organizations that assist trafficking victims. Spanish law provides for temporary residence for undocumented persons who cooperate with law enforcement to prosecute migrant smugglers, including traffickers. Undocumented trafficking victims who are scheduled for deportation are eligible for free legal assistance from both government and non-governmental sources. Victims who are granted the right to stay in Spain in return for testimony against traffickers are authorized to work and travel within the country, but generally are only eligible for emergency medical care. The government funds shelters, which can accommodate trafficking victims, and national, regional, and local governments fund domestic NGOs, which provide assistance to trafficking victims.

SRI LANKA (Tier 2)

Sri Lanka is a country of origin and destination for trafficked persons. Commercial sexual exploitation of children, especially that of boys, occurs domestically, often in tourist areas. Many of these children, especially girls, are lured by promises of job opportunities or overseas travel, and family members or friends often introduce them into commercial sexual activity. Internal trafficking of persons for purposes of domestic servitude and combat also takes place in Sri Lanka. In many cases, Sri Lankan women go to the Middle East to countries such as Lebanon, Kuwait, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, or Saudi Arabia in search of work, only to be put into situations of coerced labor, slave-like conditions, or sexual exploitation. A small number of Thai, Russian, and Chinese women have been trafficked to Sri Lanka for purposes of sexual exploitation. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) abduct children for purposes of forced labor and military conscription. A ceasefire has been in place since December 2001, but children are still at risk in rebel-controlled areas.

The government of Sri Lanka does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Sri Lanka can improve its anti-trafficking performance by stepping up law enforcement efforts, particularly against sex tourists, and ensure the protection of children recruited as child soldiers by the LTTE as peace negotiations continue. The government needs to ensure that foreign women who are trafficked to Sri Lanka are not arrested.

Prevention
The government, together with NGOs, has conducted public awareness campaigns regarding child labor and created hotlines for reporting child labor abuse. Some NGOs also work with the government in starting educational campaigns geared towards keeping mothers from working in the Middle East, where they often work without many civil protections. The government is working collaboratively with other governments in educating Sri Lankan women about their rights in destination countries.

Prosecution
The Sri Lankan Penal Code specifically criminalizes trafficking in persons, and law enforcement authorities have undertaken some investigations of traffickers. Sri Lanka has a labor mediation board and the government also helps in investigating fraudulent employment agencies and contracts. The government's Overseas Employment Bureau works with Sri Lankan embassies abroad to resolve problems that domestic workers encounter. The LTTE controls territory in the north and east of the country, so the government is unable to investigate or prosecute traffickers in these areas.

Protection
The Police Women's and Children's Bureau, the National Child Protection Authority (NCPA), and a police unit directly attached to the NCPA work together to combat trafficking and protect victims. The government provides rehabilitation camps and other services for victims. The government's ability to provide long-term assistance to victims is limited; however, the NCPA provides medical and psychological assistance to Sri Lankan victims of trafficking and former child soldiers. The NCPA also coordinates the monitoring of the tourism industry and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Sri Lanka shares information with foreign governments and law enforcement organizations about the identification of child abuse. The government has assigned welfare officers to its embassies to countries in the Middle East to assist women who may have been trafficked.

SUDAN (Tier 3)

Sudan is a source and destination country for internationally trafficked persons and has widespread internally trafficked persons. Sudanese government-sponsored militias and rebel groups have abducted thousands of men, women, and children who are used as sex slaves, domestic workers, and child soldiers from within Sudan and Uganda. Men are conscripted as soldiers and laborers. Women and children are also subjected to intertribal abductions for domestic servitude and sexual exploitation in the southern part of the country. There is a wide divergence in the estimates of abducted and/or enslaved persons. An undetermined number of women and children remain in captivity in situations of forced servitude. There are reports of Sudanese being sold into slavery and transported through Chad to Libya and of Sudanese boys being trafficked to the Middle East as camel jockeys.

The Government of Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. The government has taken some steps in the form of public statements, attempts to document abductees, and cooperation with international observers over the past year, but lack of government will and resources continues to hamper efforts to combat trafficking in Sudan.

Prevention
Lack of government will has resulted in little progress toward preventing trafficking. The government signed an agreement to stop supporting the Lord's Resistance Army of Uganda (LRA), but the group still operates from Sudanese territory. The LRA has stepped up its activities over the past year, and continues to hold large numbers of abductees.

Prosecution
Despite expanded authority to investigate and prosecute abductions, the government-sponsored Committee for the Eradication of the Abduction of Women and Children (CEAWAC) and an international NGO have documented 2,000 cases of abductees. Twenty-two intertribal committees were established to identify trafficking cases. However, abductors and users of forced labor have not been publicly identified, nor have they been prosecuted.

Protection
The first requirement of systematic research into abduction and enslavement is a comprehensive record of who has been abducted. No such record currently exists and will continue to hamper repatriation efforts. Three hundred victims of the LRA were repatriated in 2002. There is some governmental interaction with international organizations and NGOs, which provide some training of CEAWAC and victim assistance.

SURINAME (Tier 3)

[*Please note: Suriname was updated to Tier 2 per President George W. Bush, Presidential Determination No. 2003-35, September 9, 2003.]

Suriname is a destination and transit point for Brazilian, Colombian, Dominican, and Guyanese women trafficked into prostitution. Some women enter the country to become prostitutes, but once in Suriname, club owners often hold passports presumably until debts are paid. Some victims are routed through Suriname to The Netherlands or other European destinations, according to NGO reports. Suriname is a transit country for Chinese smuggled to the United States, some of whom may be trafficked. There have been cases of Surinamese prostitutes selling their own children for sex.

The Government of Suriname does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. Even though the government has extremely limited resources, it must begin to enforce laws against traffickers. Poor border controls and widespread corruption contribute to an atmosphere where international smugglers and traffickers can easily operate.

Prevention
The government is essentially indifferent to the issue of trafficking. No significant prevention efforts take place. The government contributed to research by an NGO that looked at the problem of Surinamese prostitutes selling their children for sex.

Prosecution
A patchwork of laws exist which could be used to prosecute traffickers, although not all forms of trafficking are illegal; for example, there is no protection for trafficked adult males. Although prostitution of women is illegal, police do not investigate or in any way disrupt organized prostitution that may harbor victims of trafficking. Police have intervened to help prostitutes retrieve passports being held by brothel owners, but do not proactively investigate organizations or individuals who may be involved in trafficking.

Protection
The government does not provide any significant protection for victims. Police have assisted a few victims of trafficking to return to their countries at the victims' expense. Some NGOs attempt to provide assistance to victims, but resources are greatly lacking and there is little government support.

SWEDEN (Tier 1)

Sweden is a destination country for trafficked women and an increasing number of girls for the purposes of sexual exploitation. Victims mostly are from the Baltic countries and central and eastern Europe, but a small number are from Latin America and the Caribbean. Sweden also is a transit country for trafficked victims on their way to Spain, Germany, Denmark, and Norway.

The Government of Sweden fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Although the Government of Sweden has dedicated resources in source countries, it must focus more on the problem within its own borders, such as including labor trafficking in its legislation so as to fully criminalize all types of trafficking in persons; increasing prosecutions and convictions, and better distinguishing of trafficking from illegal immigration to prevent immediate deportation of victims. Implementation of Sweden's pioneering legal approach to criminalizing trafficking and prostitution will be monitored with interest as a potentially effective anti-trafficking model.

Prevention
Swedish law enforcement and social services recently began to distinguish trafficking from illegal immigration and prostitution. The government engages in active research to improve the effectiveness of legal actions against traffickers, to support and protect victims, and to better combat trafficking in general. As a result, the government launched several education campaigns in Sweden and neighboring countries to raise awareness and improve cooperation in the region. Sweden also supports the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe, specifically the programs on prosecution. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Swedish International Development and Cooperation Agency (SIDA) significantly funds international organizations' anti-trafficking efforts in other countries in the Baltics and Balkans, such as NGO capacity building, prevention campaigns, and rehabilitation for victims.

Prosecution
The government passed a new law on trafficking in persons for sexual purposes in July 2002, but the law does not cover labor trafficking. The government also passed a pioneering law that criminalizes the purchase, rather than the sale, of sex, while police and prosecuting authorities actively investigate cases of trafficking. Out of 200-300 trafficking cases reported by the National Police within the last year, three were actively investigated and are pending, but no convictions were secured. Various Swedish anti-trafficking units established in police districts during the previous year were terminated due to lack of financial commitment. The government cooperates with Interpol and Europol to investigate and prosecute traffickers and it adequately monitors its borders.

Protection
The government encourages victims to assist in the investigation and the prosecution of traffickers, and Sweden's social services agencies have a legal responsibility to provide shelter to victims while they take part in trial proceedings. Victims also are entitled to legal, emotional, and psychological support during trials. However, in practice, victims do not fully utilize the shelter provided by social services agencies, as they are sent home almost immediately after authorities uncover the crimes. The Migration Board shelters asylum seekers, but most trafficking victims do not apply for asylum. In many cases, victims are deported immediately.

SWITZERLAND (Tier 1)

Switzerland is primarily a country of destination, and secondarily transit, for mostly women trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and domestic servitude. Federal police estimate that between 1,500 and 3,000 persons are trafficked into Switzerland each year. Authorities believe that trafficking victims originate from Thailand and parts of Africa and South America, with an increasing number of women from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Authorities suspect that traffickers bring some victims, many from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, to Switzerland on temporary and "artistic" visas.

The government of Switzerland fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. While the legal framework against trafficking continues to be strengthened, the government's practice of summarily deporting foreign women who potentially fit the victim profile, without conducting a screening, is of concern as victim protection is a vital criterion for the fulfillment of the minimum standards.

Prevention
The Government has an office to combat trafficking of young women for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. The Government financially supports the Women's Information Center, which implements awareness-raising projects on human trafficking in source countries. The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs' Development Cooperation Office provided funding to several anti-trafficking information and education campaigns in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and to projects under the auspices of IOM, the OSCE and the Stability Pact. Switzerland's borders are adequately monitored with stringent immigration regulations, and the government cooperated with a Swiss NGO to train Swiss consular officials to educate visa applicants in their home countries on the risks of falling victim to trafficking. The government takes an active stance against trafficking in persons in a number of international fora including various UN agencies, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the European Union.

Prosecution
The Swiss penal code has two articles specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons, both of which focus on sexual exploitation and prostitution, but not labor trafficking. Other forms of human trafficking or exploitation are covered by criminal provisions against threat, coercion, deprivation of personal liberty, rape and kidnapping; the immigration law prohibits the facilitation of illegal migration and employment of foreigners into Switzerland, and the Constitution prohibits forced compulsory labor. The Swiss Federal court further defined trafficking when it upheld the decision to sentence a Thai trafficker, finding that hiring foreign women for prostitution in Switzerland by taking advantage of their difficult economic situation removes their "consent" and generally constitutes human trafficking. The Federal Department of Police's Central Coordination Office for Human Trade and Human Smuggling began operations at the beginning of 2003. The government was active in international cooperation and investigations including: working jointly with U.S. agents to dismantle an Asian crime ring trafficking Chinese women into prostitution in the US and signing a legal assistance treaty in criminal matters with the Philippines. Two separate units within the Federal Criminal Police handle trafficking issues, and have increased the number of agents assigned to trafficking-related cases, especially Internet crimes. One notable area of weakness is the low conviction rate. Of an estimated 3,000 cases of human trafficking every year from Eastern Europe, some 1% is reported to the police, leading to fewer than five convictions per year.

Advocates believe that Switzerland's restrictive immigration policy undermines the effectiveness of the Penal Code and the Victim's Assistance Law. In December 2002, the Parliament amended the Penal Code to allow jurisdiction in Swiss courts over perpetrators of crimes such as trafficking regardless of the location of the crime.

Protection
Under the Swiss Victim's Assistance Law, individuals identified as trafficking victims may seek help from centers providing counseling, material and legal aid to abuse victims. This law also safeguards victims' rights in criminal prosecutions with special rules for trial procedures and for compensation and redress. Federal and cantonal governments provide funding to NGOs and women's shelters that provide services to victims, and cantonal authorities may grant temporary residency permits on a case-by-case basis to victims willing to assist in investigations and testify in court. In cases of serious hardship, a federal ordinance allows cantonal police authorities to grant a residency permit to victims of sexual exploitation or forced labor, and while practice in this area was reportedly spotty, such permits were provided in several dozens of cases. Despite the range of protections, some victims are summarily deported to their country of origin. The government contributes to victim assistance internationally, and funded an international organization program providing reintegration services for victims from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

TAIWAN (Tier 1)

Taiwan is a source, transit and destination region for persons trafficked for sexual exploitation and forced labor. Victims are trafficked to Taiwan from China, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Some victims are lured to Taiwan as brides or under other false pretenses; others are aware of the work they will be doing and are abused after their arrival. Taiwan's lucrative sex trade, widespread people-to-people exchanges with Mainland China, and large-scale movement of foreign workers provide opportunities for traffickers to exploit victims. Women from Taiwan are trafficked to Japan for the commercial sex trade. Illegal migrants transit Taiwan on their way to North America, where some, such as Mainland Chinese, are destined for forced labor to repay traffickers.

Taiwan authorities fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Taiwan recognizes the problem of trafficking in persons and has carried out commendable anti-trafficking measures, most notably to prevent the exploitation of minors. Officials devote substantial efforts to interdict the illegal movement of travelers through Taipei's international airport.

Prevention
Authorities in Taiwan financially support anti-trafficking public awareness efforts by the NGO community. The authorities support the work of NGOs to prevent domestic violence and deal with family issues that may be a root cause of sex trafficking. Taiwan's president personally helped launch a prevention campaign directed at teenage girls, which are an at-risk population group. Tourism officials work with NGOs, hotels, and travel agents to discourage sex tourism. In 2003, authorities in Taiwan issued regulations designed to curb the rate of fraudulent marriages between Taiwanese citizens and foreign spouses.

Prosecution
Taiwan has a statute that specifically penalizes trafficking in children for sexual exploitation, and it has other statutes that criminalize general trafficking activities. According to data from authorities on Taiwan, there were 233 indictments and 122 convictions during 2002 under these statutes; some of these cases are still pending. Law enforcement authorities are trained to investigate and prosecute internet-related sex crimes involving minors. On labor matters, authorities also take steps to police manpower recruitment agencies and employers, who occasionally traffick foreign laborers. Authorities in Taiwan deal with the governments of Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam in an attempt to regulate the recruitment of foreign laborers in Taiwan. Officials monitor Taiwan's borders, but lack the capacity to prevent some illegal entries carried out by traffickers.

Protection
The authorities in Taiwan have worked closely with NGOs to assist women and girls who have been sexually abused. Local centers run by authorities and NGOs provide a wide range of services to victims of sexual assault, including shelter, legal assistance, medical care, and job training. Typically, financial assistance provided by the authorities in Taiwan approaches half of NGO operating expenses. The authorities train police and judicial officials in trafficking issues dealing with victims. Minors who are victims of trafficking are also provided with shelter, counseling and medical care.

THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN (Tier 2)

Tajikistan is a country of origin for young women trafficked to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, and countries of the Persian Gulf including the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Iran, and Saudi Arabia for purposes of sexual exploitation. There are reports of labor trafficking to Kazakhstan as well.

The Government of Tajikistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Tajikistan is a post-conflict country and the poorest of the former Soviet states, with a per capita GDP estimated at $182 for 2002. Despite its limited resources, the government took some steps forward, most notably in its recognition of the problem and willingness to work alongside organizations with greater resources and expertise.

Prevention
The President of Tajikistan appointed the Deputy Head of the President's Office on Women and Children as the government's anti-trafficking coordinator, and he commissioned an inter-ministerial committee to work jointly on improving the government's response. The government supported international organizations' and local NGOs' prevention campaigns, including distributing IOM brochures at railway stations and airports, and mandated official participation in anti-trafficking activities throughout the country. The government increased support for greater rural education and women's business associations through its overall Poverty Reduction Strategy.

Prosecution
Tajikistan's lower house of Parliament passed a specific anti-trafficking bill in spring of 2003, which would also amend the criminal code to harmonize with this legislation. Until final passage, existing related criminal laws are used to prosecute cases, for which the penalties were relatively light in comparison to other grave crimes. Four cases related to trafficking were prosecuted in the last year. In two cases, traffickers were convicted on charges of kidnapping, exploitation of prostitution, and document and immigration fraud, and each received five-year sentences. One of the convicted traffickers benefited from a previous presidential decree on amnesty for certain offenses, and was released after serving only a few weeks. Members of two other trafficking networks were arrested under similar charges. The national police academy trains cadets on existing laws in relation to trafficking. Corruption related to bribes and pay-offs is reported to exist among low-ranking officials, and there are no reports that the government is taking action.

Protection
The Government of Tajikistan has no protection or reintegration programs for victims or witnesses. The government cooperates with regional transit and destination countries to assist trafficked Tajik nationals in specific cases. In most cases, the government does not jail, fine, or detain victims, although on rare occasions victims are punished for prostitution offenses. The government lacks expertise in dealing with victims. The level of awareness of trafficking amongst police and social service providers is still low. The government does not provide trafficking-specific training for its few consuls, although it has engaged its consulate in Russia to oversee the condition of Tajik workers in Russia.

TANZANIA (Tier 2)

Tanzania is a source and destination country for trafficked persons. Children are trafficked internally from rural to urban areas within the country for domestic work, commercial agriculture, fishing, mining, and child prostitution. Children in the country's large refugee population are especially vulnerable to being trafficked to work on Tanzanian farms, and some refugees in camps in Tanzania are recruited as child soldiers for participation in conflicts in neighboring countries. To a lesser degree, Tanzania is a destination country for trafficked persons from India and Kenya. Some sources also suggest that Tanzanian women and girls may be trafficked to South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, and the United States for commercial sexual exploitation.

The Government of Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. The government should provide more training to law enforcement on trafficking issues, develop child-friendly witness protection mechanisms, and undertake more systematic public awareness campaigns.

Prevention
A multi-agency government task force coordinates anti-child labor programs. There are public awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of child labor and exploitation. Tanzania is one of three countries participating in a pilot program to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The program brings together government agencies, trade unions, and legal and social welfare organizations to combat child labor, including trafficking. The government has begun to provide free education to primary school children, and has expanded the proportion of its budget dedicated to education, a key strategy to prevent child labor and child prostitution.

Prosecution
Law enforcement agencies traditionally investigate cases of migrant smuggling, and it is unclear how many of these cases are related to trafficking. There are laws related to sexual offenses and trafficking for sexual purposes. A section of the penal code was enacted in 2001 that criminalizes trafficking within or outside of Tanzania; however the penalty is relatively light. During the year nightclubs were raided and 23 girls were repatriated to India for not having valid work permits. The owners were fined. In August 2002, 12 individuals were arrested for operating a brothel in Dar es Salaam where several underage girls were found working. This case is still pending.

Protection
The cash-strapped government does not provide victims of trafficking with assistance, but supports NGOs that are involved with anti-child labor and education efforts by providing public buildings for classrooms and community centers. The government, in conjunction with international organizations, is removing children from hazardous work and prostitution and providing education and vocational training. Foreign victims are routinely repatriated.



THAILAND (Tier 2)

Thailand is a source, transit and destination country for persons trafficked into sexual exploitation and forced labor. Economic disparity in the region helps to drive significant illegal migration into Thailand from its neighbors, presenting traffickers opportunities to move victims into labor exploitation and, particularly women and children, into prostitution. International trafficking victims come mainly from Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and China. Many victims are from stateless ethnic tribes in Northern Thailand and the surrounding region. Widespread sex tourism in Thailand encourages trafficking for prostitution. Thai victims -- and others sometimes transiting through Thailand -- are trafficked to Australia, South Africa, Japan, Taiwan, Europe and North America mainly for sexual exploitation; many go willingly and are later victimized by traffickers.

The Government of Thailand does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government has recognized for years that trafficking in persons is a problem, but the issue is still not among Thailand's top priorities. Concerned Thai officials, however, are gradually increasing the government's regional and bilateral initiatives, a positive development because Thailand has the capacity to become a leading country in the law enforcement effort against traffickers. Thailand needs to give more focused national government direction to prosecutions and increase the number of arrests and convictions of traffickers at home. It also needs to continue working with its neighbors on regional law enforcement. Official complicity in trafficking remains an area of concern.

Prevention
The government provides life skills training to children and young women at risk of being trafficked; it works at the community level and with local industry to encourage youth to seek jobs outside the sex trade. The government works well with NGOs and international organizations giving wide latitude and support for these organizations to engage in public awareness campaigns against trafficking and provide support services.

Prosecution
The Government of Thailand enforces laws against traffickers, but given the scope of the trafficking problem within its borders, more national focus needs to be given to these efforts, particularly against kingpin traffickers. According to government data, in 2002, there were 504 trafficking related arrests, resulting in 42 prosecutions and 21 jail sentences. The establishment of a special transnational crime department, which will have a unit dedicated to combating trafficking, is a high priority of the government. The first legal and administrative steps to create this new institution have been taken. This is an important expression of the government's long-term commitment to law enforcement and engagement on regional police cooperation. Prosecutorial attention should continue and expand against public officials who are involved in trafficking abuses. Dealing with trafficking-related official corruption merits continued government efforts. The government does not adequately control its long land borders, but it does monitor migration at Bangkok international airport.

Protection
Overall, senior Thai officials make commendable efforts to provide protection to trafficking victims; however, the relatively large size of the country and the scope of the problem hinder the smooth implementation of these measures. Officials attempt to ensure that foreign victims are not treated as illegal migrants through internal government agreements. The government operates 97 shelters for abused women and children, and works with NGO shelters to place trafficking victims. Thailand has negotiated a migrant labor memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Laos that also helps regularize the repatriations of foreign trafficking victims; an MOU with Cambodia specifically addressing trafficking is near final agreement. Thai police and consular officials receive training on how to deal with trafficking issues, and Thai missions overseas provide support to victims who want to return home.

TOGO (Tier 2)

Togo is a source and destination country for internationally trafficked persons, mostly children. The majority of the victims are trafficked to Cote d'Ivoire, Benin, Gabon, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Niger, and Europe for indentured servitude or domestic labor. Children are also trafficked internally and from Benin, Nigeria, and Ghana to Togo's urban areas for domestic labor.

The Government of Togo does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. The government should step up its financial commitment to anti-trafficking programs and protection efforts, penalize law enforcement officials for corruption or failure to act against traffickers, and enhance its efforts to prosecute traffickers to conviction.

Prevention
The government stepped up its anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns during 2002. With training from an international NGO, 278 Togolese workers traveled throughout the country to conduct grassroots education campaigns in individual villages on the dangers of child trafficking. They spoke to an estimated 35,000 people, especially young women, teachers, taxi drivers and village leaders. The government has established four centers to provide sex- and health-education for young women, and has also kept school fees lower for girls than for boys. In December 2002, the government hosted a regional meeting with the governments of Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Togo is participating in an international program to eliminate the worst forms of child labor and is a member of the regional plan of action against trafficking.

Prosecution
Togo has no specific anti-trafficking law, but the government has used other laws on the illegal movement or transfer of children, child labor, and sexual exploitation to prosecute and sentence traffickers. The Minor's Brigade, a police unit dedicated to juvenile issues, investigates trafficking cases. The most recent year for which statistics are available is 2000, with 50 prosecutions of traffickers. Corruption remains a problem. A bill was introduced into the National Assembly in late 2002 to outlaw trafficking and provide specific penalties, including for parents who may unwittingly send their children away for work. Togo cooperates with the governments of Benin, Nigeria, and Ghana to allow expedited extraditions between the four countries.

Protection
The government works closely with and supports NGOs in providing services to victims, primarily through in-kind donations. Four victim care centers have been established with the government providing land and buildings. Eighty children were being sheltered in the centers as of December 2002. Victims are generally respected and not treated as criminals by government officials, including the security forces, although this does not always occur. Victims are allowed to remain in Togo and obtain other employment in some cases. The NGOs encourage victims to seek legal action against traffickers. Specialized training programs are available for some victims.

TURKEY (Tier 3)

[*Please note: Turkey was updated to Tier 2 per President George W. Bush, Presidential Determination No. 2003-35, September 9, 2003.]

Turkey is a destination country for persons trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and labor. It is also a country of transit to other European destinations, for women and girls trafficked into sexual exploitation. Most victims come from countries of the former Soviet Union, including Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova.

The Government of Turkey does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and it is not making significant efforts to do so. Overall, the government is to be commended for the new anti-trafficking criminal article and the law enforcement efforts, including strengthening immigration laws, which were made within a relatively short amount of time. However, the government's progress was slow in the past year, particularly in the areas of prevention and protection -- namely, deportation without screenings -- and those areas need significant improvement.

Prevention
The government did not implement any trafficking-specific preventive campaigns, but it evidenced some increased political will to address the trafficking issue. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs chairs an inter-agency task force on trafficking. The task force does not meet regularly but drafted a national action plan that the government adopted in April 2003. The government amended its law on foreigners to allow a centralized system of work permits for foreign nationals entering Turkey under legitimate programs. The new law will authorize foreigners to work as domestics, something currently practiced illegally. The government actively monitors its borders, but they are long and porous and difficult to monitor in some regions. Turkey's cooperation with source countries was reportedly limited, although improvement efforts were initiated in the spring of 2003.

Prosecution
The government amended its criminal code in the past year to prohibit trafficking in persons (Article 201/b). The law prescribes serious penalties that are increased with aggravating circumstances. As of April 2003, six trafficking cases were opened in Turkish Penal Courts pursuant to the new article, against a total of 17 suspects. In two cases, the court ruled for acquittal, finding three defendants not guilty and determining that the two alleged victims had not been illegally trafficked. The other four cases are ongoing. In these cases, 14 suspects will be on trial and 12 people have filed a complaint against them. More trafficking-related arrests were made in the past year and referred to the courts, but no convictions were reported under previously existing laws. The Ministries of Justice and Interior conducted training on the anti-trafficking legislation.

Protection
The government does not have a system for victim identification and protection; however, according to the Ministry of Interior, seven foreign citizens exposed to trafficking were issued a humanitarian visa (one month temporary residence permit). Five additional people were offered the humanitarian visa but declined and requested to leave Turkey. The government supports shelters for Turkish victims of domestic violence and while it claims they can be used to serve trafficking victims, this has not yet occurred in reported cases. Some local law enforcement officers reportedly find accommodation for victims out of their personal expense. Turkey's cooperation with source countries was reportedly ineffective, and the government continued to deport potential victims as criminals without consistently ensuring their true nationality and without proper screening as victims. The government does not have a repatriation program, and its discussions with IOM were unsuccessful.

UGANDA (Tier 2)

Uganda is a source country, primarily for women and children trafficked to Sudan. Over the past 15 years, a rebel group, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), has abducted tens of thousands of adults and children and forced them to carry stolen goods, cook, serve as sex slaves, and become rebel soldiers. In 2002, after the government attempted to deprive the LRA of safe haven in Sudan with military action, the number of abductions in Uganda increased significantly. The government acknowledges that internal trafficking of children for labor and commercial sexual exploitation is a growing problem. Street children and child domestics work long hours, are frequently denied food, endure physical and sexual abuse, and are isolated from their families and friends. There are reports of children being commercially sexually exploited, particularly in the capital and border towns.

The Government of Uganda does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. There are more than 1.7 million orphans and thousands of displaced persons from civil unrest and HIV/AIDS. The government needs to develop anti-trafficking legislation, but in the meantime, it should step up civilian prosecutions of traffickers under current statutes.

Prevention
The government acknowledges that the abductions constitute a trafficking problem and has ongoing military efforts to defeat the LRA. In conjunction with an international organization, the government launched a national campaign to combat the worst forms of child labor by targeting the growing population of orphans, street children, and child-headed households, all of which are vulnerable to exploitation. Public sensitization campaigns are being conducted, and district groups to address the needs of children, especially those in domestic service, are being formed. Education for girls and orphans are priorities for the government's universal primary education program. Uganda also participates in a regional program to combat child labor in the commercial agricultural sector, which is providing incentives to families to remove their children from hazardous work.

Prosecution
The Ugandan Penal Code prohibits the import, export, purchase, sale, receipt or detention of persons as slaves but does not cover other severe forms of trafficking. Soliciting females for prostitution carries a 7-year sentence, and rape is punishable by 18 years or the death penalty. There is no information that civilian cases were prosecuted in 2002, but when captured, LRA rebels normally are prosecuted for other crimes, such as treason and sedition, which carry harsh penalties. The government also has an amnesty law that absolves abducted persons and former rebels from criminal liability if they return and renounce rebellion. In 2002, the government increased efforts to interdict activities of the LRA. Police do not receive specialized training, but labor inspectors are educated and trained about the worst forms of child labor.

Protection
The government rescues children and others abducted by the LRA during its military operations against the rebels. It provides food and shelter until victims can be transferred to NGOs. The military has a child protection unit trained to assist abductees and child soldiers. The government trains its embassy personnel in Sudan and Kenya to assist amnesty applicants. The cash-strapped government works closely with donors and NGOs and supports counseling services, reintegration programs, and other assistance for returning victims. It also provides support for food, shelter, rehabilitation, education, and vocational training services for street children, child prostitutes, domestic workers, and children involved in cross-border smuggling and drug trafficking.

UKRAINE (Tier 2)

Ukraine is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Central and Western Europe and the Middle East for purposes of sexual exploitation. There are reports that men and boys are trafficked for labor purposes. The growth of internal trafficking of young girls is a rising concern, as is the susceptibility of children in orphanages to traffickers. Victims are recruited via agencies and firms as well as through relatives and acquaintances.

The Government of Ukraine does not yet fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. In the past year, the government has shown an effort to sustain and improve existing anti-trafficking structures and mechanisms and increase the ability to prosecute and convict traffickers. Inconsistent cooperation between central government authorities and varying levels of corruption impeded some of the government's planned efforts.

Prevention
Last year, the Ukrainian Government approved the Comprehensive Program for Combating Trafficking in Persons for 2002-2005, which created specific mandates for each ministry. The government has two separate anti-trafficking councils: one is a coordinating body headed by the Ombudswoman, while the other is headed by the Deputy Prime Minister with the primary task of reporting to the Cabinet of Ministers and the President. The Ministry of Education continued to support mandatory education initiatives in schools. NGOs are active in lobbying government counterparts at both the local and central levels, and government officials regularly attend NGO-offered trainings and workshops, thus increasing the level of cooperation. The government supports preventive public awareness campaigns, although such campaigns are primarily conducted by NGOs.

Prosecution
The current criminal code prohibits international trafficking and related crimes, but it does not proscribe internal trafficking, which must be pursued under related offenses. The Ministry of Interior has an Anti-Trafficking unit with officers in 27 administrative regions throughout Ukraine. In the past year, the police opened 169 trafficking investigations, with 41 prosecutions. Twenty-eight defendants were sentenced, with 17 receiving prison terms. While fear of retribution prevents the majority of victims from cooperating with police and prosecutors, 202 victims provided testimony during the year.

Protection
Regional referral systems between police and NGOs exist throughout Ukraine, due to the allocation of specific anti-trafficking police officers in each region and active victim assistance NGOs. NGOs rehabilitate and reintegrate victims and put them in touch with police for protection and pursuit of criminal cases. The government's witness protection law is not effectively implemented due to a lack of funds, but in-court protections exist, such as protection identifying information in court records. In the absence of a functioning program at the central level, NGOs collaborate with local police and secure ad hoc witness and victim protection. In specific cases, they provide mobile phones to call police, apartment relocation assistance, and police and victim joint surveillance of the potential movement by traffickers. Local NGOs that provide victim assistance enhanced their cooperation with local police, and referrals between NGOs and police are increasingly common.

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (Tier 1)

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a destination country for trafficked persons. Foreign nationals comprise about 85% of the population, and guest workers make up 98% of the country's private sector workforce. Women trafficked into domestic servitude come primarily from Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India, and the Philippines. Victims trafficked as domestic male servants, laborers, and unskilled workers in construction and agriculture come mainly from Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, and Bangladesh. Many low-skilled foreign workers have their passports withheld, contracts altered, and suffer partial, short, or long-term non-payment of salaries. Women from Central Asia and Eastern Europe have reported being lured with the promise of legitimate jobs and then forced into commercial sexual exploitation. Boys from Pakistan and Bangladesh have been trafficked to the United Arab Emirates to be camel jockeys.

The Government of the United Arab Emirates fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. Given the new ban on child camel jockeys, the government should emphasize enforcement until each of the Emirates has completely eliminated it. It should expand cooperation and coordination with source countries in the rescue of trafficking victims and investigation and arrest of traffickers.

Prevention
The Dubai Police Human Rights Department conducted an outreach program to foreign embassies to advise of programs and services available to residents and visitors. The Dubai Tourist Security Department operates a 24-hour hotline to assist visitors with inquires or problems. Information about the hotline is distributed to tourists, who are potential trafficking victims, at points of entry. The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs distributes an information booklet to foreign workers outlining their rights under the labor law, describing how to pursue labor disputes, and providing contact information for assistance. The Minister of State for Foreign Affairs contacted source country foreign ministers asking for their cooperation in combating trafficking. The Ministry of Information and Culture supported a public awareness campaign in English and Arabic about the law banning the use of child camel jockeys. The Ministry of Health requires annual physical exams for foreign employees and medical personnel with specialized training to look for signs of abuse.

Prosecution
The penal code specifically prohibits trafficking; cases of trafficking can also be prosecuted under other statutes. Law enforcement actively investigates trafficking cases and complaints of abuse. The government recently criminalized the use of child camel jockeys. It conducts DNA and medical tests to investigate "parents" of camel jockeys. The Ministry of Labor created a task force to inspect all industrial establishments in the private sector and added 54 labor inspectors. After being found guilty of labor violations, 215 companies were blacklisted from submitting applications for work permits or sponsorship transfers and were fined. The Institute for Judicial Training and Studies at the Ministry of Justice has mandatory courses for prosecutors and judges on human rights, sex offenses, immigration, and labor violations. The Department of Naturalization and Residency at the Ministry of Interior established a central operations room to track the arrival and departure of individuals in the Emirates. To combat document fraud, the government instituted the use of retinal scan to add biometrics identification information to its databases.

Protection
The government provides assistance and protection to victims; they are not detained, jailed or deported. Victims are not prosecuted for violations of other laws, such as immigration or prostitution. Counseling services are available in public hospitals. The Ministry of Health maintains social workers and counselors in all public hospitals to which medical personnel refer patients when abuse is suspected. The Human Rights Department of the Dubai Police developed a Crime Victims' Assistance Program, which included the creation of Victim Assistance Coordinators at each police station and police training in victim protection and assistance. Police departments provide shelter for victims who are separate from jail facilities. The government works with foreign governments and NGOs on trafficking in women when cases are brought to their attention. The Government is working closely with the Governments of Bangladesh and Pakistan on the repatriation of camel jockeys.

UNITED KINGDOM (Tier 1)

The United Kingdom is primarily a country of destination for internationally trafficked women from Eastern Europe, particularly Albania, Kosovo, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Russia. Some also come from East Asia, especially Thailand and China, and from West Africa, particularly Nigeria, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The trafficked population includes children and men. While women are trafficked primarily into sexual exploitation and domestic servitude, trafficking of laborers, predominantly male, into agriculture, sweatshops, and industry also occurs. The United Kingdom also may play a minor role as a transit country to other western European countries.

The Government of the United Kingdom fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The government's efforts were particularly strong with regard to strengthening cooperation between police and prosecutors both domestically and internationally, and in supporting preventive programs in source countries and regions. In order to fully assess law enforcement strategies and mechanisms, this report must consider statistics on trafficking-related offenses and prosecutions. While such information was unavailable, new legislation establishing trafficking-related offenses will hopefully provide information in the coming year.

Prevention
The government focused on prevention and reduction both at the national and EU levels. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for International Development conducted preventive campaigns in countries of origin, including disseminating anti-trafficking materials in Southeastern Europe. The Department for International Development has contributed funding to a project by the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor to combat the trafficking of children within the Mekong sub-region of Southeast Asia. The government supports multinational and international efforts to prevent trafficking, in particular, EU, UN, OSCE and Stability Pact initiatives. It also worked closely with various NGOs to produce an awareness raising toolkit on trafficking. The government adequately monitors its borders.

Prosecution
There is no law specifically prohibiting all forms of trafficking in persons, but many human trafficking offenses are punishable under existing laws. The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act of 2002 was changed to establish an offense of trafficking for prostitution that carries a maximum penalty of 14 years. New offenses related to human trafficking are in recently introduced legislation on sexual offenses. Strengthening the operational and legal fight against human trafficking is one of the government's priorities for the European Commission five-year (2003-07) funding program in the area of police and judicial cooperation. Task Force Reflex, a U.K. law enforcement initiative, coordinates all agencies involved in combating trafficking and migrant smuggling. With the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act of 2002 only in effect since November 2002, numbers of trafficking-related prosecutions under this act were not yet reported, but public reports in the press highlighted a number of trafficking investigations and arrests. The Crown Prosecution Service works closely with the police at home, appoints prosecutors as liaison magistrates abroad, and works increasingly with Eurojust (an initiative of the EU Justice and Home Affairs Council) to combat serious cross-border crime, including trafficking in persons. Prosecutors provide advice to police at the investigation stage, and joint police-prosecutorial criminal justice units were established in 46 towns, with some 85 more to come. As an effort to combat transnational crime, including trafficking in persons, the government provided liaison magistrates in Spain, Italy and France.

Protection
The government assists victims with a full range of social and health care services, and temporary residence is available on an individual basis. It provides funding to UK and foreign victim-assistance NGOs. The government established a pilot project to support victims of trafficking through cooperation with a specialized domestic violence NGO. Victims who wish to return home or who are not authorized to remain are provided reintegration assistance, including initial counseling, suitable accommodation and support in reintegration into their own community. The police issued standard operating procedures to prevent the intimidation and harassment of witnesses. The Home Office prepared specific guidance for officials who may encounter trafficking to understand the difference between trafficking victims and illegal migrants. Victims are encouraged to assist in investigation and prosecution of trafficking and may file civil suits.

UZBEKISTAN (Tier 3)

[*Please note: Uzbekistan was updated to Tier 2 per President George W. Bush, Presidential Determination No. 2003-35, September 9, 2003.]

Uzbekistan is primarily a source and to a lesser extent, a transit country for the purposes of prostitution and labor. Confirmed information on the extent of trafficking from Uzbekistan only recently emerged, and there is a concern that the deterioration in the economy may lead to a growing problem. Known destinations are Kazakhstan, UAE, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Kosovo, and Israel. According to economists, 40-80% of the population has fallen into poverty in the eleven years since independence from the Soviet Union. Many of these newly poor earn less than $1 per day.

The Government of Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so. The Government of Uzbekistan only recently recognized that it has a problem with trafficking in persons, and that trafficking could become a greater problem if left unchecked. During the spring of 2003, central government authorities showed a greater willingness to focus on the issue, especially through improved dialogue with victim assistance NGOs. This recognition came late in the reporting period, and now its treatment of known victims and of women fitting the victim profile must be improved.

Prevention
The government has thus far taken only limited preventive actions of its own. The government denies exit from Uzbekistan to young women and does not screen them to determine if they are victims and does not offer them preventive information on trafficking. The government worked alongside other organizations on prevention in some instances, such as the permission granted by the Ministry of Education to one NGO to conduct anti-trafficking programs in schools. Some regions have been more proactive than the central government, with the regional government's Women's Committee in Samarkand engaging with NGOs to establish information-sharing and referral for victims.

Prosecution
The criminal code does not contain an anti-trafficking law. Other criminal articles prohibit various aspects of trafficking in persons, and the government pursued some criminal investigations under these laws, but there have been no final prosecutions or convictions of traffickers in Uzbekistan. An organized trafficking ring from Uzbekistan to Kazakhstan was exposed in February 2003. Under international pressure, the government investigated this case and has expelled the two North Koreans responsible. However, the Prosecutor General has taken actions against illegal recruitment, especially through marriage agencies and tourist firms and is pursuing a case involving 56 men who may have been labor trafficking victims in Siberia. It is also investigating the case of a girl trafficked for sex to the UAE. Border guards reportedly harass returning victims and require pay-offs at the border for women possibly fitting the victim profile. While no actions against this corruption were reported for the period covered by this report, in early 2002 the government convicted two border guards on corruption charges for allowing people to be trafficked.

Protection
The government does not have a mechanism for screening, recognizing, sheltering or otherwise assisting victims, nor does it have a referral mechanism to victim-assistance NGOs. However, it is increasing its efforts at victim assistance and protection. In late spring 2003, the government began to share information with one victim-assistance NGO, and border officials informally agreed to provide that NGO greater access to returning victims at the airport. However, victims complain of harsh treatment by police and border agents when returning. The government continued to charge a $25 fee to victims abroad who are seeking new travel documents. Most victims were not able to pay this fee. NGOs were unable to secure effective assistance from consular officers in many cases throughout the year, but in spring of 2003, the government began to respond to some of the pleas of NGOs advocating for and assisting in the repatriation of victims, and it began using temporary travel documents to bring trafficking victims home from abroad. The government engaged in discussions with IOM regarding a repatriation program, but still has not entered into any agreement for such a project.

VENEZUELA (Tier 2)

Venezuela is a destination, transit, and source country for trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation. Women are trafficked to Venezuela from Colombia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru and Cuba. Venezuelan women and girls are trafficked internally from rural to urban areas and internationally to Spain, Portugal and the United States. Children are trafficked internally for labor and sexual exploitation. Some undocumented residents in Venezuela from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru fall victim to traffickers. Because of its lax border controls, illegal migrants transit Venezuela; some of these migrants may be trafficked.

The Government of Venezuela does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so, despite limited resources. The government's ability to address trafficking is uniquely hindered by the country's current political and economic situation. Many officials are only slowly recognizing the nature of the trafficking problem. Some government offices -- such as the National Institute for Women -- are institutionally capable of responding to trafficking, but have not focused heavily on this issue. By committing more resources to the investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases, cooperating with NGOs to widen the understanding of the issue, and addressing trafficking-related corruption, the government can make progress in combating trafficking in persons.

Prevention
The government's National Institute for Women (called "Inamujer") runs a toll-free telephone hotline in which counselors are on standby to advise women in distress, but has not conducted any specific outreach or anti-trafficking information campaigns to make this resource more widely known. NGOs active in combating trafficking seek opportunities to cooperate with the government in developing a national plan. In prevention efforts not specific to trafficking, the government provides some support to prevent violence against women and increase women's participation in the economy.

Prosecution
Venezuela has no comprehensive law to address trafficking. The Organic Law to Protect Children and Adolescents could be used to prosecute traffickers of minors, but there is no information on any such prosecutions. In 2002, the Attorney General planned to increase significantly the number of prosecutors working on immigration matters, but budget cuts stymied this effort. Venezuela does not adequately monitor its borders. Corruption is a problem; some officials are accused of facilitating the illegal movement of people.

Protection
The Venezuelan legal system has good intentions with regard to the protection of women and children, but specific resources committed to combat trafficking are limited. Inamujer has opened three emergency shelters to help battered women, which include trafficking victims. Women sheltered under the aegis of Inamujer have recourse to legal services; however, victims are not specifically encouraged to pursue legal action against traffickers and there is no information on any such cases. Foreign victims are not treated as criminals and their rights are theoretically respected; however, the government makes no special efforts to determine who is a victim and some may be deported as illegal migrants. Venezuelan diplomatic officials are instructed to give consular assistance to their nationals in need overseas, but the government does not generally provide specialized training on trafficking.

VIETNAM (Tier 2)

Vietnam is a source, transit and, to a lesser extent, destination country for persons trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation. Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked to Cambodia, Malaysia, China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan for sexual exploitation and forced marriages. Victims from China transit Vietnam on trafficking routes to Australia, Europe and North America. Cambodian children are trafficked into Vietnam to beg in urban areas. Vietnamese rural laborers are exploited by traffickers. Labor export companies recruit and send workers abroad; some of these laborers have been known to suffer trafficking abuses.

The Government of Vietnam does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Particular concern remains, however, about the government's effectiveness in addressing cases of labor exploitation. Vietnamese state-owned labor companies have entered into international contracts that have resulted in incidents of labor trafficking. The government needs to protect workers through better oversight measures in these companies, which it regulates. Vietnam's efforts to combat trafficking for sexual exploitation could be enhanced by cooperating with Cambodia to address cross-border issues, including how to repatriate and care for victims.

Prevention
The government partners with multiple international organizations on anti-trafficking studies and surveys, and there is limited prevention measures in at-risk communities through leaflets and community trainers. The government-controlled Vietnam Women's Union sponsored a mass media campaign using television and newspapers. In other measures not specific to trafficking, the government is providing limited funds for development projects to increase compulsory education to nine years, and vocational and micro-credit programs for at-risk women and youth.

Prosecution
An inter-ministerial working group, chaired by the deputy prime minister, coordinates anti-sex trafficking activities, but clarification of responsibility at the agency level is needed to focus government action. Vietnam has a statute that prohibits sexual exploitation and the trafficking of women and children. The government investigates, arrests, and convicts sex traffickers; however, it does not make comprehensive statistics on arrests and convictions available, so these efforts cannot be fully evaluated. General statistics on trafficking in persons are not kept, but a much-needed proposed project would create a data collection system within a new crime statistics office. The government has taken part in bilateral police cooperation to combat trafficking, sending officials to Cambodia and China for better information sharing. The government is also addressing corruption. High-profile efforts include bringing four trafficking cases to trial against local government officials in 2002, and one high-profile 2003 case, in which over 150 persons, including ex-ministerial and law enforcement officials, were indicted for prostitution and migrant smuggling.

Protection
The government should take additional steps to ensure that victims are not abused. Many women found engaged in prostitution are not jailed or given criminal records, but placed in one of over 40 rehabilitation centers. These centers reportedly provide medical treatment, vocational training, and counseling in efforts to deter the victims' return to prostitution. However, Vietnam's efforts in rehabilitating some victims can be controversial. The centers have been criticized for conducting "reeducation" and limiting victims' freedom of movement.

ZAMBIA (Tier 2)

Zambia is primarily a source country for men, women, and children trafficked to South Africa for labor and commercial sexual exploitation, and a destination country for women trafficked from Thailand for commercial sexual exploitation. Until the April 2002 cease-fire, Zambians were sometimes abducted and forcibly conscripted in rebel groups during the civil war in Angola. Internal trafficking of children, both for labor and for sexual exploitation, is also a major problem.

The Government of Zambia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. Though strong on prevention and protection efforts, particularly to exploitative child labor, Zambia needs to step up its law enforcement efforts.

Prevention
The government works actively with an international NGO to address child labor. It works with international partners to remove children from exploitative work in prostitution, domestic service, hawking, and mining. It supports public awareness campaigns. Ministry officials at all levels are receiving training and sensitization about the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The government implemented programs to rehabilitate child prostitutes and other street children. Zambia also abolished fees for primary schools, waived uniform requirements in rural areas, established volunteer-based community schools for children who have fallen behind in their studies, and focused on "girl-friendly" education initiatives, all measures designed to reduce the vulnerability of children to trafficking. School curricula are being updated and new "schools without walls" allow children to be educated on the streets, minimizing the time away from work. Street children are offered counseling services. The government also is strengthening the district level coordination to empower HIV/AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children, including extension of micro-credit programs to families living with HIV/AIDS.

Prosecution
Zambia's constitution bans trafficking in children under the age of eighteen, as well as trafficking in women for immoral activities. The constitution also prohibits slavery and forced labor. The government actively investigates accusations of trafficking. The government assisted in the repatriation of two Zambian girls trafficked to Ireland and charged two Congolese (DRC) nationals with abduction and rape. In one recent case, a police officer was sentenced to 9 years' labor for the rape of a minor girl. The government also worked with Angolan officials to resolve abduction cases from the civil war and with the government of Botswana in a case of suspected trafficking that was eventually proven false. The Employment Act requires anyone taking young Zambians to another country for employment to obtain government approval. The Ministry of Labor and Social Security's Child Labor Unit is charged with enforcing labor laws, but inadequate training and resources result in weak enforcement. The government is taking steps to improve its capacity to monitor its borders.

Protection
The government is assisting in the repatriation of two girls trafficked to Ireland and has agreed to provide counseling. The government has provided medical aid, personnel, and facilities for programs that have removed over 2,400 children from exploitative labor situations. The government supports the protection efforts of non-governmental organizations. Victims are not treated as criminals.

ZIMBABWE (Tier 2)

Zimbabwe is primarily a source country for men, women, and children trafficked to South Africa for farm labor and commercial sexual exploitation, as well as a transit country for persons trafficked from Asia, Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique to South Africa. As a result of Zimbabwe's recent economic downturn and a growing number of HIV/AIDS orphans and child-headed households, internal trafficking of young women for commercial sexual exploitation is a growing problem.

The Government of Zimbabwe does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. Zimbabwe should improve its anti-trafficking performance through stepped up law enforcement efforts.

Prevention
The Child Labor Task Force Committee and the Department of Welfare work with NGOs to train adults and children on identification of exploitation of children. School curriculum and other information programs raise children's awareness of child exploitation. The government supports programs to create educational opportunities for poor children, operates 15 training centers for out-of-school children throughout the country, and administers programs enhancing economic self-sufficiency for women.

Prosecution
Zimbabwe has no specific anti-trafficking law, but penalties do exist for abduction, forced labor, and transporting persons across the border for sexual exploitation. Child labor is regulated; children under 18 are prohibited from working during school hours without governmental permission, and from working at night or in hazardous conditions. The Sexual Offences Act, passed in 2001, outlaws procurement and forced prostitution and carries a penalty of up to seven years in prison and a fine. The government cooperated with 20 other countries in a ten-month investigation of child pornography. There is no evidence of governmental involvement in trafficking. Two humanitarian workers were dismissed for sexual abuse of refugees. The government is working with INTERPOL and neighboring immigration authorities to prevent trafficking of children for prostitution.

Protection
The government has established Victim Friendly Courts for victims of sexual abuse, who includes trafficked persons. Child friendly legal facilities now link police stations, hospitals, social welfare, families, community leaders, and prosecutors together in abuse cases involving children. The government, especially law enforcement, is supporting international organizations and NGOs assisting trafficking victims.

[This is a mobile copy of Country Narratives -- Countries Q through Z]