Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
February 18, 2013


ADOPTED AT THE TWENTY-FOURTH INTER-SESSIONAL MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF GOVERNMENT OF CARICOM, 18-19 FEBRUARY 2013, PORT-AU-PRINCE, REPUBLIC OF HAITI

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

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ACHCPS

Association of Caribbean Heads of Corrections and Prisons Services

ACIS

Advance Cargo Information System

APIS

Advance Passenger Information System

APSO

Association of Private Security Organisations

AROs

Asset Recovery Offices

ATT

Arms Trade Treaty

CAFIS

CARICOM Automated Fingerprint Integrated System

CARIBSEC

CARICOM Integrated Border Security System

CARIBSIS

CARICOM Border Surveillance System

CARICAD

Caribbean Centre for Development Administration

CARICOM

Caribbean Community

CARIPASS

CARICOM Travel Card

CASA

CARICOM Secure App

CAWT

CARICOM Arrest Warrant Treaty

CBSI

Caribbean Basin Security Initiative

CCSS

CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy

CDEMA

Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency

CIBIN

Canadian Integrated Ballistics Identification Network

CIP

Critical Infrastructure Protection

CONSLE

Council of Ministers Responsible for National Security and Law Enforcement

CSME

CARICOM Single Market and Economy

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic

Euro-IBIS

European Integrated Ballistics Identification System

FATF

Financial Action Task Force

JOC

Joint Operational Centres

JRCC

Joint Regional Communications Centre

MINUSTAH

UN Stabilisation Mission in Haiti

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

NIBIN

United States National Integrated Ballistics Identification Network

NPCs

National Points of Contact

RIBIN

Regional Integrated Ballistic Information Network

RIFC

Regional Intelligence Fusion Centre

RIMS

Regional Investigative Management System

ROMS

Regional Offender Management System

RSS

Regional Security System

SALW

Small Arms and Light Weapons

SIDS

Small Island Developing States

SDCPAP

Caribbean Community Social Development and Crime Prevention Action Plan

UN PoA

Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects

CONTENTS

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION: A SECURE COMMUNITY

• Methodology

• Road Map of the Strategy

CHAPTER ONE: CARICOMSECURITY ENVIRONMENT

• Security Context

• CARICOM

• The Impact of Crime

• Facilitators of Crime

• Transnational Organised Crime

• Socio-Economic Determinants of Criminality

• The Criminal Justice System

• Maritime Domain

• Impact of Globalisation

• Impact of Natural Disasters

• Vital Industries

o Tourism

o Private Security Industry

• International Geo-Politics

• Regional Security Mechanisms

CHAPTER TWO: DEFINING OUR RISKS

• Risk and Threat Assessment Methodology

CHAPTER THREE: ADVANCING OUR REGIONAL SECURITY PRIORITIES

TIER 1 THREATS

• Transnational Organised Crime: Trafficking of Illicit Drugs and Illegal Guns

• Illicit Drugs

• Illegal Guns

• Gangs and Organised Crime

• Cyber-Crime

• Financial Crimes

• Corruption

TIER 2 THREATS

• Human Trafficking and Smuggling

• Natural Disaster

• Public Order Crimes

TIER 3 RISKS

Attacks on Critical Infrastructure

• Terrorism

TIER 4 RISKS

• Climate Change

• Pandemics

• Migratory Pressure: Illegal immigrants from third states and other regions

CHAPTER FOUR: STRATEGIC APPROACH - RESPONDING TO THE RISKS

• Strategic Goal 1: Take the Profit out of Crime, Target Criminal Assets and Protect the Financial System

• Strategic Goal 2: Crime Prevention - Addressing the Causes of Crime and Insecurity and Increase Public Awareness of the Key Risks

• Strategic Goal 3: Establishing Appropriate Legal Instruments While Ratifying Existing Agreements

• Strategic Goal 4: Increase Trans-border Intelligence and Information Sharing

• Strategic Goal 5: Enhance Law Enforcement and Security Capabilities and Strengthen Regional Security Systems

• Strategic Goal 6: Enhance Maritime and Airspace Awareness, Strengthen CARICOM Borders including Contiguous Land Borders

• Strategic Goal 7: Strengthen the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation through Modern Technologies and Scientific Techniques

• Strategic Goal 8: Strengthen CARICOM’s Resilience to Cybercrime

• Strategic Goal 9: Pursue Functional Cooperative Security Engagements to Tackle and Manage Shared Risks and Threats

• Strategic Goal 10: Strengthen the Justice Sector

• Strategic Goal 11: Modernise and Enhance Correctional Services and Institutions Management

• Strategic Goal 12: Strengthen Mechanisms Against Human trafficking

• Strategic Goal 13: Improving Resilience to Natural and Man Made Disasters

• Strategic Goal 14: Promote Resilient Critical Infrastructure Management and Safety at Major Events

CHAPTER FIVE: IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING

• Implementation

• Monitoring Process

STRATEGIC GOALS AND ACTION PLAN


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I. The ideals of the CARICOM integration movement and the pillars of its foundation can only be realised in a safe and secure Community. The CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy (CCSS) constitutes an historic and defining moment for the Community in clearly articulating its security interests within the wider context of the shifting balance of global geopolitical power, increasing market competitiveness, public debt financing and profound economic uncertainties, threats of climate change and scarcity of key resources. This current situation is further exacerbated by profound influence of new technology and social media, the increasingly asymmetric nature of conflict, and the growing power of non-state actors, including transnational organized crime.

II. The multidimensional and multifaceted nature of the risks and threats faced by CARICOM Member States are increasingly interconnected, cross-cutting, network-centric and transnational. The repercussions of emerging threats now propagate rapidly around the world, so that events in any part of the world are now far more likely to have immediate consequences for the Caribbean region. This rapidly - evolving set of security scenarios - and the absence of a common analysis of the risks and threats that affect CARICOM Member States - make this Strategy vitally necessary.

III. The Council of Ministers Responsible for National Security and Law Enforcement (CONSLE) at its 5th Meeting mandated the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) to develop a “Regional Crime and Security Strategy” (hereafter called the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy).

IV. The Strategy is guided by the principles and values of democratic choice, freedom, justice, prosperity, respect for territorial integrity, respect for and promotion of human rights and good governance all of which reflect the deepest convictions of the Community.

V. The goal of the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy is to significantly improve citizen security by creating a safe, just and free Community, while simultaneously improving the economic viability of the Region.

VI. The Strategy identifies and prioritises the common security risks and threats which CARICOM is facing now, and likely to face in the future. It articulates an integrated and cohesive security framework to confront these challenges, and will therefore guide the coordinated internal and external crime and security policies adopted by CARICOM Member States, under their respective legal frameworks to the fullest extent.

VII. The risks and threats identified in the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy are prioritised into four (4) Tiers:

  • Tier 1 -Immediate Significant Threats. These are high-probability, high-impact events. They are the current and present dangers.
  • Tier 2 - Substantial Threats. These are both likely and high-impact, but are not as severe as Tier 1 Threats.
  • Tier 3 - Significant Potential Risks. These are high-impact, but low-probability.
  • Tier 4 - Future Risks. These are threats where the probability and impact cannot be assessed at this stage.

VIII. Tier 1 Threats consist of the mutually-reinforcing relationship between transnational organised criminal activities involving illicit drugs and illegal guns; gangs and organised crime; cyber-crime; financial crimes and corruption. Tier 1 Threats are the main drivers of current criminality levels, and has the potential to cripple the already fragile socio-economic developmental progress in CARICOM and the advancement of CSME. Tier 1 Threats are the Immediate Significant Threats to the Community and are primarily responsible for the Caribbean having one of the highest homicide rates in the world -30 people killed for every 100,000 inhabitants; (compared to a world average of 5).

IX. The criminality perpetuated by the Tier 1 Threats is driven by the desire and pursuit of profit, power and prestige. The criminals are supported by the facilitators which consist of unscrupulous and corrupt professionals within key sectors of the economy such as the financial, legal, justice, law enforcement and security, public officials and even government officials who help them to secure and conceal their assets.

X. Organised crime depends on the facilitators of criminality. It is the facilitators who operate both in the licit and illicit world who shield organised crime and allow it to flourish. There are also a range of social factors that enable and support this criminality, including large economic disparities, poverty, the rising cost of living, social exclusion and marginalisation, unemployment and multiple governance failures.

XI. Tier 2 Threats are Substantial Threats to the Region. They include human trafficking and smuggling, natural disasters and public disorder crimes.

XII. Tier 3 Risks consist of Significant Potential Risks and include attacks on critical infrastructure and terrorism.

XIII. Tier 4 Risks consist of Future Risks, with unknown probabilities and consequences. They include climate change, pandemics and migratory pressure.

XIV. Despite numerous initiatives and mechanisms aimed at addressing the problems of armed violence, high levels of gun crimes persist in the Region. The key to the solution is a marked reduction in the availability of illegal guns and ammunitions. It is essential to disrupt and prevent access to illegal guns and ammunition, partly because they are responsible for more than 70% of homicides in CARICOM, and partly because illegal guns play a key role in facilitating the trafficking of other commodities, and used as a tool to support criminal and deviant behaviour and sexual and non-sexual violence.

XV. The Region can only achieve meaningful results in this area by working with key strategic partners; in particular the states where guns are sourced - (most of them come from the United States of America). While the Region respects the rights of other states to establish liberal policies regarding access to guns, the negative impacts of these gun policies are not confined to their borders. They have very serious consequences for other countries, including the Caribbean nations, Mexico and the Central American states. Preventing the illicit trafficking in guns is therefore a responsibility to be shared not only among CARICOM states but also the countries that are the sources of these weapons.

XVI. CARICOM Member States cannot ignore the international progressive shift on drug policy. A number of countries are now questioning the wisdom of attempting to deal with drug problems primarily by prohibition, and are calling for a new focus on actions to reduce the harm caused to the victims of drug related crimes; drug users and others. It is therefore an opportune time for a fundamental review of all CARICOM drug policies within the international context. The Region’s position must be informed by a comprehensive understanding of the changing global situation, which makes it essential to consider possible alternative policies. The principal aim of the Region’s drug policy should be first and foremost to minimise the damage caused to the victims of drug-related crimes; drug users and others.

XVII. The Strategy places strong emphasis on law enforcement and security measures addressing the profits derived from illicit activities, and also the prosecution of the facilitators of criminality in order to effect a permanent reduction in the level of crime. An aggressive and successful programme of asset forfeiture could cripple organised crime in the Region. These assets and parts of the funds seized should be made available to law enforcement and crime prevention initiatives. The private sector has a key role in the implementation of mechanisms to prevent fraudulent activities, money laundering and criminality.

XVIII. The Strategy recognizes that although national efforts are critical, they can also have the unintended consequence of displacing criminality from one Member State to another. In order to effectively address the problem of crime and its impact on the security of the Region, the CARICOM Member States need to have integrated policies that are regional in scope, and are complemented with a strong regional security framework that is adequately financed and fully supported by all governments. National efforts must therefore be part of a coordinated regional approach.

XIX. CARICOM’s own security is directly linked to the dynamics of the international world order. Whilst the Region strengthens its relationship with traditional partners such as the European Union, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, it will seek to harness new opportunities with other strategic partners to advance CARICOM’s security interests. Deepening the Region’s engagement with key strategic states will not only give the Community a better understanding of its counterparts but will more importantly assist other states to understand what is in the best interest of the Region.

XX. CARICOM Member States are committed to upholding, developing and implementing international law, international norms and multilateral commitments. Member States will adopt all measures necessary to fulfill the legislative requirement for full implementation of this Strategy within the framework of their national laws. This will enable CARICOM Member States to overcome the obstacles posed by divergent national approaches, where necessary through enactment of regional and international legislations.

XXI. The CCSS contains fourteen (14) strategic goals to mitigate and manage the risks and threats to the Region. Each of the strategic goals builds on important steps already taken, addresses specific security gaps, and sets out strategic lines of action that guide the types of activities to be carried out in order to achieve the overarching strategic goal. The table below illustrates the strategic goals:

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CARICOM CRIME AND SECURITY STRATEGY: STRATEGIC GOALS

Strategic Goal 1

Take the Profit out of Crime, Target Criminal Assets and Protect the Financial System

Strategic Goal 2

Crime Prevention - Addressing the Causes of Crime and Insecurity and Increase Public Awareness of the Key Risks

Strategic Goal 3

Establish Appropriate Legal Instruments While Ratifying Existing Agreements

Strategic Goal 4

Increase Trans-border Intelligence and Information Sharing

Strategic Goal 5

Enhance Law Enforcement and Security Capabilities and Strengthen Regional Security Systems

Strategic Goal 6

Enhance Maritime and Airspace Awareness, Strengthen CARICOM Borders including Contiguous Land Borders

Strategic Goal 7

Strengthen the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation Through Modern Technologies and Scientific Techniques

Strategic Goal 8

Strengthen CARICOM’s Resilience to Cybercrime

Strategic Goal 9

Pursue Functional Cooperative Security Engagements to Tackle and Manage Shared Risks and Threats

Strategic Goal 10

Strengthen the Justice Sector

Strategic Goal 11

Modernise and Enhance Correctional Services and Institutions Management

Strategic Goal 12

Strengthen Mechanisms Against Human Trafficking

Strategic Goal 13

Improving Resilience to Natural and Man Made Disasters

Strategic Goal 14

Promote Resilient Critical Infrastructure Management and Safety at Major Events

XXII. The development of many Caribbean nations has been crippled by crime and corruption. A fight against crime is therefore a fight for human development. Illegal activities in any State have the potential to reach and affect every other Member State, and undermine the economic viability of the region.

XXIII. It is estimated that – with sufficient political will and bold and courageous leadership - the implementation of the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy could significantly reduce serious crime within the next three (3) years. This would help to attract and retain both human and financial capital, thereby enabling a new Caribbean renaissance.

XXIV. We need a whole-government approach to implementing this Strategy. Member States need to work flexibly to ensure they give the agreed priority to the implementation of the strategic goals within their policies and programmes.

INTRODUCTION: A SECURE COMMUNITY

1. Security is the single most important responsibility of the State. Peace and prosperity, freedom and liberty all depend on security. Security is therefore a core developmental goal. It also provides the foundation for other developmental goals. Investment, trade, economic development and growth depend on the protection of life and property. The CARICOM Single Market and Economy can only develop and prosper in a secure environment.

2. The Council of Ministers Responsible for National Security and Law Enforcement (CONSLE) at its 5th Meeting mandated the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) to develop a Regional Crime and Security Strategy.

3. The goal of the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy is to significantly improve citizen security, by creating a safe, just and free Community, while simultaneously improving the economic viability of the Region.

4. The core objectives of the Strategy are to identify and prioritise the common security risks and threats which CARICOM is facing now and likely to face in the near future, and to identify the courses of action needed to prevent and confront these challenges. The primary focus is on threats that are likely to require a regional approach, such as transnational crime, as they are beyond the capacity of any one state to address alone.

5. The Strategy is the authoritative reference source for CARICOM’s crime and security agenda which guides the Community’s approach to crime and security. The CCSS is also an important tool to:

  • Provide policy and programme guidance to national, regional and international agencies in their internal and external processes;
  • Provide guidance for the development of other regional and national crime and security plans;
  • Inform relevant stakeholders about CARICOM’s security agenda and intent;
  • Provide a framework for collaboration for states, cooperating and supporting nations, agencies and NGOs on regional crime and security issues; and
  • Identify financial needs and justify resources from international donor partners.

6. Events over the last decade - from the commissioning of the Regional Task Force on Crime and Security, the establishment of a Management Framework for crime and security, to security being declared the Fourth Pillar of CARICOM -have demonstrated a progressive posture towards fostering unprecedented cooperation within regional security. These milestones and improvements in the management of CARICOM’s crime and security agenda have brought greater focus, responsiveness, integration and functional cooperation to the Community’s approach to security and are instrumental in the deepening of CARICOM’s integration process.

7. In 2001 a Task Force on Crime and Security was established to “examine the major causes of crime, and to recommend approaches to deal with increasing levels of crime and violence and security threats in the Region”.

8. A major outcome of the work of the Task Force was a proposal for the creation of a framework for the Region to effectively manage its crime and security challenges. This proposal was further reinforced by the recognition that the establishment of a CARICOM Single Market and Economy would necessitate a permanent framework to strengthen coordination of regional crime and security policy and to facilitate cross functional cooperation among law enforcement and security agencies.

9. Against this backdrop the CARICOM Heads of Government established a framework for the management of crime and security in the Region. Among other structures, the Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) was established by way of an Inter-Governmental Agreement signed by CARICOM Heads of Government in July 2006, as part of a management framework and mandated to give effect to the regional crime and security agenda.

10. In pursuance of the regional thrust and the growing importance of security on the international scene, a decision was taken by the Heads of Government in 2007 to establish crime and security as a Fourth Pillar of the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (2001).

11. Although significant strides have been made, the work is still far from completion. This Strategy recognises that effective regional crime and security mechanisms are essential for advancing the Region’s security interests, and critically important to the implementation of CARICOM Single Market and Economy.

12. IMPACS and its two sub-Agencies, the Regional Intelligence Fusion Centre (RIFC), the Joint Regional Communications Centre (JRCC), as well as the Regional Security System (RSS) and the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA)have and continue to play pioneering and indispensable roles in coordination and harmonisation of security activities focused towards advancing sustainable regional development. These security mechanisms have created unprecedented common action frameworks which have brought greater focus, functional corporation and increasing integration of the Community’s crime and security agenda.

13. The Community will now increase its efforts and take all necessary steps to ensure their technical and financial sustainability. Success willdeepen the integration process and help the Region to become prosperous and sustainable,with justice, democracy, freedom and security for all.

14. The CCSS aims to combine policy and implementation in a more strategic and systematic way to assist the Community to prepare for an increasingly uncertain future, to shape current policies to best effect and to prevent duplication of efforts and policy conflicts.

METHODOLOGY

15. In line with its Mandate from CONSLE to “develop a Regional Crime and Security Strategy”, IMPACS appointed a CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy Steering Committee. The primary focus of the Steering Committee was the “provision of strategic oversight, guidance and support for the development and implementation of the Strategy activities”. The CCSS Steering Committee convened its first meeting on 9 June 2011. Headed by CARICOM IMPACS, the Steering Committee included representatives of CARICOM Chairs of CARICOM Standing Committees - Commissioners of Police, Military Chiefs, Chief Immigration Officers, Comptrollers of Customs and Heads of Intelligence and Financial Intelligence Units, the Regional Security System together with key regional crime and security experts.

16. The Steering Committee agreed that the process of developing the Strategy should commence with the Regional Crime and Security Strategy Coordinator producing a draft text of a future “CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy” which should give direction and purpose to the consultation process and deliberations.

17. The CCSS was drafted based on a review of existing reports commissioned by IMPACS and other national, regional and global reports, Member States’ security strategies and policies, academic work, surveys, quantitative and qualitative research, CARICOM risk assessments, and meetings and consultations with key stakeholders. The process then entered a consultation and negotiation phase. It consisted of extensive and intensive consultations with the Standing Committees of Operational Heads, crime and security experts, practitioners and a variety of institutional actors and other interested parties across the Region[1].

ROAD MAP OF THE STRATEGY

18. Chapter 1: Strategic Security Environment; outlines the global context and the nature of the environment within which the Community operates. The chapter also provides an analysis and assessment of CARICOM’s core security issues.

19. Chapter 2: Defining Our Risks and Threats; outlines the methodology used to identify and prioritise the key risks and threats the Region is likely to face now and in the future.

20. Chapter 3: Advancing Our Regional Priorities; outlines the key risks and threats the Region faces. The common and shared risks and threats to regional security are prioritised into four (4) tiers based on a combination of the likelihood of the risk or threat arising and its potential impact. The Risk and Threat Assessment also took account of our current state of preparedness for each risk and threat.

21. Chapter 4: Strategic Approach; details the mechanisms and policies to manage the risks and threats.

22. Chapter 5: Implementation and Monitoring; presents a brief summary of the implementation and monitoring processes of the Strategy.

CHAPTER 1: STRATEGIC SECURITY ENVIRONMENT

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THE WORLD WE LIVE IN

To achieve CARICOM’s interests, it is paramount that we understand the context and the nature of the strategic environment within which we operate in order to position the Community for the present and prepare CARICOM for the future.

The Security Context

1.1. The world is being rapidly reshaped by the accelerating pace of scientific and technological advancement, demographic trends and the shift in the balance of world population to developing countries, the rise of Asia as a new centre of global manufacturing, surging demand for resources and equally rapid shifts in the pattern of environmental impacts, and fundamental changes in the nature of risk, political and economic influence, competition and conflict, and the geopolitical balance of power.

1.2. These changes represent important new opportunities but also existential challenges for the Caribbean nations, which have to adjust to market liberalisation, the phasing-out of preferential terms of trade and rapidly increasing competition from the emerging economies, while simultaneously contending with high rates of homicide and violent crime, trafficking in guns, ammunition and illegal narcotics, the rise in cyber-crime, the compromising of government programs by organised crime, increasing pressure on water, energy and other resources, environmental degradation and climate change, the growing power of non-state actors including transnational organised crime networks, and the increasing influence of new digital technologies, scientific advances and social networks[2], which can be used for good but also for destructive ends.

1.3. CARICOM nations need flexible but robust plans for dealing with the profound challenge of living in a world of rapidly evolving threats and shifting opportunities. In an age of uncertainty, it is vital to act quickly and effectively to deal with new and evolving threats to national and regional security. The essential interests of the CARICOM nations, however, remain constant. They are founded on our most deeply-held values; democracy, liberty and good governance, the rule of law, and respect for human rights and dignity.

1.4. Today CARICOM faces a number of emerging challenges, such as cyber-crimes with geographic origins and perpetrators that may be beyond regional boundaries, the risk of a terrorist attack, possibly directed at a third party but located in the region, and the growth in the wealth, power and reach of the Mexican drug cartels.

1.5. The new reality is that of an increasingly interconnected world. Events in a distant part of the world can now have rapid and extensive repercussions for CARICOM. These changes make this CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy absolutely necessary.

CARICOM

1.6. CARICOM comprises 12 islands and 3 continental states[3]within a geographicalzonethat lies directly in the path of one of the most active international drug trades: between the world’sprimary source of cocaine (the Andean Region of South America) and its primary consumer markets (the United States and Europe). Adding to the challenge of the international drug trade, CARICOM Member States have extensive coastlines and vast territorial waters to patrol, and lack adequate law enforcement capabilities. The12 islands are spread over approximately 60,000 square kilometres of the Caribbean Sea which has an area of 2.75 million square kilometres. Justover 2% of CARICOM’s area is land, within an overall area that is three quarters the size of the 27 Member States ofthe European Union combined.This makes it extremelychallenging for each state to monitor its coastlines and territorial waters which are, on average, 15 times larger than their land mass. Four member states share land borders with other sovereign territories.

1.7. Although diverse in terms of population size,[4] all the Member States of CARICOM are considered small states. The Community hasinherent sustainable developmental challenges which includesmall populations,very large maritime frontiers, susceptibility to external shocks and natural disasters, vulnerability to global economic developments and the threat of both domestic and transnational organised crime.

1.8. As a Community with approximately17,000,000 million people, over half of which are in Haiti,CARICOMMember States are committed to the principles and values of democratic choice, freedom, justice, prosperity, respect for and promotion of human rights and good governance. CARICOM’s crime and security mandate is guided by these principles and values all of which reflect the convictions of theCommunity.

The Impact of Crime

1.9. Most CARICOM Member States have high rates of homicide and violent crime. This has reduced citizen security,impeded socio-economic development, eroded confidence in nation building and heightened fear among the population. The Caribbean Human Development Report (2012) indicates “that Region wide, only 46% of respondents said that, overall, they felt secure or very secure living in their countries”.[5]

1.10. The greatest threatsto the Region’s security and sustainable developmentaretransnational organised criminal activities involving illicit drugs and illegal guns; gangs and organised crime; cyber-crime; financial crimes and corruption.Tier 1 Threats are the main drivers of criminality, have already crippled the development of a number of member states, and have the potential to undermine all hopes for socio-economic development in CARICOM and the advancement of the CSME.

1.11. Tier 1 Threatsare primarily responsible for the Region’s high murder rates and violence that burdens socio-economic development. These threats have a particular impact on the most vulnerable members of the population, especially women and children in poor areas.

1.12. The average homicide rate for the Community is 30 people killed for every 100,000 inhabitants annually. In Mexico,a country suffering appalling widespread drug-related violence, the rate is just 18while the global rate is approximately 5 (see figure 1.1). All CARICOM Member States have significantly higher murder rates per capita than the United States, which has a murder rate of 4.6 per 100,000. More than 70% of the people who die a violent death in the Region are killed with a gun (IMPACS, 2012).

1.13. Young people under the age of 30 comprise 60 per cent of the Region’s citizenry, and are both the main perpetrators and victims of crime.This very high level of violent criminalityhas reduced the citizens’ quality of life, placed the limited resources of Member States under extreme pressure, reduced local and foreign direct investment and threatens the ability of States to achieve their developmental goals.

Facilitators of Crime

1.14. Criminals are increasingly using professionals and service providers to facilitatetheir criminal activities. There is an increasing convergence between criminals and professionals involved in a blend of legitimate and illegitimate businesses. It is clear that organised criminals cannot operate without the professional advice and assistance of facilitators.

1.15. These facilitators of criminality include unscrupulous, corrupt and complicit professionals within key sectors of the economy such as the financial, legal, justice, law enforcement and security, public officials and even government officials. The methods these facilitators use vary, but in general they use their specialist knowledge and expertise to exploit legal loopholes, find opportunities for criminals, or help criminals retain and launder the proceeds of crime.

Transnational Organised Crime

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Transnational Organised Crime

Transnational organised crime encompasses virtually all profit-motivated criminal activities with regional and international implications.Illicit drugs, illegal guns, human trafficking and migrant smuggling, cyber-crime, financial crimes, identity fraud and the illicit trade of counterfeit products are some of the ways in which transnational organized crime manifests itself in the Region.

1.16. Transnational organised crime networks are expanding and diversifying their activities, resulting in the convergence of risks and threats that are increasingly complex and destabilising.The trafficking of illicit drugs and illegal guns are still the primary activities of transnational organised crime in the Region, but these criminal syndicates are diversifying their activities into areas such as increasingly sophisticated fraud, the smuggling of contraband cigarettes, petroleum, steel and other goods, and cyber-crimes such as the Lotto scam (now a thriving business in Jamaica).Smuggling contraband goods can be as lucrative as trafficking in drugs, but the penalties tend to be much lower. The emergence of new illicit commodities, including counterfeit engine parts and medicines (the World Health Organization estimates that more than 60% of pharmaceuticals in some developing countries are fakes) is of grave concern.

1.17. Transnationalorganised crime is primarily motivated by profit, power and prestige.The criminals are supported by the facilitators who help them to secure and conceal their assets.The increasing prevalence of the methods employed by transnational organized crime groups in the Region is intensifying corruption and penetrating the CARICOM business environment.

1.18. Transnational organised crime groups are increasingly operating through fluid networks rather than more formal hierarchies; these provide criminals with diversity, flexibility, low visibility and longevity.

1.19. Although national efforts are critical, they can also inadvertently displace the flow of transnational organized crime activities from one Member State to another,as traffickers rapidly adapt and find new sources, routes and transit zones. Once established, other criminal operations tend to follow to that new route and transit zone. So States must continue to strengthen their own capacity, but, given the trans-border nature of the risks and threats, national efforts must form part of a coordinated regional and international response.

1.20. As an example of this effect, counter-narcotics strategies elsewhere are already having unintended consequences in the Region. An unintended consequence of initiatives in Colombia and Mexico (Plan Colombia and the Merida Initiative) is that there is already evidence that some traffickers are now using CARICOM Member States as a major transit route for the illicit flow of drugs to North America and Europe.

Socio-Economic Determinants of Criminality

1.21. Poverty, unemployment and underemployment, inequalities, the rising cost of living, social exclusion and marginalisation and governance failuresprovide an enabling environment for criminality to flourish.

1.22. Unemployment remains a key policy concern with most of the Member States of CARICOM having unemployment rates between 10% and 25%. The current weak state of the global economy places an added burden on CARICOM, making the Region more vulnerable to the threats posed by gangs and transnational organised crime syndicates which thrive in areas where poverty is prevalent and opportunities are limited.

The Criminal Justice System

1.23. A well-functioning criminal justice system is indispensable to a free, equitable and democratic society. It is the ultimate source of protection of the rights of the citizen, holding the scales between one citizen and another and between the citizen and the State. The effectiveness of security programmes is constrained by deficiencies in the criminal justice systems and its lack of resources. There are large backlogs in the Courts, witnesses are often left unprotected, and justice is frequently delayed for years. Justice delayed is justice denied.

1.24. Witnesses are increasingly being threatened and in some cases murdered, further undermining the functioning of the criminal justice system. This, in conjunction with the extended delaysin processing criminal cases and large backlogs in the Courts, results in very low conviction rates, which means that laws have very little deterrent effect.

1.25. Prisons and correctional institutions constitute a key operating environment for criminal organizations. Members of criminal organizations recruit new members, network with other criminal organisations, plan criminal activities and establish regional and international contacts while in correctional institutions. In many Member States the prisons and correctional institutions populations are growing at a rapid rate. Overcrowding seriously impedes with the rehabilitation process. The majority of prisoners serve relatively short sentences, which means that they soon return to the community. Correctional institutions must therefore be more than places of punishment; they must serve to rehabilitate offenders who will someday return to society to work and live.

1.26. There is an urgent need to reduce the Region’s dependence on the use of foreign-based forensic laboratories; reducing the costs and time of procuring forensic services and allowing for the prioritization of critically important cases. Law enforcement and security agencies cannot effectively respond to criminality without the support of better forensic science and technology.

Maritime Domain

1.27. Trade is heavily dependent on the free movement of maritime traffic, managed with safety and security. Ports and maritime services play a vital role in CARICOM Member States with 90% of imports and exports carried by sea (World Bank, 2007).

1.28. The Region’s Maritime space is increasingly being exploited by transnational organised crime syndicates. The global shipping network is the dominant method of transporting illicit goods,in particular illegal narcotics and weapons.

1.29. Maritime security cooperation is therefore a necessary step in dealing with transnational organised crime. Increased security depends on enhanced coordination and collaboration to ensureeffective maritime and airspace security awareness and border management.

Impact of Globalisation

1.30. Globalisation has brought new opportunities such as the unprecedented acceleration of information exchange and the free flow of people, goods, services, information, ideas and capital. However, CARICOM nations have also suffered a number of significant external developmental challenges, as globalisation hasalso created major opportunities for criminals to prosper. The effect of the trade and proliferation in illegal weapons is particularly devastating, although no CARICOM states manufacture weapons and ammunition.

1.31. The Member States are small, in terms of population and territory, with limited capacity and structure, and so are relatively vulnerable to external events. The Region cannot isolate itself from global trends, but muststrengthen its resilience and adaptability, and find ways to make globalization serve the Community’s interests.

Impact of Natural Disasters

1.32. The Caribbean is vulnerable to earthquakes and hurricanes. These can increase vulnerability to criminal activities, and exacerbate other problems such as increasing migration, both of which give rise to pressing security concerns. The catastrophic earthquake that affected Haiti on January 12th2010 killed at least 80,000, left many more homeless, caused extensive damage to the infrastructure, resulted in a breakdown of law and order, and caused nearly US$8 billion in economic damage, illustrates the potential threat of natural hazards.

1.33. The Community must ensure that it has the capacity to mitigate, respond to and recover from disasters and their consequential security implications. The threat of natural disasters must be factored into national and regional security planning.

Vital Industries

Tourism

1.34. The World Travel and Tourism Council has ranked the Caribbean Region first (among 12 regions) in the relative contribution of tourism to the regional economy, making it the most tourist dependent area in the world. In 2011 Tourism and Travel accounted for 13.9% of total GDP in the Caribbean, 12.1% of total employment and 11.8% of total investment.

1.35. As the most tourism-dependent region in the world, the sector is the largest contributor to employment and gross domestic product throughout most Member States. CARICOM must make safety and security an integral component of tourism development, which will require more assertive and proactive policies. Tourist destinations that can offer safety and security as key components of the tourism product are more likely to attract and retain tourist customers.

1.36. The Caribbean's perception as being a relatively safe and secure Region is among its major assets as a tourist destination. However, if violent criminality is not prevented, this reputation could be quickly compromised.The sustainability, growth and prosperity of the tourism industry are contingent upon safety and security. More than any other economic activity, the success or failure of the tourism industry depends on being able to ensure visitor safety and security. It is imperative that the requisite systems and resources are available to protect the industry.

1.37. CARICOM Member States areopposed to the passage of shipments of high-level nuclear and toxic waste through the Caribbean Sea, as the sea and beaches areamong the principal sources of livelihoods and socio-economic activity. A major waste spill in the Caribbean Sea would be disastrous for CARICOM Member States.

Private Security Industry

1.38. The private security industry has grown rapidly over the last decade in CARICOM, and private security employees may now outnumber their counterparts in law enforcement in many Member States.Individuals working within the private security industry make a significant contribution to the everyday safety and security of the Region. However, in the absence of effective legal or regulatory structures to ensure proper vetting, the activities of private security companies raise issues of legality, legitimacy and accountability in the sphere of security policy. The integration of the private security industry into any security plan is therefore critical in achieving a safe and secure environment for CARICOM, and has an important role to play in reducing crime in the Community.

International Geo-Politics

1.39. The Region is affected by, and can affect security developments beyond its borders. CARICOM is part of the Western Hemisphere, and is integrally affected by security arrangements designed by other States within this Hemisphere. CARICOM’s geopolitical reality includes its position as the ‘third border’ of one of the world’s most influential States. The mutually beneficial partnership with the United States of America through the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI) represents an opportunity for CARICOM to initiate a renewed and reinvigorated security program. CARICOM also recognizes the European Union,United Kingdom, Canada and Australia as key strategic partners in support of the Region’s security agenda.

1.40. CARICOM Member States are committed to upholding, developing and implementing international law, international normsand multilateral commitments.CARICOM also recognises the United Nations Charter as the fundamental framework for international relations.

1.41. Member States will adopt all measures necessaryto fulfil the legislative requirement for full implementation of this Strategy within the framework of their national laws. This will enable CARICOM Member States to overcome the obstacles posed by divergent national approaches, where necessary through enactment of regional and international legislations.

Regional Security Mechanisms

1.42. Much has already been put in motion and realised in the area of regional security. Examples include the creation of the Regional Crime and Security Management Framework, the establishment of CARICOM IMPACS and its sub Agencies; the Regional Intelligence Fusion Centre, the Joint Regional Communications Centre as well as the Regional Security System and the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency, amongst others.

1.43. These mechanisms have brought tremendous value to the Region and are indispensable as regional focal points to ensure sustainable solutions to crime and security issues through the pursuit of long-term coordinated and sustainable programme implementation. As CARICOM moves towards enhanced functional cooperation, it is important to strengthen these vital security mechanisms and consolidate the Region’s capabilities.

1.44. National efforts are critical. But they can also have the unintended consequence of displacing criminality from one Member State to another.In order to effectively address the problem of crime and its impact on the security of the Caribbean, the CARICOM Member States need to have integrated policies that are regional in scope, and are complemented with a strong regional security framework that is adequately financed and fully supported by all governments.

CHAPTER 2: DEFINING OUR RISKS AND THREATS

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RISK AND THREAT METHODOLOGY

One of the first steps towards securing CARIOM is to understand the various risks involved and to present a clear picture of the risks and threats (actual and potential) to regional security.

2.1 In order to protect CARICOM’s vital interests and values as efficiently and effectively as possible, it is essential to compare, assess and prioritise all potential risks and threats to the Region’s prosperity and the safety and security of citizens and visitors. The identification and assessment of risks and threats allows attention and resources to be focused on the priority areas.

Risk and Threat Assessment Methodology

2.2 The CCSS is based on anall hazards approachthat takes into account all plausible threats to CARICOM security. The methodology involved a CARICOM-specific risk and threat assessment by risk and threat assessment specialists andother relevant experts within the Community.

2.3 The risk and threat assessment specialistsidentifieda wide range of existing and potential risks to regional security.The methodology identifiedplausible worst-case scenarios for each riskand threat and considered the impact of an event and the likelihood of this event occurring over a five (5) and fifteen (15) year time frame. The impact was assessed based on fatalities, human and health injuries, social disruptions, economic damage, psychological impact, structural, infrastructure damage and environmental impact. The methodology also took into consideration the Region’s current level of preparation for each risk or threat. The CARICOM assessment also built on existing national and regional risk and threat assessments (both classified and de-classified).

2.4 Risks and threat scenarios were analysed, giving greatest weight to those which were more likely to occur and which would have the greatest impact. A Risk and Threat Assessment Matrix (See Figure 2.1) was used as a framework through which:

  • Possible risks and threats were compared;
  • The probability of each risk or threat was evaluated; and
  • The impact of each risk or threat was assessed.

2.5 The risks and threats were prioritised and categorised into Four Tierswhich representthe Community’s priorities. All the risks and threats presented in this Strategy require specific actions to prevent or mitigate the risks or threat.

  • Tier 1 -Immediate Significant Threats. These are high-probability, high-impact events. They are the clear and present dangers.
  • Tier 2 - Substantial Threats. These are both likely and relatively high-impact, but are not as severe as Tier 1 Threats.
  • Tier 3 - Significant Potential Risks. These are high-impact, but low-probability.
  • Tier 4 - Future Risks.These are threats where the probability and impact cannot be assessed at this stage.

2.6 Thisprioritisation of CARICOM risks and threats help policy makers make rational choices about investing in the capabilities needed to protect the Region and Member States.

2.7 The results from the Risk and Threat Assessment show that the Region faces threats from a growing and increasingly diverse set of sources.

CHAPTER 3: ADVANCING THE REGION’S SECURITY PRIORITIES

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THE RISKS WE FACE

CARICOM faces a multiplicity of risks from increasing number of sources in an era where an interconnected world has created great opportunities but also new vulnerabilities and threats that could seriously impact the region’s stability and socio-economic development. The risks to CARICOM states are increasingly numerous and complex.

TIER 1 THREATS

3.1 Tier 1 Threats are Immediate Significant Threats to the Community and are considered the highest priority for the Community over the next five (5) years.Tier 1 Threats consist of:

  • Transnational Organised Crime: Trafficking of Illicit Drugs and Illegal Guns;
  • Gangs and Organised Crime;
  • Cyber-Crime;
  • Financial Crimes; and
  • Corruption.

3.2 Tier 1 threats are high-probability, high-impact events. They are the main drivers of criminality, and have the potential to cripple the already fragile socio-economic developmental progress in CARICOM and the advancement of CSME. Tier 1 threats are the clear and present dangers and the most common source of fear and insecurity in CARICOM, profoundly affecting the daily life and experiences of all citizens.

3.3 The attainment of profit, power and prestige are the primary motivators of the criminality associated with Tier 1 Threats. Economic disparity, poverty (in some cases aggravated by the current financial crisis), unemployment, governance failures and the corrupt facilitators of criminality provide an enabling environment for Tier 1 Threats.

Transnational Organised Crime: Trafficking of Illicit Drugs and Illegal Guns

3.4 The mutually reinforcing relationship between transnational organised criminal activities involving illegal narcotics and weapons influences the evolution of many other risks and threats; the narcotics finance the purchase of weapons, which allow criminals to extort from businesses, intimidate their communities, threaten law enforcement and – in the most severe cases – create civil unrest to try to intimidate the State itself. The general rise in the level of crime and violence also reduces the Community’s ability to respond effectively to other risks and threats.

a) Illicit Drugs

3.5 The trade in illegal narcotics is estimated to generate $300 billion in annual profits worldwide (UNODC, 2011). The trafficking of illicit drugs is a key driver of the high homicide rates in the Region;partly because of the effect of the drugs, but mostly because of the money derived from the trade is used to purchase weapons and finance other criminal activities, compounded by the murderous rivalry between gangs and organised crime syndicatesto control territory.

3.6 The primary illicit drugs that feature in CARICOM are marijuana, cocaine, and heroin and their derivatives, such as crack, which comes from cocaine. In so far as production is concerned only marijuana is produced in the Region. However, these drugs are being increasingly superseded in world markets by synthetic narcotics, which can be produced anywhere.

3.7 The trafficking and use of illegal narcotics supports a multiplicity of serious criminal activities and social problems, including harm to the individuals who consume the drugs; violence associated with trafficking, the diversion of criminal justice resources from other activities; increased criminality through addiction,acquisitive and organised crime, the corrupting of social institutions, the undermining of the legal economy, the widespread availability of illegal guns and the proliferation of gangs.

3.8 This is an issue which affects most countries in the world, whether as source, transit or consumer countries. Despite significant regional and international efforts to disrupt the transit and supply of illicit drugs and reduce demand, the illegal drugs trade remains a hugely profitable enterprise for organised criminals.

3.9 Internationally, there is growing concern about current drug policies. A number of countries are now questioning the wisdom of attempting to deal with drug problems primarily by prohibition, criminalisation and penalisation of drug users; and are calling for a new focus on actions to reduce the harm caused to the victims of drug related crimes; drug users and others. Numerous studies have established that many of the actions currently being taken by the international community are not yielding the desired results. Progressive changes in drug policies inBrazil, Ecuador,the Netherlands, Peru,Portugal, Spain, Switzerland anda number of states in the USA, including the States of Colorado and Washington, are evidence of this global shift.CARICOM cannot divorce itself from the international context, and should undertake a serious review of counter-narcotics policies.

3.10 It is therefore time for a fundamental review of all CARICOM drug policies in order to keep abreast of changes in the international context, and to establish a package of measures that will be more effective in reducing the harm caused by drugs. The Region’s position must be informed by a comprehensive understanding of the global situation and possible alternative policies. The principal aim of the Region’s drug policy should be first and foremost to minimise the harm caused to the victims of drug-related crime, drug users and others, and to society as a whole.

b) Illegal Guns and “Associated Ammunition”

3.11 The CARICOM Member States do not manufacture guns or ammunition, and they do not import significant quantities. However, the Region has been severely affected by an influx of guns and ammunition.Despite numerous initiatives and mechanisms aimed at addressing the problems of armed violence, high levels of gun crimes persist in the Region.Illegal guns are responsible for overseventy percent (70%) of murders in the Region.

3.12 The profound negative impact and consequences of the illegal gun trade go far beyond the high level of homicide.Illegal guns play a key role in all aspects of trafficking, not just as a trafficked commodity but as a means of facilitating the trafficking of other commodities, and as a tool to support criminal and deviant behaviour such as robberies, rape and other forms of sexual and non-sexual violence. Illegal guns are increasingly becoming both the currency and commodity of the drug trade, having evolved into a major independent criminal activity.Illegal guns serve to exacerbate both the likelihood and impact of other risks and threats. This is the main cause of public fear and alarm in the Caribbean Region.

3.13 Security threats arising from illegal guns also include possible terrorist threats. For example, the Region might be used as a base for a “Mumbai style terrorist attack”, possibly aimed at citizens of other countries. The tourism industry is potentially vulnerable to an attack aimed at American or European visitors. The geographical location of the Region, the nature of the island chain and its porous marine borders which enables relatively free movement could be exploited to facilitate terrorist acts. There is intelligence that individuals from known terrorist regions are heavily involved in the illicit drugs and guns trade and are increasingly mobile in the Region.

3.14 The key to the solution is a marked reduction in the availability of illegal guns and ammunition. The Region can only achieve meaningful results in this area by working with key strategic partners; in particular the states where guns are sourced. The main source is the United States of America.[6]While the Region respects the rights of other states to establish liberal policies regarding access to guns, the negative impacts of these gun policies are not confined to their borders. They have very serious consequences for other countries, including the Caribbean nations, Mexico and the Central American states. Preventing the illicit trafficking in guns is therefore a responsibility to be shared not only among CARICOM states but also the countries that are the sources of these weapons.

3.15 On July 4, 2011 CARICOM Heads of Government adopted the CARICOM Declaration on Small Arms and Light Weapons as the regional mechanism in the collective effort to combat the illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons and their ammunition. CARICOM noted with grave concern that the widespread availability of illegal gunshas fostered an alarming rise in murders and gun violence throughout the Region.

3.16 The Declaration also acknowledged the important role being played by CARICOM IMPACS as the designated regional point of contact for SALW. CARICOM fully supports the adoption and implementation of a global Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) and is convinced that an ATT would considerably reduce trafficking in guns and ammunitions, especially the diversion from legal users to the illegal trade, and consequently the number of cases of gun murders in the Region.

Gangs and Organised Crime

3.17 The high level of gang and organised crime violence, with youth disproportionately involved both as victims and perpetrators, is extremely worrying. Violent clashes and retaliations between criminal gangs cause serious danger to innocent bystanders and undermine public order.

3.18 There are important differences in the structure and operations of gangs and organized crime groups with CARICOM. Some are local gangs, although they may have significant presence and be responsible for the majority of the crimes in certainareas in Member States. There are also sophisticated international criminal organisations, with presence in more than one State. It is the latter that typically rely more on facilitators to move and conceal the proceeds of crime.

3.19 Many of these criminal structures are connected. Local gangs are utilised in the transnational organised criminal networks for the distribution of drugs, and are key actors in the proliferation of guns. Gangs and organised crime groups are increasingly diversifying into a much broader spectrum of criminal activities, such as cigarette smuggling and the Lotto scam (in Jamaica).

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Cybercrime

Cyber-crime can involve hacking, embezzlement, fraud, phishing (fake websites to solicit passwords enabling access to victims' bank accounts and personal information), cyber-stalking or cyber-harassment, and the distribution of child pornography and other illegal activities over the internet.

Cyber-crime

3.20 Human health and welfare has been transformed as a result of technological progress. The Region’s economic prosperity, the daily functioning of governments and citizens are becoming increasingly dependent on electronic networks and information systems. Technology is therefore vital to the Region’s development, but it has also given leverage to cyber criminals.

3.21 As the Region becomes more interconnected through the increased levels of connectivity and advanced internet infrastructure, increased numbers of internet users, increased use of internet payments, and convergence of systems, CARICOM is becoming more susceptible to potentially damaging cyber-attacks.

3.22 The Region’s lack of resources and trained personnel places the Region at particular threat in this area compared to other jurisdiction. The gap in cyber regulatory systems and enforcement mechanisms provides a permissive and fertile ground for criminals.

3.23 Internet fraud, such as the Lotto scan in Jamaica, is already well established in the region. This has allowed criminal syndicates in Jamaica to defraud citizens of other countries of significant sums; estimates range as high as US$300 million per annum (Jamaica National Security Policy, 2012). At present most cybercrimes are based in countries outside the Region, but there is clear potential for the Caribbean to emerge as an international base.

Financial Crimes

3.24 Financial crimes can damage the stability, confidence and reputation of the financial sector and threaten the CARICOM Single Market and Economy. Financial crimes include acts such as insider trading, fraud, kickbacks, embezzlement, identity theft, money laundering, terrorism financing and securities fraud. These crimes present the Region with a host of new challenges and often have particularly devastating effects on the social and political aspects of a nation. They can cause significant harm to individuals, businesses, institutions, threaten the integrity of the banking and financial services industry, and may undermine the financial stability of the Region.

3.25 Money is at the heart of all organised crime. CARICOM States are particularly susceptible to money laundering, due to the prevalence of the illicit drugs and illegal firearms trade which has required complicity from the facilitators of crime, as well as gaps in the state’s ability to manage information, utilize intelligence and trace records. Money laundering cycles the proceeds of crime back into the legitimate economy, which allows some powerful criminals to masquerade as respectable citizens. These illegal funds then finance other criminal activities.

Corruption

3.26 Corruption serves to facilitateand fuel criminality,undermines national and regional institutions, generates popular anger,undermines law enforcement, promotes a culture of lawlessness and has a damaging effect on the integrity of the Region.Corruption is a key obstacle to CSME advancement, and a major threat to CARICOM.

3.27 Corruption negatively affects the judicial systems, law enforcement and security agencies and undermines the ability of the protective services and government officials to defend the national interests of the state.

TIER 2 THREATS

3.28 Tier 2 Threats are Substantial Threats to the Region. Tier 2 Threats include:

  • Human Trafficking and Smuggling;
  • Natural Disasters; and
  • Public Order Crimes.

3.29 These threats are both likely and high-impact, but are not as severe as Tier 1 Threats.CARICOM must use its best efforts, however, to prevent these threats from escalating into Tier 1Threats.

Human Trafficking and Smuggling

3.30 The trafficking of humans for sexual or labour exploitation is of growing concern for CARICOM Member States.These particularly foul crimes affect the most vulnerable citizens; the victims of sexual exploitation and trafficking are predominantly young women and girls.

3.31 There are an increasing number of schemes used by human trafficking syndicates. Traffickers now routinely use the lure of lucrative jobs opportunities to target women and girls across the Region through websites. It is anticipated that as the Region becomes a more networked society, the internet will increasingly facilitate the transnational marketing of sex workers.

3.32 With the introduction of modern national border management systems supported by enhanced regional initiatives such as the Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) and CARICOM Integrated Border Security System (CARIBSEC) together with capacity building measures targeted at the Community’s border security officials, controls at national ports of entry are strengthened. This will make it increasingly difficult for someone trafficked or smuggled to gain entry.

3.33 In order to escape this enhanced scrutiny, however, it is sensible to anticipate a shift to clandestine entry along the Region’s porous borders. For networks with already established and proven trafficking routes this presents a lucrative opportunity that does not attract penalties as severe as those associated with conviction for smuggling other transnational organized crime commodities, such as drugs and guns.Some passports and other papers can be forged, and those being trafficked can be duped or intimidated into corroborating false accounts of their identity and reasons for travel.

Natural Disasters

3.34 Natural disasters such as the 2010 earthquake in the Republic of Haiti highlight the far-reaching consequences and the extent to which natural disasters can cause catastrophic damage to a nation.

3.35 The Community is subject to a range of natural hazards, including hurricanes and tropical storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and floods. Each year the Region experiences significant loss of life, catastrophic property damage and social disruption as a result of natural disasters with an attendant negative impact on economic, health, environment, and the Region’s vital tourism industry.

3.36 Such catastrophes tend to exacerbate pre-existing problems and inequalities, further entrenching poverty, as the most vulnerable members of the community are often disproportionately impacted.

Public Order Crimes

3.37 Recent episodes in European cities of rioting and looting, the ‘Arab Spring’ uprisings and other recent outbreaks of violence across the worldwere all facilitated by social organisation tools such as social media. This highlights the way that some citizens now have recourse to violence in dealing with their grievances. Initially peaceful demonstrations may be used by criminal opportunists, with no causal connection, other than that the temporary breakdown of law and order allows large-scale theft.

3.38 The probability of civil unrest may also be linked to external events such as a sharp rise in the cost of food or energy, or an economic recession that increases unemployment. External shocks can threaten the Region’s economy, and may therefore be a catalyst for social unrest which may then give rise to other public order crimes. These may be compounded by internal pressures, such as persistent poverty and a perception of corruption in the government, which can foster despair and rage, which may then lead to apparently spontaneous outbreaks of rioting.

TIER 3 RISKS

3.39 Tier 3 Risks consist of Significant Potential Risks which are high-impact, but low-probability.Tier 3 risks consist of:

  • Attacks on Critical Infrastructure; and
  • Terrorism.

Attacks on Critical Infrastructure

3.40 The Region’s economy is dependent on its ability to protect national and regional assets such as hotels, major industrial estates,petroleum refineries, power and water facilities, airports, and ports from major risks and threats, which include terrorist attacks and natural disasters.

Terrorism

3.41 Some terrorist and cyber-criminal organisations now have the capacity to cause serious damage to vital infrastructure, supplies and services, which are critical to citizen security and economic welfare.

3.42 Although the Region has not experienced significant levels of terrorist activities to date, terrorism poses a significant risk, and a number of individuals with known terrorist affiliations are present in the Region. The Region is a major tourist destination, and hosts a number of major sporting and entertainment events and international conferences. These represent soft targets. The Region’s porous borders and the close links between the Caribbean and the USA may also increase the risk.

TIER 4 RISKS

3.43 Tier 4 Risksconsists of Future Risks. These risks are transnational in scope and include:

  • Climate change;
  • Pandemics;and
  • Migratory Pressures.

3.44 Tier 4 Risks have probabilities and consequences that are still not well known.However, they could have major implications for the Region, due to the inherent vulnerabilities of small states;and capacityand capability constraints.

Climate Change

3.45 The World Bank ‘Turn Down the Heat’ report (November 2012) concluded that the world’s average surface temperature is now 0.8° higher than the pre-industrial levels, primarily as a result of the emission of greenhouse gases, and that it could be 4°C higher by 2060, even if current United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change emission pledges and commitments are met in full. Without a major change in policy, the temperature will continue to rise; it could be 6°C higher by 2100. This level is likely to trigger ecological catastrophe, as many parts of the world will become effectively uninhabitable. Southern Europe, for example, would then have a similar climate to the Libyan Desert.

3.46 Climate change will have a massive impact on the Region, adding further stress and exacerbating existing trends, tensions and instability in already fragile states. The possible risks include food shortages due to decreases in global agricultural production, decreased availability and quality of fresh water due to changed precipitation patterns and more frequent floods and droughts, declining fisheries, increasingly costly energy and increased storm damage, while rising sea levels in the coastal areas of the Caribbean islands, where sixty percent (60%) of the Caribbean population live, will result in forced migration and competition over increasingly scarce resources.

Pandemics

3.47 The Influenza A (H1N1) demonstrated the risks of pandemics to the security of the Region and to the social and economic well-beingof the people of this Community. Highly contagious diseases, such as SARS and Avian Influenza, can cross borders easily and have grave implications for health and security.

Migratory Pressure

  • Illegal immigrants from third states and other regions

3.48 Poverty, conflict, volatile political situations and natural disasters in other countries result in increased flows of illegal migrants. At present, most of the world’s illegal migrants try to reach the USA or Europe, but CARICOM must remain vigilant in this regard, especially if climate change starts to compound existing social problems in poor countries.

CHAPTER 4: STRATEGIC APPROACH-RESPONDING TO THE RISKS

4.1 This Strategy recognizes that CARICOM needs to take ambitious and coordinated steps to reduce the high level of crime and corruption in the Community, and to provide a safe and secure environment to allow the Community’s Single Market and Economy to prosper. The Community must ensure that the strategic goals support the implementation of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy, in particularly the free movement provision, and respect and protect individual rights and freedoms.

4.2 The success of this Strategy requires coordinated approaches that address all aspects of criminality, simultaneously reducing crime and removing the causes of crime, dismantling criminal structures, seizing criminal assets, targeting the facilitators and dismantling criminal support networks. This requires joint strategic approachesagreed between states, and a high level of cooperation between governments, state agencies, civil society and the private sector to ensure coherency, synergy and complementarity.

4.3 The Strategy calls for bold and courageous leadershipthat instils a culture of zero tolerance for criminality, money laundering, corruption and the facilitators of criminality.

STRATEGIC GOALS

4.4 The strategic goals identify the capabilities the Region will require to deal with the prioritised risks and threats, taking into consideration existing capabilities. The Strategy outlines the following fourteen (14) Strategic Goals to deal with the complex, cross cutting and multidimensional risks and threats to CARICOM’s security (see Figure 4.1).

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FIGURE 4.1: CARICOM CRIME AND SECURITY STRATEGY: STRATEGIC GOALS

Strategic Goal 1

Take the Profit out of Crime, Target Criminal Assets and Protect the Financial System

Strategic Goal 2

Crime Prevention - Addressing the Causes of Crime and Insecurity and Increase Public Awareness of the Key Risks

Strategic Goal 3

Establish Appropriate Legal Instruments While Ratifying Existing Agreements

Strategic Goal 4

Increase Trans-border Intelligence and Information Sharing

Strategic Goal 5

Enhance Law Enforcement and Security Capabilities and Strengthen Regional Security Systems

Strategic Goal 6

Enhance Maritime and Airspace Awareness, Strengthen CARICOM Borders including Contiguous Land Borders

Strategic Goal 7

Strengthen the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation Through Modern Technologies and Scientific Techniques

Strategic Goal 8

Strengthen CARICOM’s Resilience to Cybercrime

Strategic Goal 9

Pursue Functional Cooperative Security Engagements to Tackle and Manage Shared Risks and Threats

Strategic Goal 10

Strengthen the Justice Sector

Strategic Goal 11

Modernise and Enhance Correctional Services and Institutions Management

Strategic Goal 12

Strengthen Mechanisms Against Human Trafficking

Strategic Goal 13

Improving Resilience to Natural and Man Made Disasters

Strategic Goal 14

Promote Resilient Critical Infrastructure Management and Safety at Major Events

4.5 There are important inter-relationships between the fourteen (14) Strategic Goals. Each one consists of strategic lines of actions that guide the activities needed to achieve the overarching strategic goal.

Strategic Goal 1: Take the Profit out of Crime, Target Criminal Assets and Protect the Financial System

4.6 CARICOM is committed to disrupt, dismantle and defeat organised crime within its borders, with particular attention to corruption, money laundering and the facilitators of crime. Organised crime is primarily motivated by profit. The Community’s objective is to make the business of criminality unviable, to create an environment that is openly hostile to transnational organised crime, and to dismantle criminal activities and networks in the Community.

4.7 Member States must attack the financial underpinnings of organised criminal syndicates; strip criminals of their illicit wealth; remove their access to the financial system; and expose the criminal activities hidden behind legitimate fronts. This will require the aggressive use of Proceeds Of Crime legislation.

4.8 Member States must focus on the facilitators of crime and the criminal bosses who enjoy and control the profits of criminal activities.The strategy calls for the prosecution of the directors and facilitators of criminality. An aggressive and successful programme of asset forfeiture could cripple organised crime in the Region.

4.9 It is essential to focus on criminal finances, because individual members of criminal organizations can usually be replaced, allowing the organization to resume its activities. However, seizing funds, arresting facilitators and dismantling the financial infrastructure can effectively bankrupt these criminal organizations, thus greatly reducing their capacity to stay in business. So the focus must be on taking the profit out of crime.The private sector therefore has a key role in the implementation of mechanisms to prevent fraudulent activities and money laundering.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. The establishment of National Asset Recovery Offices (AROs)is essential. Their role is to identify and facilitate the tracing of criminal assets; ensure the proper management of the seized assets and confiscation procedures; and act as a central contact point for confiscation activities at the national level. The successful prosecution of fraud, money launderers and facilitators of crime depends on the ability to manage and integrate complex legal, financial and personal data from diverse sources and jurisdictions. AROs must be equipped with the necessary resources, powers and training, and the ability to exchange information, in order to ensure proper implementation;

ii. It is essential that the Member States enact and make aggressive use of Proceeds of Crime Legislation. CARICOM Member States should enact and streamline legislation that allows for the seizure of assets gained and used in illicit activity. Parts of these assets and funds seized should be used to finance law enforcement and crime prevention initiatives in order to strengthen national and regional security capabilities;

iii. Member States shouldreview or bring forward new legislation to extend personal and criminal liability to the facilitators of organised crime.

iv. Member States should continue to implement steps to identify, trace, freeze, seize and confiscate the proceeds of crime;

v. There will be an increased effort to strengthen the Region’s technical capacity in investigation methods and techniques in the field of asset recovery;

vi. Member States should implement legal frameworks on money laundering and corruption;

vii. Member States shouldaccede to the United Nations Convention against Corruption;

viii. CARICOM will promote and raise consumer awareness of financial crime;

ix. It is vital that Member States identify and take action against corporate and governmental corruption. Any Member State that is willing to launder funds can undermine the entire regional strategy, as it can provide a conduit for money laundering and tax evasion; and

x. Member States shouldimplement all relevant Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the foremost international body active in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing.

Strategic Goal 2: Crime Prevention - Addressing the Causes of Crime and Insecurityand Increase Public Awareness of the Key Risks

4.10 The Region must look inward and acknowledge the domestic failings that have resulted in growing criminality. There is a clear need to address the socio-economic and political conditions that have fosteredorganised crime and criminality, while also providing viable choices and alternatives to criminal activities. There is also a clear need to encourage citizen security initiatives which seek to prevent and reduce the rates of crime and recidivism. Particular attention must be placed on the Region’s youth who are disproportionally represented as both the main perpetrators and victims of criminality. Cooperation will be sought with educational institutions, media and the private sector in order to prevent the youth from turning to a life of crime.

4.11 It is important to inform the public of the risks and threats CARICOM faces and to increase public confidence in security agencies.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. The provision of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Social Development and Crime Prevention Action Plan (SDCPAP) is a flagship initiative which this Strategy fully supports and compliments;

ii. Any sustained move to reduce crime must involve criminal justice, social justice, education, health and local authorities, which is why the formation of National Inter-Ministerial Commissions to coordinate government policy is vital. This requires clear, senior and bold leadership;

iii. Member States must increase demand side intervention through a focus on education, early intervention, treatment, harm reduction, rehabilitation and social reintegration, ethics training and the construction of new social normswithin the Community;

iv. CARICOM must undertake a fundamental review of drug policies, given the changing international context. The Region’s drug policy must be informed by a comprehensive understanding of the global situation and possible alternative policies. The Strategy recommends theurgent establishment of a CARICOM Drug Commission. The Commission’s mandate should include recommendations on the best ways to minimise the damage caused to the victims of drug-related crimes; drug users and others;

v. CARICOM will also establish an Anti-Gang Working Group to provide recommendations for the dismantling of gang networks;

vi. CARICOM will publish regional risk assessments and regional publication of crime reports. CARICOM will ensure that the Region is appropriately and accurately represented in international crime and security reports. CARICOM and its Member States have a duty to defend the integrity of its people and the Region against any unfair misrepresentation of the situation in CARICOMMember States, but to acknowledge accurate reports.

vii. CARICOM will leverage mobile technology and harness the power of mobile applications as crucial communication mechanisms. CARICOM will support the development of a free mobile security application; CARICOM Secure App (CASA) to manage, receive and distribute clear information to users. This social media application will be used for example, accident alerts, photographs of missing and trafficked persons, and disaster alerts.

Strategic Goal 3: Establishing Appropriate Legal Instruments While Ratifying Existing Agreements

4.12 Many legal instruments have been established in recent years, such as the Protocol establishing CONSLE and IMPACS as Treaty entities, Model Visiting Forces Act, Model APIS Legislation, the Treaty on Security Assistance Among CARICOM Member States, MOU for the Sharing of Intelligence among Member States of the CARICOM, CARICOM Arrest Warrant Treaty (CAWT), CARICOM Maritime Airspace and Security Cooperation Agreement, and the CARIPASS Treaty. CARICOM will intensify effective law enforcement cooperation among Member States using existing instruments and frameworks and the establishment of new legal instruments.

4.13 Harmonisation and standardisation of legislation is criticalfor the reduction of criminality. It is also an important contributor to the CARICOM Single Market and Economy by providing a coherent and consistent environment in the Community. The Community must continuously strive to ensure that national borders, differing legislation and standard operation procedures do not impede progress in preventing cross-border crime;

Strategic Lines of Action

i. Member States are urged to ratify the CARICOM Arrest Warrant Treaty, CARICOM Maritime Airspace and Security Cooperation Agreement and other regional legislations;

ii. CARICOM will promote harmonisation and standardisation of regional legislations;

iii. The Community is committed to arms control initiatives, which reduces the illegal trade and proliferation of guns and ammunition. Although national laws and procedures may remain the foremost tools for small arms control, common standards through harmonisation of legislation and minimum regulatory frameworks are necessary across the Region. Promoting legal uniformity and minimum standards to govern the manufacture, possession, import, export, transfer, transit, transport and control of guns and ammunitions while supporting and institutionalising legal guns best practices will help prevent the diversion of weapons;

iv. CARICOM strongly supports a global Arms Trade Treaty on conventional weapons but notes that the Treaty’s scope ought to include small arms and light weapons (SALW) and related ammunition in order to have any meaningful impact on the Region’s problems with illegal guns. The establishment of a new international consensus around the trade of arms is essential in order to tackle the issue of the global arms trade and the diversion of legal arms to the illegal market;

v. Current public disorder legislation will be reviewed in CARICOM Member States and recommendationswill be made for improved and harmonized legislation;

vi. Mobile technologies are essential tools used to organise riots. Member States may consider implementing legislation to allow for temporary network shutdown in the events of civil unrest;

vii. Member States will introduce public interest immunity legislationso that information from covert sources can be taken into consideration in court, at the discretion of the judge, without the need to disclose their identity;

viii. Member States will support regional and international security agreements which aim to promote peace and security, consistent with the interests of Member States.

ix. The Member States will encourage a more cooperative approach between law enforcement and the private security industry in the Region. The development of model legislation for enhanced regulationof the private security industry is essential in enabling the industry to provide effective security to its clients and also contribute towards a more secure society; and

x. CARICOM through partnership with relevant stakeholders will develop a CARICOM Code of Conduct and Ethics for the private security sector as a benchmark for regional harmonisation of the Industry. It is imperative that law enforcement agencies and private security companies work together, with mutual respect and good communication, in a manner that is both open and constructive.

Strategic Goal 4: Increase Trans-border Intelligence and Information Sharing

4.14 There is a need to strengthen cooperation and the exchange of information and intelligence in the fight against transnational organised crime, while promoting the increased use of technology in crime prevention, management and detection. The gathering, analysing, and effective sharing of intelligence relating to trans-national crimes is vital to the security of CARICOM. Member States require timely and accurate intelligence in order to understand and deal effectively with security risks and threats.

4.15 The Regional Intelligence Fusion Centre is critically important as a centralized regional coordinator of intelligence gathering, analysis, training, strategic risk and threat assessment. It has proven to be an invaluable security institution for intelligence and a regional focal point for national, regional and international intelligent sharing. The RIFC provides 24 hour support on a wide range of operational assistance to Member States, including emergency, major events and crisis response.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. The promotion and utilization of a network of Liaison Officers and National Points of Contact (NPCs) in Member States to work closely with the RIFC is important to enable greater synergy in the exchange of information in accordance with the data protection laws and regulations in Member States;

ii. Enhancing and expanding the exchange of intelligence is a vital condition for increasing the effectiveness of the fight against transnational organised crime. There will be a sharper focus on using intelligence to drive increasingly effective law enforcement actions against criminals. This effort will be aided through enhanced information sharing with foreign partners and closer cooperation among intelligence, law enforcement, and other applicable agencies regionally. CARICOM is committed to making its intelligence tools and services more efficient and effective by better integrating the sharing of data between RIFC and other systems. The RIFC will enhance its intelligence infrastructure, and expand its intelligence systems to include the wider Caribbean and beyond;

iii. The Region will expand the CARICOM Integrated Border Security System (CARIBSEC) so as to further facilitate sharing and analysis of critical intelligence information, such as lost/stolen passports, criminal offences and terrorist affiliations;

iv. The quality and quantity of information in a database heavily depends on the information supplied. In order to improve and enhance the quality of information in its criminal information databases, “CARIBSEC”, Member States are urged to regularly update their watch list;

v. Member States should consider strengthening inter-agency collaboration at the national level to maximize the effectiveness of information and intelligence sharing through the establishment of National Joint Operational Centres (JOC). JOC will serve as a national intelligence focal point for information and communication, incorporating and maximising the use of existing resources of law enforcement, military, coast guard, customs, immigration, financial units, intelligence and civilian organisations. JOC provides a platform for enhanced situation awareness, more informed and timely decision making, facilitates command and control and is of tremendous value in establishing a coordinated, cohesive and synchronised operation in support of law enforcement operations and criminal intelligence activities without unnecessary duplication;

vi. JOC should further serve as a Point of Contact for the Regional Intelligence Fusion Centre, facilitating greater integration of intelligence at the regional level. CARICOM will actively engage support from Member States in the development of Joint Operational Centres as a coordination focal point for information and a communication sharing mechanism;

vii. To improve the quality and management of gun information in the Region efforts will be made to establish SALW national registers and database systems in the Community. The modernisation of Member States’ SALW information management systems will assist in creating a platform for more effective and expeditious information sharing, which will enhance the national reporting capacity of Member States and enable them to fulfil their obligations under existing international agreements including the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UN PoA);

viii. To support standardised data-collection procedures in Member States, there is a need to strengthen the capacities of Member States to gather and analyse relevant information and data through the establishment of crime observatories in Member States.

Strategic Goal 5: Enhance Law Enforcement and Security Capabilities and Strengthen Regional Security Systems

4.16 Human resource capacity development is a critical component of this Strategy. CARICOM recognizes that the quality, skills, expertise, attitudes and professionalism of the people that lead, manage and work for Law Enforcement and Security Agencies within the Region will determine the success of those agencies.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. The establishment and expansion of Regional Centres of Excellence will enhanced the capacity of law enforcement and security capabilities through standardised training and will strengthen the Region’s ability to work cooperatively and collectively to combat transnational organised crime;

ii. The Region will further the implementation of intelligence led policing, community based policingand other law enforcement and security initiatives through regional best practice seminars and training;

iii. CARICOM will encourage the standardisation of training and operating procedures for law enforcement and security personnel as far as possible;

iv. CARICOM will promoteregional accreditation and certification;

v. CARICOM will encourage ‘Train the Trainers’ courses as a way to promote standardisation of training between Member States;

vi. Member States should consider devoting resources to on-line learningfor law enforcement officials as a way to manage limited resources;

vii. CARICOM will encourage the development of a proposal to improve data information systems for training organisations so that they can adequately plan, organise and evaluate their performance will be undertaken;

viii. This will be complemented by the development of a database of trainers for security personnel regionally;

ix. CARICOM will encourage the training of law enforcement and security officials in non-lethal options;

x. The strengthening of regional institutional capacities to implement this Strategy is a key priority to support its implementation. IMPACS and its sub-Agencies as well as the RSS have brought tremendous value to the Region and are critical to a sustainable solution to crime and security issues.

Strategic Goal 6: Enhance Maritime and Airspace Awareness, Strengthen CARICOM Borders including Contiguous Land Borders

4.17 The challenges the Region face with respect to illicit trafficking and transnational organized crimes are partly contingent on the significant resources required to control and patrol our maritime and airspace.Improved maritime and airspace awareness and a strong border is essential in protecting against transnational organised crime, terrorism and illegal migration. It is vital that risks are flagged before they arrive, which requires risk management tools and advance passenger and cargo information in order to pre-screen passengers and cargo before they reach the Caribbean.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. There is a need for more advance information on people arriving, transiting and departing CARICOM borders through the enhancement and expansion of the Advance Passenger Information System (APIS). This is critical for identifying criminals, terrorists and traffickers;

ii. The Community will ensure that not only people entering the Region but all cargo entering the Region is subject to risk analysis for security and safety purposes based on common risk criteria and standards. The complete implementation of an Advance Cargo Information System (ACIS) will allow regional security personnel to identify and check all cargo manifest for vessels arriving and departing the Region;

iii. CARICOM will continue to implement standardise border security training;

iv. The development of a proposal of a CARICOM Border Surveillance System (CARIBSIS) will assistto improve situational awareness, reinforce Member States border management mechanism and increase the reaction capability of border control authorities.The objective of CARIBSIS would be to create a common monitoring and information-sharing environment for CARICOM maritime and airspace domain by integrating all existing national systems reporting and monitoring traffic and activities in sea areas under the jurisdiction of the Member States and in adjacent high seas;

v. The establishment of a common CARICOM Border Code for all CARICOM border officials will also be pursued to standardise regional border protocols and procedures;

vi. The development of a Regional Immigration Data Management System will benefit the Region by providing key indicators for the development of evidence-based policy as it relates to migration and security;

vii. The implementation of CARICOM Travel Card (CARIPASS) as an automated clearance option for certain categories of passengers in order to expedite and facilitate their passage through border controls. This is an important element in advancing a CARICOM Single Market and Economy;

viii. Uncontrolled migration (e.g. refugees) would bring many policy challenges, and so requires advance planning. Thus there is an urgent need to pursue a common and coherent regional migration policy. Tipping point events in neighbouring states and other regions could result from political or economic crisis; or from natural disasters, and could result in a surge of refugees and illegal migrants which would greatly stress social structures and services and possibly increase criminality;

ix. The establishment and implementation of a CARICOM Maritime and Airspace Control Strategy should be pursued as a matter of urgency with particular attention placed on improving regional domain awareness.

Strategic Goal 7: Strengthen the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigation through Modern Technologies and Scientific Techniques

4.18 The Community will strive to put the best possible tools in the hands of its law enforcement community so they can identify, apprehend, and prosecute criminals swiftly and effectively.

4.19 Mechanisms to enhance the effectiveness of criminal investigation should include the effective use of modern technologies and scientific techniques. Forensic services represent a critical element in the fight against crime. The use of forensic tools, including Deoxyribonucleic (DNA) testing, in conjunction with proper crime scene management, complements traditional crime solving methods while greatly increasing the rate of crime detection and enhancing the success of criminal investigations and prosecutions.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. CARICOM will establish a CARICOM Forensic Task Force to develop policies and programmes, raise awareness and implementprogrammes for the provision of forensic services to all Member States with particular attention to the needs of countries that have limited or no forensic capabilities, and the provision of services that are currently inadequate or unavailable within the Region;

ii. Member States must be able to guarantee the credibility of crime scene management as inappropriate procedures can result in the contamination or exclusion of evidence. The establishment of minimum standard operational procedures for crime scene investigatorsto guide and govern the processing, investigation, and management of crime scenes and the conduct of experts should be reflected in written protocols;

iii. Improved crime scene management is vital for the successful prosecution of crimes. Training in crime scene management is needed for all ranks. The first responders are usually local officers who are not trained in crime scene management and can therefore contaminate the evidence long before crime scene specialists can get there;

iv. CARICOM will take steps to heighten awareness and the sensitivity of the judiciary with regard to the use of forensic science within the criminal justice system, and in particular to ensure familiarity with technical aspects of forensic evidence and testimony will be pursued.

v. CARICOM will establish a CARICOMregistry of forensic experts that can be accessed by all Member States. The Community will take steps to familiarise stakeholders with the full range of available forensic services and address gaps in knowledge;

vi. The development of model legislative framework governing the use of forensic evidence in criminal proceedings, in particular implementation of legislation to support the taking and use of DNA samples will be pursued.

vii. CARICOM will also work towards establishing model legislation to govern the handling of physical evidence, particular in relation to chain of custody, storage, packing, labelling security of the evidence, and the transfer of evidence;

viii. The establishment of National DNA Databases should be supplemented by legislation for the maintenance of forensic databases and provision for the sharing of information held within databases through a centralised automated CARICOM DNA database.

ix. A CARICOM DNA Database ought to be pursued and established within a clear framework that protects individual privacy and takes due account of the protection of legitimate personal data;

x. The Community will pursue the establishment and implementation of a secure regional criminal database of fingerprints network; CARICOM Automated Fingerprint Integrated System (CAFIS), which maintains individual privacy rights.Fingerprint data can reveal vital connections between people and crimes, and allow the identification of anonymous traces left at crime scenes, which will significantly increase the criminal detection rate;

xi. The CAFIS will be complemented by the establishment of regional legal regulatory instruments to facilitate the sharing of automated digital fingerprint information, collection and exploitation in law enforcement investigations and judicial actions;

xii. The Region will take all necessary steps to enhance forensic and ballistic capabilities to prevent and solve gun crimes. The marking and tracing of guns are essential steps in mapping the gun problem, identifying routes and modes of illicit gun trafficking and curbing increasing gun violence in the Region. The Regional Integrated Ballistic Information Network (RIBIN), established within the context of the UN PoA, is a proposed ballistic information-sharing mechanism to track guns and ammunition used in crimes and to make this information available to law enforcement, customs and other security agencies.RIBIN will provide support to those CARICOM territories that currently lack the requisite forensic capacity to identify the ballistic ‘fingerprint’ of ammunition used in crimes and to record the ballistic ‘signature’ of the firearm used. This will increase Member States’ capacity to link firearms used by specific gangs and also allow them the capability to trace the connections in the organized trade in illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons and ammunition;

xiii. RIBIN, once fully incorporated, will eventually link with other systems, including inter alia the European Integrated Ballistics Identification System (Euro-IBIS), Canadian Integrated Ballistics Identification Network (CIBIN) in Canada and the United States National Integrated Ballistics Identification Network (NIBIN). This could be achieved through the establishmentof protocol agreements to connect RIBIN to these other international networks; and

xiv. CARICOM will encourage the establishment of a Regional Investigative Management System (RIMS) to support difficult and protracted investigations. The team would be stood up when required to support a Member State in a complex or protracted investigation or an investigation into an incident spanning regional borders.

Strategic Goal 8: StrengthenCARICOM’s Resilience to Cyber-Crimes

4.20 Resolving cyber security concerns requires technical capacity, but it also requires understanding the source, target, motivation and incentives for such crimes, and developing appropriate sanctions and punishments.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. Education and awareness of internet users remains a key strategy in combating cyber-crime. Today, many people understand the benefits of the internet more fully than they understand the risks. Citizens need to be educated about ways they can protect themselves from criminal activities;

ii. CARICOM and the Member States will evaluate and raise the standards of specialisation of the police, judges, prosecutors and forensic staff to an appropriate level and enhance the use of computer investigation tools to carry out cybercrime investigations throughout the Community;

iii. CARICOM will explore ways to establish a CARICOM Cyber Crime Centre as an important step towards building operational and analytical capacity for investigations, raising awareness, coordinating activities and cooperating with international partners;

iv. The establishment of a network of CARICOM Cyber Security Points of Contact will also be pursued;

v. The establishment of a CARICOM Computer Emergency Response Team will provide expert investigative support to Member States in order to enhance cyber security capabilities;

vi. CARICOM also recognises the importance of each Member State establishing its own National Cyber Security Unit;

vii. Functional and active partnership with the private sector, in particular internet service providers, internet security organisations and financial services, is essential to secure the Region from cyber-attacks through the sharing of intelligence and evidence and the development of technical tools for law enforcement and measures to prevent online criminality.

Strategic Goal 9: Pursue Functional Cooperative Security Engagements to Tackle and Manage Shared Risks and Threats

4.21 CARICOM’s own security is directly linked to the dynamics of the international order. The goal of the Community is to become more open, safe, just, free and secure, and to positively influence policies both within and beyond its borders. In order to shape events, CARICOM will strengthen its international role by raising its international profile as a bastion of democracy and justice. Effective diplomacy will play a critical role in advancing this Strategy through the focused pursuit of CARICOM’s interests in key negotiating arenas.

4.22 Whilst the Region strengthens its relationship with traditional partners such as the European Union, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, it will seek to harness new opportunities with emerging centres of influence, to advance CARICOM’s security interests. Deepening the Region’s engagement with key countries will give the Community a better understanding of its counterparts and will assist other states to understand what is in the best interest of the Region, and to act and make more informed decisions based on those priorities.

4.23 Success in the 21st Century requires careful management of important relationships with major powers. The Region has to be clear about its core interests, then identify its key allies and work with them on issues that require multi-partnership and multi-sectorial approaches.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. CARICOM will advance and strengthen its security policy and diplomacy by strengthening its alliance with the national and regional diplomatic corps through strengthened cooperation, expert advice, training and improved technical support;

ii. CARICOM seeks to expand and deepen its engagement, understanding and cooperation with other regional and multilateral institutions through cooperative agreements and protocols;

iii. Achieving security and prosperity in today’s world requires greater collaboration. Multilateral cooperation and bilateral partnerships with key actors are a priority and a necessity. The Community will strengthen existing partnership and build new partnerships with academia, media, private sector, civil society and non-governmental organizations to combat transnational organised crime and security problems;

iv. The Region ought to treat the emergence of new powers as an opportunity for CARICOM and will work to develop complementary policies while fostering relationships with emerging powers in a way that protects CARICOM’s interests, principles and values. The Region willenhance the Community’s reach and influence by building robust strategic dialogue with emerging centres of influence which will help to address transnational organised crime and security challenges;

v. CARICOM ought to actively and assertively press for reform to global institutions which do not serve the Region’s interests wherever possible. The Region supports reform of the Security Council to ensure that its non-permanent cadre includes a rotating representative from the small states of the world. This is particularly important in an age when every important activity of the state is increasingly governed by international standards and international agreements. Representation in global agencies will assist the Region to pursue key security strategic policy goals;

vi. CARICOM will strengthen cooperation with international police organizations, such as Interpol, Europol, and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), to facilitate cross-border police cooperation.

Strategic Goal 10: Strengthen the Justice Sector

4.24 CARICOM recognises the importance of the rule of law and a functioning justice system in promoting peace, security and human rights as well as the effective prosecution of the perpetrators of crime. The investigation, prosecution and management of offenders, and the seizure of criminal assets are key deterrents for transnational organised criminal activity.

4.25 The Region will promote policies and initiatives in which the needs of children are addressed in broader justice reforms, so that all children have access to fair, transparent and child-sensitive justice systems through which their rights are enforced and protected, taking in consideration the relevant human rights standards and UN commitments.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. Member States will modernise court procedures, protocols and working practices;

ii. The administration of justice must not be impeded by differences between the Member States’ judicial systems, especially when dealing with trans-national crime. Member States will be encouraged to harmonize their legislation and enhance the capacity of the justice sector through greater utilisation of technology, with specific regard to intelligence-sharing and the allowing of evidence for overseas witnesses by video-link;

iii. Criminal investigations in CARICOM Member States rely heavily on witness evidence, leaving criminal and civil cases vulnerable to witness murder and intimidation. The promotion and development of a CARICOM Justice Protection Programme which incorporates video conferencing, forensic capacity and justice protection would reduce the risk to witnesses involved in sensitive and dangerous cases.

iv. The training of lawyers in the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, judges and police officers in the preparation of cases, especially with regard to Proceeds of Crime Legislation and Asset Forfeiture Order is vital; and

v. The burden of the courts should be reduced as far as possible with the use of plea bargaining and alternate dispute resolution methods.

Strategic Goal 11: Modernise and Enhance Correctional Services and Institutions Management

4.26 Correctional institutions and Prisonscan be places where inmates become radicalized or hardened criminals.The primary role of correctional institutions and prisons should be to break the cycle of addiction and re-offending.CARICOM will support the development of proposed alternatives to imprisonment, with an emphasis on reforming prisoners; especially non-violent criminals. These should includenon-custodial sentences and community services.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. Member States ought to pursue the modernisation of correctional facilities and develop best practice guidelines on the management of correctional facilities based on relevant international standards;

ii. CARICOM will promote prison reform through a restorative justice approach;

iii. CARICOM will promote the strengthening of the capacity of correctional facilities management and administration to meet UN standards.

iv. The development of specific training curricula, the delivery of training to targeted correctional services staff on management and administration and the exchange of best practice and information will be pursued;

v. CARICOM will promote appropriate treatment as a mandatory part of custodial sentences and ask Member States to ensure that offenders have access to consistent treatment approaches within and outside correctional facilities;

vi. CARICOM will pursue and develop aproposal to advance and incorporate a Standing Committee of Heads of Corrections and Prison Services into the Regional Security Management Framework;

vii. A Regional Offender Management System (ROMS)will be pursued by CARICOM;

viii. Member States will be encouraged to establish intelligence units within the penal system as a vital source of intelligence; and

ix. Former prisoners should be encouraged to play an active part in society.

Strategic Goal 12: Strengthen Mechanisms Against Human trafficking

4.27 CARICOM will focus on disrupting trafficking networks through enhanced international cooperation, strengthened intelligence gathering and sharing, and placing emphasis on raising awareness of human trafficking. The Community reaffirms its commitment to improving victim care arrangements and recognises the significant harm caused to children who are victims of exploitation.

4.28 The Community will work with its international partners and encourage them to take current constraints into account when rating CARICOM states in Global Trafficking Reports, as inappropriate tier placement may have serious consequences, including sanctions, which can actually impede progress and reform.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. A CARICOM Expert Working Group on Human Trafficking will be established to develop policies, raise awareness and promote prevention programmes. CARICOM will continue to work closely with other key institutions involved in the fight against human trafficking;

ii. The training of customs, judges, prosecutors, law enforcement and security officials in dealing effectively and appropriately with human trafficking cases will be encouraged;

iii. Although regional governments have made strong commitments to combating the crime of trafficking in persons and have adopted and implemented policies of prevention, prosecution and victim protection, CARICOM urges Member States to adopt national action plans against trafficking in persons;

iv. Member States are urged to establish and implement specialised law enforcement units devoted to trafficking in persons; and

v. Government and law enforcement agencies cannot tackle human trafficking alone. CARICOM will therefore engage and initiate a regional network of NGOs with a view to setting up a NGO Observatory on Human Trafficking and Smuggling in the Region to help victims and support policy and strategy developments.

Strategic Goal 13: Improving Resilience to Natural and Man Made Disasters

4.29 The Region must be ready to deal with major natural disasters. CARICOM is committed to further improving the ability of law enforcement and security agencies to respond effectively to natural disasters.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. Joint Operational civil defence response plans between the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA),IMPACS, the RSS, and other strategic partners to respond to emergency should be pursued as a matter of urgency. It is essential to establish and enhance formal platforms consisting of civilian and military practitioners and disaster responders for effective coordination and information exchange. Disaster response and relief using security and defence capacities should build relationships that look beyond traditional command-and-control of forces. The stress should now be on coordination, collaboration, and communication.

ii. CARICOM will support assessments of Member States’ preparedness for absorbing regional and foreign law enforcement and security assistance, including civil military coordinating structures and the status of forces agreements will also be pursued to ensure adequate and effective response to disasters;

iii. CARICOM will encourage thestrengthening of detection and prevention mechanism such as analytical tools and early warning systems.

Strategic Goal 14:PromoteResilient Critical Infrastructure Managementand Safety at Major Events

4.30 Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is critical to the Region’s development. A large portion of the critical infrastructure in the Region is owned by the private sector. CARICOM will work with Member States and the private sector to protect these critical infrastructures.

Strategic Lines of Action

i. The promotion of a Risk culture within CARICOM will be pursued through risk management training programmes and workshops;

ii. Regional security agencies will provide guidance, policy recommendations, feedback and recommendations on the implementation of actions related to critical infrastructure and major events;

iii. CARICOM will foster a common approach for the security planning at major events focusing on evaluation, coordination, prevention and risk analysis of major event planning;

iv. Member States should encourage the private sector to strengthen their own security.

CHAPTER 5: IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING

Implementation

5.1 CARICOM acknowledges the vital contribution the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy will make to furthering regional integration, supporting the CSME, improving the Region’s socio-economic conditions and contributing to global peace and security. The Community’s resources are limited, so careful alignment of funding is crucial for the successful implementation of the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy. CARICOM welcomes the active cooperation and collaboration of all relevant international, regional and national organisations, regional and local communities and civil society in all areas where there are mutual interests, and where coordinated actions are required for the implementation of this Strategy.

5.2 CARICOM IMPACS will seek to secure funding support for priority projects under the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy. This will be implemented through:

  • Sensitisation of national, regional and international partners of the Strategy;
  • Presentation of the Strategy at national, regional, international, multilateral conferences;
  • Presentation of the Strategy to CARICOM Member States embassies and consulates;
  • Development of a resource mobilisation plan in order to obtain funding from CARICOM dialogue partners, international funding agencies and other sources; and
  • Hosting (every two years) an International Conference in Support of the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy to provide the necessary political support, relevant financial resources and other measures and to demonstrate their commitments.

5.3 The development of many Caribbean nations has been crippled by crime and corruption. A fight against crime is therefore a fight for human development. Illegal activities in any State have the potential to reach and affect every other Member State, and undermine the economic viability of the Region.

5.4 It is estimated that – with sufficient political will and bold and courageous leadership - the implementation of the CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy could significantly reduce serious crime within the next three years. This would help to attract and retain both human and financial capital, thereby enabling a new Caribbean renaissance.

Monitoring Process

5.5 The Council for National Security and Law Enforcement is responsible for oversightof the Strategy. The CARICOM Crime and Security Steering Committee will continue to meet and take decisions yearly, informed by up to date intelligence and assessments of risks and threats. CARICOM IMPACS will submit to the CONSLE annually or as required reports on actions, successes and challenges within the framework of CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy.The report will highlight the main developments for each of the strategic goals, assess whether actions by CARICOM havebeen effective, and make recommendations accordingly.The plan of action will guide the implementation of the Strategic Goals.

STRATEGIC GOALS AND ACTION: FLAGSHIP INITIATIVES


If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

STRATEGIC GOAL 1: TAKE THE PROFITS OUT OF CRIME, TARGET CRIMINAL ASSETS AND PROTECT THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR

TIME FRAME

I. Establishment of National Asset Recovery Offices (AROs) to identify and facilitate the tracing of criminal assets

Member States

CFATF

Six (6) Member States establish National Asset Recovery Offices

2016

II. The enactment and aggressive use of Proceeds of Crime Legislation

Member States

CFATF

Member States implementaggressively Proceeds of Crime Legislation that allow for the seizure of assets used in illicit activities

Ongoing

III. Member States bring forward new legislation to extend the personal and criminal liability to the“Facilitators of Organised Crime”

Member States

CFATF

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

IMPACS

Member States adopt legislations that extend the criminal liability to the Facilitators of Organised Crime.

2015

IV. Member States continue to implement concrete steps to identify, trace, freeze, seize and confiscate the proceeds of crime

Member States

CFATF

Member States strengthen procedures and advance steps to counter the proceeds of crime

Ongoing

V. Strengthening capacity in investigation methods and techniques in the field of asset recovery

Member States

CFATF

IMPACS

Regional training workshops on investigation methods and techniques in the field of asset recovery

Ongoing

VI. Member States continue to implement legal frameworks on money laundering

Member States

CFATF

Member States enhance the anti-money laundering legal framework

2016

VII. Continued effort to accede to / ratify the United Nations Convention against Corruption by non-signatories

Member States

CFATF

Ratification of the United Nations Convention against Corruption by non-signatories

2015

VIII. Member States identify and take action against corporate and governmental corruption

Member States

CFATF

Increase actions taken against corporate and governmental corruption

Ongoing

  1. Promote and raise consumer awareness of financial crime

Member States

CFATF

IMPACS

Designs of campaigns and public workshops on the topic

Ongoing

  1. Full implementation of the Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) which sets and enforces global standards to combat both money laundering and the financing of terrorism

CFATF

Training / Workshops on the implementation of the recommendations of the FATF

2015

STRATEGIC GOAL 2: CRIME PREVENTION – ADDRESSING THE CAUSES OF CRIME AND INSECURITY AND INCREASE PUBLIC AWARENESS OF THE KEY RISKS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR

TIME FRAME

i. Implement Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Social Development and Crime Prevention Action Plan (SDCPAP)

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Programmes/Projects designed and implemented under the SDCPAP through CARICOM Secretariat

Ongoing

ii. Establish National Inter-Ministerial Commissions to coordinate government policy

Member States

National Inter-Ministerial Commissions established in all Member States

2013

iii. Increase demand side intervention through a focus on education, early intervention, treatment, harm reduction, rehabilitation and social reintegration, ethics training and the construction of new norms

Member States

CARICOM Member States implementing national programmes/ projects targeted at crime prevention

Ongoing

iv. Establish a CARICOM Drug Commission

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Recommendations of CARICOM Drug Commission presented to Heads of Government

2013

v. Establish an Anti-Gang Working Group

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Anti-Gang Working Group established

2013

vi. Publish regional risk assessments and regional publication of crime reports.

IMPACS

Regional risk assessment and crime reports

Yearly

vii. Proposal of a free mobile security application; CARICOM Secure App (CASA) to manage, receive and distribute information to users.

IMPACS

RSS

CDEMA

Development of proposal of a free mobile security application

2014

STRATEGIC GOAL 3: ESTABLISHING APPROPRIATE LEGAL INSTRUMENTS WHILE RATIFYING EXISTING AGREEMENTS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR

TIME FRAME

i. Promote the ratification of the CARICOM Arrest Warrant Treaty (CAWT) and CARICOM Maritime Airspace and Security Cooperation Agreement

IMPACS

RSS

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

CARICOM Arrest Warrant Treaty (CAWT) and CARICOM Maritime Airspace and Security Cooperation Agreement are signed and ratified Member States

2013

ii. Promote harmonisation and standardisation of regional legislation

IMPACS

RSS

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

Encourage Member States to sign accede/ ratify/ harmonised and strengthen regional legislation

Ongoing

iii. Promote legal uniformity and minimum standards to govern the manufacture, possession, import, export, transfer, transit, transport and control of SALW

IMPACS

RSS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Increased legal uniformity and minimum standards to govern the manufacture, possession, import, export, transfer, transit, transport and control of SALWin Member States

Ongoing

iv. Promote and support the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty

IMPACS

RSS

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

CARICOM Member States partake and support the adoption of a robust Arms Trade Treaty at the ATT diplomatic Conference in March 2013

2013

v. Review and improve public disorder legislation

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

Establishment of Expert Group to review Public disorder legislation

2014

vi. Implement legislation to allow for network shutdown in the events of civil unrests

Member States

Member States develop and implement legislation that allows for network shutdown in the events of civil unrests in at least 5 Member States

2015

vii. Develop public interest immunity legislations

Member States

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

IMPACS

RSS

Public Interest Immunity Legislation developed in at least 5 Member States

2015

viii. Execution of regional and international security agreements

IMPACS

RSS

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

Encourage Member States in regional and international conferences and through diplomatic channel to ratify regional/ international security agreements

Ongoing

ix. Develop model legislation for enhanced regulation private security industry

IMPACS

RSS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Model legislation for private security is established

2015

x. Develop a CARICOM Code of Conduct and Ethics for the Private Security Sector

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

CARICOM Code of Conduct and Ethics for the Private Security Sector established and disseminated among Private Security companies across CARICOM Member States

2014

STRATEGIC GOAL 4: INCREASE TRANS-BORDER INTELLIGENCE AND INFORMATION SHARING

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Promote and utilise a network of Intelligence Liaison Officers and National Points of Contact (NPCs) in Member States

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

Network of Intelligence Liaison Officers and National Points of Contacts fully established and operational

2013

ii. Enhance information sharing with foreign partners and closer cooperation among intelligence, law enforcement, and other applicable agencies regionally

IMPACS

RSS

Memoranda of Understanding established with external agencies

Ongoing

iii. Expand the CARICOM Integrated Border Security System (CARIBSEC) to include all CARICOM Member States

IMPACS

Member States

CARIBSEC expanded to include other crimes

2013

iv. Regular updates of Member States national watch-lists

Member States

Member States maintain current national watch lists and updating regional watch list as necessary

Ongoing

v. Establish National Joint Operational Centers (JOCs)

Member States

IMPACS

Six (6) states establish National JOC

2015

vi. Establish functional cooperation between the JOC and the Regional Intelligence Fusion Centre

Member States

IMPACS

Established protocols between RIFC and National JOC

Ongoing

vii. Establish or enhance SALW national registers and database systems

IMPACS

Member States

SALW National Registers and data base systems established in all CARICOM Member States

2014

viii. Establish crime observatories in Member States.

Member States

Crime observatories established in CARICOM Member States

2016

STREATEGIC GOAL 5: ENHANCE LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY CAPABILITIES AND STRENGTHEN REGIONAL SECURITY SYSTEMS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR

TIME FRAME

i. Establish or / and expand Regional Centres of Excellence

Member States

IMPACS

RSS

Three (3) Regional Centres of Excellence established in different law enforcement and security sectors which are accredited by authorised international borders

2015

ii. Implement intelligence led policing, community based policing and other law enforcement and security initiatives through regional best practice seminars and training

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

Regional Best Practice Seminars on Law Enforcement and security initiatives held at least twice per year

Ongoing

iii. Foster standardisation of training and operating procedures

IMPACS

Member States

RSS

Training and operating procedures for key components of law enforcement training programmes standardised

Ongoing

iv. Promote regional security accreditation and certification

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

All Regional Security Training Programmes accredited and certified

Ongoing

v. Organise “Train the Trainers” courses in priority areas

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

Train the Trainer courses for all Law Enforcement and Security officials developed and implemented

Ongoing

vi. Promote and support on-line learning

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

One regional online training programme established and being administered annually in the field of law enforcement and security

2014

vii. Develop a proposal to improve data information management systems for law enforcement and security training organisations

IMPACS

RSS

Data information management proposal established for all key training organisations

2014

viii. Develop a database of train security personnel regionally

IMPACS

Data information management system (data base) established

2016

ix. Encourage the training of law enforcement and security officials in non-lethal options

Member States

IMPACS

RSS

Increase training in non-lethal options implemented in Member States

Ongoing

x. Strengthen regional institutional capacities (IMPACS, RSS) to implement the CCSS

IMPACS

RSS

Regional Security Institutions are adequately resourced

Ongoing

STRATEGIC GOAL 6: ENHANCE MARITIME AND AIRSPACE AWARENESS, STRENGTHEN CARICOM BORDERS, INCLUDING CONTIGUOUS LAND BORDERS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Expand the Advance Passenger Information System (APIS)

IMPACS

Member States

APIS expanded to customs systems and to other Member States where it is not currently operational

2014

ii. Implement the Advance Cargo Information System (ACIS)

IMPACS

Member States

ACIS established in seven (7) CARICOM Member States

2014

iii. Implement standardisation of border security training

IMPACS

Member States

CARICAD

Standardised training curricula developed for Border Security training courses

Ongoing

iv. Develop a Proposal of a CARICOM Border Surveillance System (CARIBSIS)

IMPACS

Member State

CARICOM Border Surveillance System Proposal developed

2014

v. Establish a common CARICOM Border Code for all CARICOM border officials

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Common CARICOM Border Code for Border security officials developed and implemented

2015

vi. Develop a Regional Immigration Data Management System

IMPACS

Member States

Regional Immigration Data Management System

2016

vii. Implement a CARICOM Travel Card (CARIPASS)

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

CARIPASS system installed and operational in five (5) CARICOM Member States

2014

viii. Pursue a common and coherent regional migration policy

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

CARICOM Migration Policy developed

2015

ix. Establish and implement a CARICOM Maritime and Airspace Control Strategy

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

CARICOM Maritime and Airspace Control Strategy

2013

STRATEGIC GOAL 7: STRENGTHEN THE EFFECIVENESS OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION THROUGH MODERN TECHNOLOGIES AND SCIENTIFIC TECHNIQUES

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Establish a CARICOM Forensic Task Force

IMPACS

Member States

Forensic Task Force establish and terms of reference adopted

2013

ii. Establish Minimum Standard Operational Procedures for crime scene investigators

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

Minimum Standard Operational Procedures for Crime Scene Investigators established, disseminated and utilised in all CARICOM Member States

2015

iii. Implement training in crime scene management

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

Training in crime scene management conducted annually

Ongoing

iv. Heighten awareness and sensitivity of the judiciary concerning the use of forensic science

IMPACS

Member States

Training / workshops for the judiciary concerning the use of forensic science annually

2014

v. Establish a CARICOM Registry of Forensic Experts

IMPACS

Member States

CARICOM Registry of Forensic Experts established

2013

vi. Develop model legislative framework governing the use of forensic evidence in criminal proceedings

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

IMPACS

Model legislative framework governing the use of forensic evidence in criminal proceedings developed

2016

vii. Develop model legislation to govern the handling of physical evidence, particular in relation to chain of custody, storage, packing, labelling security of the evidence, and the transfer of evidence (to support the taking and use of DNA samples)

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

IMPACS

Model legislation to support the taking and use of DNA samples developed

2016

viii. Establish national DNA databases

Member States

National DNA databases established in all CARICOM Member States

2016

ix. Establish CARICOM DNA database

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

CARICOM DNA database established

2017

x. Establish and implement a secure regional criminal database of fingerprints; CARICOM Automated Fingerprint Integrated System (CAFIS)

IMPACS

Member States

CARICOM Automated Fingerprint Integrated System (CAFIS) is operational

2016

xi. Establish regional legal regulatory instruments to facilitate the sharing of automated digital fingerprint information, collection and exploitation in law enforcement investigations and judicial actions

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Protocols and other legal regulatory instruments are developed and adopted

2016

xii. Implement an automated Regional Integrated Ballistic Information Network (RIBIN)

IMPACS

Member States

Member States are party to RIBIN through established protocols with IMPACS

2013

xiii. Establish protocol agreements to connect RIBIN to other international networks

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Memoranda of Understanding between IMPACS and international cooperating partners

2014

xiv. Establish a Regional Investigative Management System (RIMS)

IMPACS

Member States

Terms of Reference adopted and Regional Investigative Management System (RIMS) established

2013

STRATEGIC GOAL 8: STRENGTHEN CARICOM’S RESILIENCE TO CYBERCRIME

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Educate and promote awareness of internet use

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

Design of campaigns and development of communications material

Ongoing

ii. Raise the standards of specialisation of the police, judges, prosecutors and forensic staff

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

RSS

Regional training / workshops to enhance human resource capacity to counter cybercrime

Ongoing

iii. Establish a CARICOM Cyber Crime Centre

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

Development and establishment of a CARICOM Cyber Crime Centre

2017

iv. Establish a network of CARICOM Cyber Security Point of Contacts

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

Network of CARICOM Cyber Security Point of Contacts established and terms of reference adopted

2014

v. Establish a CARICOM Computer Emergency Response Teams Team

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

CARICOM Computer Emergency Response Teams Team established and terms of reference adopted

2014

vi. Urge Member State to establish their own cyber security unit

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

Member States establish cyber security units

2014

vii. Establish active partnership with the private sector

IMPACS

CTO

Member States

Dialogue and joint programmes with the private sector

Ongoing

STRATEGIC GOAL 9: PURSUE FUNCTIONAL COOPERATIVE SECURITY ENGAGEMENTS TO TACKLE AND MANAGE SHARED RISKS AND THREATS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Strengthen CARICOM alliance with the national and regional diplomatic corps through enhanced cooperation, expert advice, training and improved technical support

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Technical expertise provided to the regional diplomatic corps

Ongoing

ii. Expand and deepen regional engagement, understanding and cooperation with other regional and multilateral institutions

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Memoranda of Understanding established with regional and multilateral institutions

Ongoing

iii. Strengthen existing partnership and build new partnerships with academia, media, civil society and non-governmental organizations?

IMPACS

Member States

Memoranda of Understanding established with academic institutions and joint projects implemented with the media, civil society and non-governmental organizations

Ongoing

iv. Enhance the Community’s reach and influence by building robust strategic dialogue with emerging centres of influence

CARICOM Secretariat

IMPACS

Member States

Establish new relationships and enhanced engagement with emerging centres of influence

Ongoing

v. Actively and assertively press for reform to global institutions which do not serve the Region’s interests wherever possible

Member States

Utilise all diplomatic instrument to promote CARICOM interests

Ongoing

vi. Strengthen cooperation with international police organizations, such as Interpol, Europol and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), to facilitate cross-border police cooperation.

IMPACS

Member States

Memoranda of Understanding established with international police organizations

2016

STRATEGIC GOAL 10: STRENGTHEN THE JUSTICE SECTOR

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Promote the modernisation of court procedures, protocols and working practices in Member States

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Bar Associations

IMPACS

Member States

Institutional Strengthening and capacity building workshops to enhance court procedures, protocols and working practices in Member States

Ongoing

ii. Promote and enhance the capacity of the justice sector through greater utilisation of technology

Bar Associations

IMPACS

Member States

Institutional strengthening and capacity building through provision of equipment and technology

Ongoing

iii. Implement a CARICOM Justice Protection Programme

IMPACS

Member States

Establishment of a Justice Protection Programme

2014

iv. Promote training of lawyers in the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, judges and police officers in the preparation of cases, especially with regard to Proceeds of Crime Legislation and Asset Forfeiture Order

Member States

Bar Associations

Institutional strengthening and capacity building through training of lawyers in the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, judges and police officers in the preparation of cases, especially with regard to Proceeds of Crime Legislation and Asset Forfeiture Order

Ongoing

v. Promote the use of plea bargaining and alternate dispute resolutions methods

Bar Associations

CARICOM IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

OECS Secretariat

Member States

Encourage Member States to use of plea bargaining and alternate dispute resolutions methods

Ongoing

STRATEGIC GOAL 11: MODERNISE AND ENHANCE CORRECTIONAL SERVICES AND INSTITUTIONS MANAGEMENT

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Develop best practice guidelines on the management of correctional facilities and prisons

ACHCPS

IMPACS

Member States

CARICOM best practice guidelines on the management of correctional facilities and prisons developed

2014

ii. Promote prison reform through a restorative justice philosophical approach

ACHCPS

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Civil Society

Annual regional training / workshop on restorative justice

Ongoing

iii. Promote the strengthening of the capacity of correctional facilities management and administration to meet UN standards

IMPACS

Member States

ACHCPS

Civil Society

Institutional strengthening and capacity building of correctional facilities management and administration to meet UN standards

Ongoing

iv. Develop specific training curricula, the delivery of training to targeted correctional services staff and best practice seminars

ACHCPS

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Civil Society

Training curricula, the delivery of training to targeted correctional services staff and best practice seminars implemented

Ongoing

v. Promote appropriate treatment as a mandatory part of custodial sentences and that offenders have access to consistent treatment approaches within correctional facilities

ACHCPS

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Civil Society

Encourage Member States to implement appropriate treatment as a mandatory part of custodial sentences and that offenders have access to consistent treatment approaches within correctional facilities

Ongoing

  1. Proposal to advance and incorporate a standing Committee of Heads of Corrections and Prison Services into the Regional Management Framework

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

ACHCPS

Proposal developed and presented to CONSLE

2014

  1. Establish a Regional Offender Management System (ROMS)

ACHCPS

IMPACS

Member States

ROMS established in CARICOM

2016

  1. Establish national prison intelligence units

IMPACS

Member States

ACHCPS

Civil Society

Member States establish national prison intelligence units

2014

  1. Promote and encourage former prisoners to play an active part in society

ACHCPS

IMPACS

CARICOM Secretariat

Member States

Civil Society

Encourage Member States to ensure former prisoners play an active part in society

Ongoing

STRATEGIC GOAL 12: STRENGTHEN MECHANISMS AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Establish a CARICOM Expert Working Group on Human Trafficking

IMPACS

Member States

CARICOM Expert Working Group on Human Trafficking established and terms of reference adopted

2013

ii. Pursue training of immigration and customs officials, judges, prosecutors, law enforcement and security officials in dealing effectively and appropriately with human trafficking cases

IMPACS

Member States

Regional training / workshops on the fight against human trafficking

Ongoing

iii. Urge Member States to adopt national action plans against trafficking in persons

IMPACS

Member States

Member States adopt national action plans against trafficking in persons

2014

iv. Implement specialised units devoted to trafficking in persons

Member States

Member States establish special units to counter trafficking in persons

2014

v. Initiate a regional network of NGOs Observatory on Human Trafficking and Smuggling in the Region

IMPACS

Member States

Regional workshop established and a plan of action adopted

2013

STRATEGIC GOAL 13: IMPROVING RESILIENCE TO NATURAL AND MAN MADE DISASTERS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Develop of Joint Operational civil defence response plans between the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Fund (CDEMA), IMPACS, RSS and other strategic partners

CDEMA

IMPACS
RSS
Member States

Joint Operational civil defence response plans between the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Fund (CDEMA), IMPACS the RSS developed

2014

ii. Assess of Member States preparedness for absorbing regional and foreign law enforcement and security assistance

IMPACS

RSS

CDEMA

Member States

Assessment conducted and Report developed

2013

iii. Strengthen detection and prevention mechanism such as analytical tools and early warning systems

CDEMA

Member States

IMPACS

RSS

Delivery of detection and prevention mechanism in Member States

Ongoing

STRATEGIC GOAL 14: PROMOTE RESILIENT CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY AT MAJOR EVENTS

ACTIONS

RESPONSIBLE PARTY

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

TIME FRAME

i. Promote a Risk culture within CARICOM through risk management training, programmes and workshops

IMPACS

RSS

CDEMA

Member States

Risk Management Training, programmes and workshops developed and implemented

Ongoing

ii. Provide guidance, policy recommendations, feedback and recommendations on the implementation of actions related to critical infrastructure and major events

IMPACS

RSS

Member States

Guidelines for Critical Infrastructure developed and disseminated throughout all Member States

Ongoing

iii. Foster a common CARICOM security approach and guidelines for the security planning at major events focusing on evaluation, coordination, prevention and risk analysis of major event planning.

IMPACS

RSS

CDEMA

Member States

Guidelines for security planning at major events developed and disseminated throughout all Member States

Ongoing

iv. Encourage private sector operatives to strengthen their security

Member States

Private sector operatives are encouraged to strengthen their security



[1]Many have contributed time and expertise, but particular thanks are due to Professor Anthony Clayton of the University of the West Indies for his assistance with the development of this Strategy.

[2]Facebook has reached more than 1 billion active users in less than a decade of existence, while Twitter has attracted over 500 million active users in seven years. Sina-Weibo, China’s dominant micro-blogging platform passed 400 million active accounts in summer 2012. Every minute, 48 hours’ worth of content is uploaded to YouTube (Global Risk Report, 2013).

[3] The islands include Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago. The 3 continental states are Belize, Guyana and Suriname.

[4] The populations of these countries range generally from over 47,000 (St. Kitts and Nevis) to just under 2.7 million with Jamaica, Trinidad and Haiti being the only of these to exceed 1 million and Haiti standing out at a population of over 7 million.

[5]See UNDP Report (2012)

[6]Most of the illegal guns traced in CARICOM Member States come from the United States of America.

[This is a mobile copy of CARICOM Crime and Security Strategy]