Report
Office To Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
December 1, 2012


introduction

Established in 2003, the Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons coordinates interagency policy, grants, research, and planning issues involving international and domestic trafficking in persons (TIP) and the implementation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA). Since 2010, the SPOG Grantmaking Committee has focused significant attention on developing a strategy for supporting a shift towards evidence-based programming among United States government agencies to build the knowledge base on human trafficking and propose solutions to enhance anti-trafficking activities. The term “evidence-based practice” refers to any intervention that can be sourced back to methodologically-sound research demonstrating that it is effective and worthy of application on a large scale. At the present time, the knowledge base on effective anti-TIP programming is limited. Most U.S. government agencies, however, have made significant progress in supporting research and evaluation of anti-trafficking activities. While the promising practices collected in this document correlate with positive results, there is not sufficient evaluation data to definitively demonstrate a causal link between the practice and positive outcomes.

Determining evidence-based practices among anti-trafficking programs is challenging. Impact evaluations help establish whether or not there is a causal link between a program or intervention and a set of outcomes; however, performing high-quality impact evaluations requires a significant amount of time, resources, and technical expertise that many counter-trafficking organizations lack. Moreover, impact evaluations should be conducted by independent, outside evaluators. External evaluators’ independence and impartiality make findings more credible, as well as reduce biases and conflicts of interests. Given scarce resources, many program implementers and donors are not in a position to divert resources away from direct services for victims of trafficking in order to conduct formal program evaluation.

Furthermore, anti-trafficking evaluations require data that are reliable, valid, and accurate; however, simply enhancing data collection techniques and methodologies is too often insufficient. The challenges of determining evidence-based practices are further compounded by the inherent difficulties of working with “hard-to-reach” or “hidden” populations. In addition, the baseline data on the nature and extent of human trafficking against which to measure future change or program achievements remain largely unavailable. Finally, monitoring yields data that are a critical resource in conducting impact evaluations. Ongoing monitoring efforts are common and enable implementers to assess progress in achieving their objectives. While monitoring plays a key role in project management, it is distinct from evaluation and should be treated as such.

The 15 promising practices collected here, drawn from all regions of the world, cover the core components of counter-trafficking programming (prevention, protection, and prosecution) and all forms of trafficking, whether for sex or labor,
internal or international. While the collection of promising practices is by no means exhaustive, it provides an important starting point upon which to build a more comprehensive learning resource. In reading the compendium, the Committee hopes that practitioners and other key stakeholders will identify ideas and approaches for combating trafficking worth testing in their own countries and communities and spur greater information-sharing from which all parties may benefit.

prevention :: Public Awareness :: IndiA

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: Although there is no agreed upon estimate, India is believed to be home to millions of bonded laborers.[1] Most are members of the impoverished and marginalized lower-castes, and many are trapped in situations of generational debt bondage. Lacking knowledge of their rights and India’s labor laws, they are extremely vulnerable to abuse and exploitation by unscrupulous employers.

Intervention: The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (TIP Office) funded the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) World Service Trust to build the capacity of vulnerable laborers in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh to combat and prevent bonded labor by increasing their awareness of labor rights, government resources for freed laborers, and the risks of entering into bonded labor agreements. The BBC produced 36 half-hour episodes of a radio program called Who Are You Calling Helpless!, which combined entertainment with testimonials and discussions with local community members. Prior to implementation, the BBC conducted a baseline survey to inform program design and assess the target population’s knowledge of bonded labor. To reach remote communities, the BBC partnered with four NGOs and established 40 dedicated listening groups. Composed of representatives from the vulnerable populations and community leaders, these listening groups met weekly to listen to the program and to discuss issues addressed during that week’s episode.

Results: At endline, survey results showed an increase in knowledge of bonded labor among the target population, as well as attitudinal change. For example, at baseline, only 14 percent of respondents reported having heard the term bonded labor and only 8 percent recognized that bonded laborers are eligible for compensation versus 92 percent and 73 percent at endline, respectively. Knowledgeable about their rights, workers began to dialogue with their employers with demonstrable results. In one village, a trafficker was jailed following collective action of community members, a journalist, and a non-governmental organization (NGO). In another village, during harvest season, workers formed a collective, and refused to work for less than minimum wage, forcing landlords to respect their rights.

Promising Practices: Formative research was used to create a targeted and tailored program, which resulted in increased listenership and active engagement among the target population to address bonded labor. Listening groups facilitated face-to-face communication among participants and motivated them to take informed collective action. By engaging whole communities (NGOs, community leaders, etc.), the program created opportunities for victims of bonded labor to dialogue with similarly situated community members, service providers, and community leadership to create sustainable remedies for their problems.

For more information contact: Sam Miller (sam.miller@bbcwst.org), India Country Director, British Broadcasting Corporation World Service Trust.

Prevention :: Public Awareness :: Asia

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

Protection

Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: Youth in Asia are highly vulnerable to trafficking, but lack the critical information that can help to prevent them from being victimized by traffickers and assist them in educating their peer group about trafficking.

Intervention: The United States Agency for International Development (USAID), in partnership with the MTV EXIT (End Exploitation and Trafficking) Foundation, has supported a large-scale anti-trafficking awareness-raising and prevention campaign in Asia since 2006. The campaign has produced 28 concerts that have reached more than 650,000 young people (with made-for-TV specials reaching tens of millions more), more than 70 television programs, over 6,000 broadcasts of television programming on 13 MTV EXIT channels, and 11 national terrestrial broadcasters reaching 18 Asian countries. MTV EXIT is currently producing documentary films for 13 markets in Asia. USAID’s partnership with MTV EXIT Foundation, has leveraged over $100 million (cash and in-kind) from approximately $8 million in USAID funding, a 13 to one match. Most recently, the campaign has partnered with the Australian Government Overseas Aid Program as a co-founder, and, in 2011, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) officially endorsed the campaign and lent its branding to all content.

Results: Impact assessments indicated an overall positive change in the knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward trafficking of individuals exposed to the campaign’s anti-trafficking messaging. Baseline surveys in Manila, for example, revealed that 64 percent of the population exhibited characteristics that put them at risk of trafficking. After exposure to MTV EXIT messaging at a large-scale anti-trafficking event, 79 percent of the population exhibited an increased level of trafficking awareness that is correlated with a decreased risk of being trafficked. These results prompted over 100 anti-trafficking organizations to include MTV EXIT programming in their outreach and training.

Promising Practices: The MTV EXIT campaign incorporated an evidence-based approach to designing their intervention by surveying the target population to gauge their level of understanding about trafficking and determine their educational needs. Endline surveys measured the impact of the program’s anti-trafficking messaging. Since many of those vulnerable to trafficking do not have access to MTV television channels, all MTV EXIT television programming was aired on non-MTV channels and produced rights-free ensuring that MTV EXIT products can be viewed by hundreds of millions of people around Asia. In Thailand, for example, the first broadcast of the MTV EXIT Live in Chiang Mai concert event that aired on television was viewed by more than 3.6 million Thais.

For more information contact: Simon Goff (simon.goff@mtvexit.org), CEO, MTV EXIT Foundation.

Prevention :: Public Awareness :: Ecuador

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

Women

Prosecution

Problem: A 2006 joint ILO and Government of Ecuador study found that there are more than 600,000 children between the ages of five and 18 years working in Ecuador, the majority of whom are indigenous or of Afro-Descent. Some of these child laborers are in fact victims of trafficking in the agricultural and construction sectors, domestic service, and begging.

Intervention: From September 2005 to April 2010, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) funded World Learning (WL) and Desarrollo y Autogestión (DyA) to implement a project to combat indigenous child labor. This initiative provided accelerated education and after-school programs to more than 8,000 at-risk children; built the capacity of teachers through training; and encouraged community participation in program design and implementation. In particular, the program aimed to prevent forced child begging in the provinces of Cotopaxi and Tungurahua. In 2007, in partnership with the Government of Ecuador (GoE), WL and DyA worked to: 1) identify trends and patterns in child trafficking; 2) provide formal and informal education to at-risk children; 3) develop awareness-raising activities among parents, teachers, community leaders, and local government officials in sending communities; 4) design a protocol to assist victims of trafficking; and 5) carry out a radio campaign and establish a community monitoring system to identify, intercept, and assist victims.

Results: Through this initiative, known as Give Dignity (http://dadignidad.gob.ec/), more than 1,000 children received educational services. Government reports also indicated that fewer children were trafficked during the holidays. The campaign received a great deal of media attention and was highlighted in the news and on the television/radio. To strengthen efforts, the GoE allocated $1.8M to this initiative between 2007 and 2010. To date, it has reached more than 500,000 people.

Promising Practices: The partnership between the GoE and the DOL-funded project, and the strategy developed to combat child trafficking were key to the success of this initiative, in which communities that sent and received victims of trafficking actively participated. The GoE has strengthened the strategy by establishing a hotline to report cases of trafficking, promoting civic engagement, and working with the Colombian government to address the trafficking of children from both countries.

For more information contact: Gillian McClelland (gillian.mcclelland@worldlearning.org), Program Officer, World Learning Inc; or María Gloria Barreiro (magolabarreiro@gmail.com), Director, DyA.

Prevention :: Public Awareness :: United States (California)

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: A Mexican Consulate in California that comes into contact with potential trafficking victims lacked knowledge on how to fully assist them.

Intervention: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Rescue and Restore Regional Program funds the Sacramento Employment and Training Agency (SETA), a social service agency operated by both the city and county of Sacramento. SETA conducted a range of outreach activities with the Consul General of Mexico, introducing consulate staff to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and holding a joint presentation about trafficking with local U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and FBI agents to facilitate the partnership. In August 2010, SETA also participated in the Consulate’s Labor Rights Week, conducted community outreach, provided assistance to Mexican citizens seeking consulate services, held an anti-trafficking event with the Consulate at a church serving the Latino community, and conducted an interview about trafficking on a Spanish-language radio station.

Results: SETA connected the Mexican Consulate to law enforcement agents responsible for investigating cases and applying for Continued Presence on behalf of potential trafficking victims. SETA worked with the Consulate on human trafficking cases involving Mexican citizens and assisted those seeking assistance and information on human trafficking. Through the Mexican Consulate, SETA developed partnerships with agencies with access to workplaces and communities with reported cases of trafficking, including the California Agricultural Relations Board. SETA and the Consulate have begun to develop a committee of such partners to create outreach strategies, which will ultimately lead to an increase in the identification of trafficking victims.

Promising Practices: SETA’s partnership with the local Consulate helped the Consulate to build a relationship with Federal law enforcement officials. The partnership between SETA and the Consulate allowed SETA to conduct outreach to the Mexican community. In addition, the Consulate facilitated partnerships between SETA and other stakeholders that are likely to come in contact with the target population, including community and faith-based organizations. In order to ensure that all potential victims are identified and receive appropriate care, SETA also provided consulate staff with training on victim identification and referrals.

For more information contact: Mary Jennings (mjenning@delpaso.seta.net), Workforce Development Analyst Supervisor, Rescue & Restore Program, Sacramento Employment & Training Agency.

Prevention :: Capacity Building :: South Africa

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

* Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: South Africa serves as a source, destination, and transit country for children trafficked for both sex and labor, including for domestic, factory, and agricultural work. Children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS are at greater risk of trafficking largely due to their limited access to education, protection, and other resources.

Intervention: DOL-funded Reducing Child Labor in Southern Africa (RECLISA) project had a trafficking prevention and policy component. In South Africa, the project developed a referral child trafficking database in five urban centers by surveying 180 local NGOs on services provided and referral protocols. This activity helped address a lack of coordination among local NGOs working to protect trafficking victims. RECLISA collaborated with the South African Police Services (SAPS) to include content on child trafficking in their training manuals.

Results: The program provided direct assistance to nearly 620 victims and at-risk children, with a targeted focus on the most vulnerable, including children affected by HIV/AIDS. RECLISA also successfully reviewed South African laws dealing with child trafficking and strengthened institutional capacity to address the crime. It assisted in the passage of the 2006 Children’s Act, the first piece of legislation specifically addressing children.

Promising Practices: To increase the potential for sustainability beyond the life of the project, interventions aligned with, complemented, and, in some cases, enhanced existing programs. By focusing the South African Police Services’ curriculum on child trafficking, law enforcement was better equipped to investigate trafficking crimes more effectively. RECLISA also provided psychosocial support to children, enabling them to more effectively benefit from additional services provided by the project, such as vocational training. The project also adapted a life skills curriculum presented at schools to focus on the circumstances of child trafficking victims. This, combined with material support, made it easier for children to attend and remain in school.

For more information contact: Dr. Jane Benbow (jbenbow@air.org) or (202-403-5158), Director of International Development Program, American Institute of Research.

PREVENTION :: LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING :: UNITED STATES (NORTH CAROLINA)

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: Law enforcement agents in North Carolina lacked training on human trafficking investigation victim identification procedures.

Intervention: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Rescue and Restore Regional Program funded Legal Aid of North Carolina (LANC), which collaborated with the Carolina Women’s Center at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (CWC) and the North Carolina Justice Academy (NCJA), to increase opportunities for training on human trafficking for law enforcement agents in North Carolina. They proposed to the Joint-In Service Training Committee to have trafficking as one of the “departmental topics of choice” for in-service training. In addition, they proposed to another NCJA committee to require human trafficking as a mandatory topic for Basic Law Enforcement Training (BLET).

Results: The Committees accepted both proposals, and as a result, all new law enforcement agents in North Carolina are required to complete training on human trafficking. NCJA added a mandatory two-hour instructional block of human trafficking training to the standard BLET state curriculum. The NCJA also asked LANC and other members of the North Carolina Coalition Against Human Trafficking (NCCAHT) to create a North Carolina-specific training video, which has been incorporated into the BLET curriculum. Additionally in 2011, NCJA developed a four-hour in-service training. Each year, all law enforcement agents in North Carolina are required to complete in-service trainings, and 90-95 percent of agents choose the recommended topics of choice provided by the Joint In-Service Training Committee. As a result of these trainings, law enforcement agents are better able to identify and investigate trafficking cases.

Promising Practices: The grantee and its partners worked together to create opportunities for law enforcement agents statewide to receive training on human trafficking. As a result of their efforts, the NCJA institutionalized trafficking training into the standard training curriculum for North Carolina law enforcement officers, providing them with easy access to vital information about how to identify and assist victims.

For more information contact: Jennifer Fisher (jfisher@ncdoj.gov), Basic Law Enforcement Training Curriculum Coordinator, North Carolina Justice Academy.

Prevention :: Government Adoption of TIP Prevention Model :: Indonesia

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CATEGORIES:

* Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

Women

Prosecution

Problem: Both domestic and international human trafficking is a significant problem for women and children in Indonesia. It is estimated that between 254,000 and 422,000 children are vulnerable to trafficking, particularly those living in rural areas. Traffickers often deceive parents with false promises of a better life, yet the majority of children end up in situations of forced labor or sexual slavery.

Intervention: From 2004-2009, DOL funded Save the Children to implement its ENABLE (Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking Through Education) Project, which aimed to reduce the number of children subjected to sex and labor trafficking, particularly domestic servitude. To accomplish this, Save the Children provided direct access to formal and non-formal education services to at-risk and trafficked children; raised general awareness about human trafficking and associated risk factors; and supported the development and implementation of policies and practices that increase access to education among child trafficking victims and other vulnerable groups.

Results: Through this program, more than 15,600 children were enrolled in formal or nonformal education. Save the Children increased awareness and facilitated behavior change towards trafficking through the implementation of a national community-based prevention known as Enabling Community Action (ENACT). Save the Children first created Village Education Committees (VECs) that developed culturally appropriate and sustainable awareness raising campaigns focused on the dangers of trafficking. VECs then produced Village Action Plans that prioritized the needs of the community related to formal and nonformal education. In 2008, the Indonesian Government allocated financial resources for scaling-up this model at the national level and trained high-level officials on how to implement it. Furthermore, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the International Organization for Migration and the Indonesian National Police establishing the first medical recovery center for trafficking victims.

Promising Practices: Active community participation led to community ownership of this program. Save the Children addressed the issue of child trafficking with the full and active participation of the most vulnerable children and families that were most familiar with its effects and causes. This not only resulted in a more effective and efficient program, but also fostered a sense of community ownership and contributed to the program’s long-term sustainability. Recognizing the potential benefits of this program, the Indonesian Government ultimately adopted the program for scaling-up at the national level.

For more information contact: Adi Dananto (adi.dananto@savechildren.org), Project Director, EXCEED.

Protection :: Anti-Human Trafficking Task Forces :: United States (Regional)

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

* Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: Within the United States, many NGOs and state and local law enforcement agencies struggle to successfully implement multi-disciplinary, community- and region-wide anti-human trafficking task forces.

Intervention: The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) is funding Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Forces that take a comprehensive approach to combating all forms of human trafficking: sex and labor trafficking of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens (male and female, adults and minors). Task forces proactively investigate potential cases of trafficking, identify and provide comprehensive services to victims, support efforts to prosecute trafficking, and enhance community awareness and capacity to identify trafficking. Task forces funded under this model demonstrate a multi-disciplinary approach to investigating and prosecuting trafficking crimes and providing services for victims. The model includes proactive coordination between law enforcement on local, state and federal levels; leadership from the U.S. Attorneys’ Offices and state prosecutors; and the provision of comprehensive services to address their full range of needs for all trafficking victims.

Results: The Enhanced Collaborative Model to Combat Human Trafficking Program has emerged as a model for anti-human trafficking tasks forces working to combat human trafficking within the United States.The performance measurement data from the sites have not been released publicly or compared formally to data from other programs; however, preliminary data shows that these sites are identifying significant numbers of both sex and labor trafficking cases involving both males and females, adults and minors, and that referrals for services for those victims are coming both from law enforcement agencies as well as other community-based agencies.

Promising Practices: Through this model, anti-human trafficking task forces have increased collaboration among law enforcement agencies and created a more coordinated approach to combating this crime. They utilize a coordinated, community-wide approach to leverage various local, state, and federal resources for the provision of services for victims. Within each jurisdiction, local law enforcement and the U.S. Attorneys’ Offices hold co-leadership responsibilities over the task force, which are placed in a location or unit within law enforcement that promotes pro-active investigations of all trafficking crimes, without exclusion. If possible, task forces should be located within intelligence units, and staff (state, local, tribal, and federal) co-located in one physical space. Law enforcement and victim service providers coordinate to work with victims in a victim-centered and trauma-informed manner, regardless of whether there is an arrest or prosecution related to the case. A Memorandum of Understanding documents the formal partnership between law enforcement and service providers.

For more information contact: Jeffrey Gersh (jeffrey.gersh@usdoj.gov), Team Lead, OVC, U.S. DOJ; David Adams (david.adams@usdoj.gov), Senior Policy Advisor, BJA, U.S. DOJ, or visit the OVC/BJA Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force Strategy and Operations e-Guide online for more information on forming or strengthening a task force, along with related tools, training, and resources.

Protection :: Rehabilitation and Reintegration :: Mexico

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

* Men

* Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: In Mexico, thousands of children are victims of both sex and labor trafficking. Street children are particularly vulnerable as they typically lack the social and familial supports necessary to prevent them from becoming victims or to assist them in their recovery.

Intervention: In Mexico City, the U.S. Department of State’s TIP Office funded Casa Alianza to employ a four-pronged approach to combat child trafficking consisting of education, public policy advocacy, legal assistance, and a residential program. Casa Alianza offers phased-in support for child trafficking victims to help them reintegrate into their families and communities. The first phase consists of crisis management that ensures that basic needs are met while trust is built with the child. In the second phase, the child participates in the creation of a tailored reintegration plan based on his/her specific needs and, where possible, preliminary interviews with family members to explore the feasibility of reunification. Phase three includes counseling for children and their families, individually and in groups; financial assistance; vocational training; and the identification of community resources for support. In the fourth and final phase, children are gradually reunited with their families under the supervision and follow-up of trained staff for a minimum of two years. In some cases, this includes material and financial support to a child’s family to minimize the risk of re-trafficking.

Results: Over the past five years, nearly 90 percent of children served by Casa Alianza have been successfully reintegrated into their families. Of the remaining 12 percent of children, the majority returned to the residential program rather than the street.

Promising Practices: Casa Alianza employs a flexible and individualized approach to reintegration while recognizing that crisis management is only the first step in a long-term recovery process. Their integrated and comprehensive approach not only helps restore victims’ mental and physical health, but also provides them with income-generating skills and legal support in documenting and developing cases for prosecution. The best interests of the child guide every effort, starting with a risk assessment to determine the feasibility of family reintegration. To help children transition into family life, Casa Alianza conducts pre-reintegration visits monitored by a trained staff person prior to facilitating her/his return to the family. The minimum of two years of follow-up visits enable staff to identify potential risks early so that they can be addressed and provide consistent support for the child. In cases when it is not in the best interest of the child to rejoin his/her family, Casa Alianza identifies alternative long-term care solutions, such as foster families, adoption, or placement in community homes.

For more information contact: Arlene Lozano (alozano@covenanthouse.org), Director of Operations for Latin America, Casa Alianza.

Protection :: Transnational Referral Mechanism :: Southeastern Europe (SEE)

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

* Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: Despite recent improvements in referral procedures, information exchange, and capacities to follow up on trafficking cases, barriers to effective collaboration in providing cross-border assistance to victims persist in SEE. The transnational referral mechanism (TRM) is a referral mechanism that spells out how victims should be handled when they are identified. They are then referred to whatever services the country provides, based on the needs as determined by initial assessments that are guided by the TRM operating procedures. So, the specific services will vary by country and person – no particular services are targeted by the TRM. This program is not a service provision program, per se, it is aimed at working out the procedures that will get victims the services they need by setting up the policy/cooperation structure needed to do so. Europol just assists in discussions of how to transmit sensitive victim information across country lines.

Intervention: USAID funded the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) to establish and implement an efficient and effective comprehensive cross-border referral mechanism for trafficking victims in 10 countries of SEE. Under the first phase (2006-2009) of the program, a set of TRM guidelines and standard operating procedures (SOPs) was designed, piloted, and endorsed by participating countries, based on input from non-governmental and governmental organizations, initial victim assessments, and anti-trafficking experts. A range of support services and resources were identified, but the specific services offered will vary according to individual needs and available resources. Activities in the ongoing second phase (2009-2012) will further reinforce and institutionalize cooperation among individuals at the highest levels of government in the 10 participating countries and will generate concrete tools to facilitate the operationalization of the TRM guidelines. Efforts will also be made to promote links between these countries in SEE and “destination” countries in Western Europe.

Results: The TRM guidelines have been endorsed by all participating countries, and in many cases, have been adopted as law, included in National Action Plans to combat TIP, or used as a basis for the development of internal victim referral mechanisms. The guidelines have served as the basis for companion programs funded by the European Union and others in order to extend the number of countries participating in this collaborative network.

Promising Practices: This program provides a strong example of bringing together high level officials from multiple countries in a region to address TIP in a coherent and collaborative fashion, despite a number of strained diplomatic relations. Key features involved in making this program successful include: 1) using and building on existing channels for cooperation (EUROPOL, NGO networks, governmental local liaison officers, etc.); 2) fostering political will for cross-border collaboration among governmental and NGOs and law enforcement; 3) generating trust that resulted in willingness to share sensitive information across borders and databases; and 4) recognizing that a TRM can and will be sustainable if the system is set up so as to constantly reflect and adapt to the ever-changing reality of trafficking patterns at the regional and country levels.

For more information contact: Elisa Trossero (elisa.trossero@icmpd.org), Project Director, International Centre for Migration Policy Development.

Protection :: Regional Approach :: Central America

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

Men

* Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

Women

Prosecution

Problem: Child sex trafficking is a problem in Central America and the Dominican Republic. It occurs within and across national borders in Central America as well as to other regions. Many of the young boys and girls are sex trafficked and often found in brothels, which operate under prison-like conditions.

Intervention: DOL funded the International Labor Organization (ILO) to increase the capacity of regional governments and civil society to combat the trafficking of children for both sex and labor by advancing legislation, policy, and programs that exist to address it. To enhance the understanding and application of relevant legislation, the ILO assisted in the development and implementation of training programs for judicial officials. In addition, in collaboration with local governmental and NGOs, the project raised awareness and provided direct assistance to victims.

Results: The ILO supported eight countries in the development and adoption of legislation that strengthened penalties for child sex trafficking and other forms of sexual exploitation, including pornography; national plans of action against trafficking; and standard operating procedures for repatriation to ensure that victims are returned to their countries safely and that the appropriate safeguards and services are in place to ensure a full recovery. Through this project, the ILO rescued a total of 1,890 children subjected to sex trafficking.

Promising Practices: The regional reach of the project allowed it to identify successful strategies that could be applied across the region while adapting responses to each country context as necessary. The project also provided technical assistance to the Central American Parliament to create a regional trafficking plan to coordinate actions across countries, which provided a forum for key stakeholders to exchange good practices for investigating and prosecuting TIP crimes. Further, the project incorporated findings from regional cultural studies in its efforts to develop awareness-raising messages aimed at decreasing demand for purchasing sex. Finally, a number of the countries undertook various strategies working with the tourism sector where commercial sexual exploitation of children is prevalent. For example, in Costa Rica, the national tourism industry, in alliance with civil society organizations, developed a code of conduct that was signed by all business chambers from the tourism sector. More than 6,000 workers from the industry in almost 300 companies were trained, and committed to act effectively in the prevention, identification, and denunciation of commercial sexual exploitation of children.

For more information contact: Mary Read (read@ilo.org), Head, Program and Planning, International Program for the Elimination of Child Labour, ILO-IPEC; or Pok Sornkaew (sornkaew@ilo.org), Program and Operations Officer, ILO-IPEC.

Protection :: Community Vigilance Committees :: India

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

* Protection

* Labor TIP

International TIP

* Children

* Women

Prosecution

Problem: Although there are is no agreed upon estimate, India is believed to be home to millions of bonded laborers. The majority of these bonded laborers come from rural villages with lower-caste households representing the majority of the population.[2] Traffickers most often recruit men, women, and children in rural villages where economic opportunities are limited.

Intervention: Using TIP Office funding, Free the Slaves (FTS) works closely with local partner organizations in nearly 280 communities to establish and train community vigilance committees (CVCs) to mobilize whole communities to take action against trafficking. Each CVC is led by a trained facilitator that trains members to identify the risk factors and root causes of trafficking and develop a plan to identify, rescue, and reintegrate victims. FTS also develops financial and non-financial interventions to reduce vulnerabilities for trafficking and rehabilitate released bonded laborers, such as microfinance schemes and self-help groups. This process is replicated across villages and linked together through block-level CVCs, thereby increasing the population’s ability to influence authorities to provide health, education, and other services to which they are entitled under the law.

Results: At the end of approximately three years of engagement, FTS and its local partners carried out a follow-up study to as­sess whether eradication of slavery has been completed. To date, of the 280 CVCs evaluated, nearly 78 have eradicated slavery in their villages. In only two years, this program was able to free almost 950 bonded laborers and enrolled more than 800 children in local or transitional schools. Furthermore, program staff filed approximately 80 new trafficking cases in court, resulting in the conviction and sentencing of nine traffickers to date.

Promising Practices: This community empowerment model reaches beyond the symptoms of bonded labor by addressing its root causes, such as discrimination and issues of power and control. Involving community stakeholders in program development and implementation resulted in a program that is responsive to the needs and priorities of the target population and has fostered a sense of community ownership of the program. By strengthening the community’s collective voice, the program has enhanced accountability of government officials and motivated them to be more responsive to citizens’ needs. In addition, connecting the CVCs to credible anti-trafficking NGOs and other key stakeholders increased their momentum and credibility, as well as provided community members with increased support services and protection against traffickers.

For more information contact: Ginny Baumann (baumann@freetheslaves.net), Program Director, Free the Slaves.

Prosecution :: Collaborative Casework :: Philippines

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

* Prosecution

Problem: The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates that there are close to 100,000 child victims of sex trafficking in the Philippines, yet only a very small percentage of victims actually report the crime. Even fewer cases advance to prosecution as a result of barriers to victims’ participation in the legal process due to fear of retaliation by traffickers, minimal protection for victims, and distrust of law enforcement.

Intervention: The TIP Office funded the International Justice Mission (IJM) to implement its Collaborative Casework Model, which uses investigators, lawyers, and social workers to intervene in cases of child trafficking in partnership with state and local authorities. IJM’s four-fold purpose is to rescue the victim, provide aftercare assistance, prosecute suspected perpetrators, and seek structural change in the criminal justice response to trafficking in persons. The IJM model involves a team of investigators that obtain intelligence and share it with law enforcement to conduct coordinated rescue operations that ensure that victims are protected. Once perpetrators are arrested, IJM works with local prosecutors to push these cases through the local courts.

Results: From 2008 to 2010, in collaboration with the Philippine National Bureau of Investigation, IJM conducted 21 rescue operations which resulted in the rescue of 82 children from brothels. After one-year, IJM found that 80 percent of the rescued children had not been re-trafficked. IJM lawyers assisted in 48 trafficking cases resulting, to date, in nine convictions. In January 2011 alone, Manila courts handed down three convictions in cases prosecuted by IJM. Each came after years of collaborative effort by IJM lawyers and government prosecutors. In one case, two traffickers were found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. The Philippine Department of Labor and Employment also ordered the permanent closure of ten establishments in which trafficked minors were prostituted, following appeals processes initiated by the IJM legal team.

Promising Practices: IJM’s collaborative casework approach has helped to mobilize action-oriented partnerships to address child sex trafficking. This close collaboration has allowed IJM to work hand in hand with the responsible government agency to move cases through the justice system from rescue to prosecution, ensuring that each victim receives adequate protection and services beyond reintegration. This comprehensive approach allows IJM to identify and address obstacles in the criminal justice response to trafficking and provide targeted training to key actors to effect structural change.

For more information contact: Kayrn Aguirre (kaguirre@ijm.org), Director of Program Development, International Justice Mission.

PROSECUTION :: CAPACITY BUILDING :: GREATER MEKONG SUB-REGION (GMS)

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

* Adults

* Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

* Prosecution

Problem: The GMS is an ethnically diverse region comprising Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Despite recent economic growth, poverty is widespread and the region is marked by great diversity. Urban and rural disparities, marginalized ethnic minorities, high levels of migration, and weak governance present significant risk factors for human trafficking, yet few cases are prosecuted.

Intervention: The United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) was established to facilitate a stronger and more coordinated response to trafficking among governments, the United Nations, and other development partners working in the counter-trafficking sector. UNIAP serves as Secretariat to the COMMIT (Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Human Trafficking) Process, a government-led consortium that links the six GMS governments to create a sustainable system of cross-border cooperation and collaboration. TIP Office support has allowed UNIAP to provide technical and financial assistance to COMMIT government agencies to improve their anti-trafficking interventions while objectively monitoring and documenting progress made by each of the countries in combating this crime. Another initiative, SIREN (Strategic Information Response Network), is a strategic surveillance and data collection system designed to inform, monitor, and increase the effectiveness and responsiveness of interventions to address human trafficking region-wide.

Results: Since the launch of the COMMIT Regional Anti-Trafficking Training Program in 2006, UNIAP has provided more than 400 GMS government officials and NGO personnel with comprehensive training on human trafficking and counter-trafficking responses. The success of this program has led some governments to request its adaptation at the national level. Through the SIREN Initiative, UNIAP has not only established the region’s first sector-based estimates of trafficking prevalence, but also conducted rigorous research studies that have resulted in a more widespread and nuanced understanding of trafficking. The information obtained has allowed UNIAP to tailor technical assistance to NGOs and governments, resulting in better case documentation and increased collaboration. In just three years, UNIAP has investigated more than 40 trafficking cases and provided assistance to more than 300 victims directly and to thousands more through financial and technical support to grassroots NGOs.

Promising Practices: The UNIAP model shows how a direct synergy between the collection, analysis, and dissemination of field-based data with government and NGO policy, programming, and training can have a measurable impact on the effectiveness of the anti-trafficking sector locally, nationally, and regionally. Bridging the gap between these components increases the capacity of anti-trafficking responders to identify human traffickers, protect victims, and minimize locally-specific vulnerability factors that impact the region.

For more information contact: Clifton Cortez (clifton.cortez@undp.org), HIV Health and Development Practice Leader, Asia Pacific Regional Center in Bangkok, United Nations Development Program.

Prosecution :: Rule of Law :: Nigeria

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CATEGORIES:

Prevention

* Sex TIP

* Internal TIP

Adults

Men

Protection

* Labor TIP

* International TIP

* Children

* Women

* Prosecution

Problem: Despite the 2003 passage of comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation in Nigeria, the investigative capacity of law enforcement agencies was limited and largely uncoordinated. Consequently, in the years immediately following passage of the legislation and establishment of the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) prosecution and conviction rates of traffickers remained extremely low.

Intervention: From 2006 to 2009, USAID funded the American Bar Association (ABA) to help build the capacity of law enforcement agencies to combat trafficking in persons. To increase coordination among diverse law enforcement units, the project worked closely with NAPTIP, the Nigerian Police Force, the Nigerian Immigration Service, and the National Judicial Institute. Prosecutors, judges, police officers, and immigration officials came together in joint trainings that focused on how to identify traffickers and investigate and manage trafficking cases through collaboration. Judges and prosecutors were trained on the law providing protections for trafficking victims and became aware, for example, that victims could testify in closed court proceedings instead of open court. The training approach was innovative in that it offered training beyond central locations, extending to border posts where officers were on-site and on-duty and where trafficking was prevalent. To ensure ongoing training, the project worked with the police and immigration training institutions to develop curricula for training their own officers on trafficking in persons. Working with local information technology professionals, the project also created an online database to track anti-trafficking law enforcement activities, standardize data intake and analytical processes, and connect diverse law enforcement units.

Results: The ABA and its partners trained approximately 3,000 law enforcement officers. The number of trafficking prosecutions and convictions increased significantly over the course of the project. Compared with only 21 prosecutions and six convictions in 2006, the government reported 37 trafficking prosecutions and 23 convictions in 2009. The U.S. Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report upgraded Nigeria from Tier 2 to Tier 1 in 2009, based, in large part, on this increase in law enforcement action.

Promising Practices: With the backing of a legislative mandate and significant political will in Nigeria, the project was able to successfully establish strong partnerships among key law enforcement entities and increase their strategic coordination to better identify and investigate trafficking cases, collect evidence for trial, and successfully prosecute and sentence traffickers. The project tailored its initiatives to the needs of the country by designing training programs within existing training structures, thereby reaching more trainees and ensuring sustainability.

For more information contact: the ABA’s Rule of Law Initiative (rol@staff.abanet.org).



[1] Free the Slaves. Slavery in the 21st century: Part 1. Retrieved from, http://www.freetheslaves.net/Document.Doc?id=1.
[2] Free the Slaves. Slavery in the 21st century: Part 1. Retrieved from, http://www.freetheslaves.net/Document.Doc?id=1.