Office of Criminal Justice Assistance and Partnership: General Information
• East Timor
• OSCE in Vienna
• Serbia & Montenegro
• Sierra Leone
• Palestinian territories: West Bank
A cornerstone of stable and democratic nations is a criminal justice system in which citizens broadly accept and voluntarily comply with the law. As part of the U.S. government’s mission to support the emergence of stable democracies, especially in areas that have suffered from years of civil strife, the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Office of Criminal Justice Assistance and Partnership (INL/CAP) supports programs to help institutionalize sustainable criminal justice sectors, instill public trust in the Rule of Law and protect human rights. INL/CAP’s support, often in cooperation with other nations or international bodies, is designed to promote the following institutions:
Civilian police/law enforcement that prevents, detects and investigates violations of criminal law to identify, apprehend and assist in the prosecution of persons suspected of such violations;
Public prosecutors to review evidence gathered in a case, make determinations regarding the appropriateness of initiating a criminal prosecution and presenting cases to the courts for adjudication;
Courts that administer cases, set initial adjudication of guilt or innocence, and conduct appellate review of cases for final determinations of guilt or innocence;
- Prisons or correctional facilities designed to incarcerate and reform those convicted of criminal offenses within international standards of human rights.
The prompt restoration of public order by non-repressive means, with an approach that includes efforts focused on the police, courts, and prisons, is an essential component of post conflict stabilization.
CIVPOL Rule of Law Programs
Initial civilian police (CIVPOL) missions in post-conflict environments focused almost exclusively on indigenous civilian police and placed little emphasis on other aspects of a host country’s criminal justice system. It soon became apparent that by doing so, reform and developmental efforts were not as successful as they could have been, because other criminal justice components such as the prosecutors, courts and correctional organizations had not received commensurate support. Those elements needed reform or development assistance to function at a level equivalent to the police.
Accordingly, the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), Office of Criminal Justice Assistance and Partnership (CAP) was charged with working with all criminal justice agencies rather than simply the civilian police. INL/ CAP now employs senior technical specialists in prosecutorial, judicial and correctional development, as well as in the civilian police field. Wherever possible, CAP plans, develops and implements post-conflict reform or redevelopment programs that address each criminal justice system component to maintain equilibrium among all.
The CIVPOL Mission
Civilian police (CIVPOL) from the United States and more than 50 other countries are deployed around the globe in support of international post-conflict stabilization and redevelopment operations. The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) manages more than 1,600 U.S. police deployed next to their international counterparts in international CIVPOL missions.
Many CIVPOL programs are sponsored by the United Nations (UN), but regional security organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) or coalitions of interested countries sponsor others. The UN launched its first CIVPOL mission in the Congo in 1960, but CIVPOL did not become a major component of peacekeeping operations until the end of the Cold War. Since then, they have become an integral component of what were originally military peacekeeping operations.
The United States and CIVPOL
The United States participated in its first CIVPOL operation in 1994 in Haiti. The United States led the multinational military intervention to restore the elected government of Haiti and sponsored a 20-country International Police Monitor (IPM) mission to help provide public security, maintain the rule of law, and establish a new Haitian National Police Service. The IPM mission transitioned to the UN in March 1995.
Programs by Country
Afghanistan: INL provides more than 580 civilian police advisors who work in conjunction with the U.S. military to assist the Government of Afghanistan with the development of a democratic police force capable of enforcing the rule of law.
Haiti: INL supports 50 U.S. police officers and 5 U.S. corrections officers in the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti to train and advise the Haitian National Police and corrections officers.
Iraq: In Iraq, more than 600 International Police Advisors work alongside their U.S. military counterparts to train, mentor, and advise the Iraqi Police Service and Ministry of Interior in the largest post-conflict police development mission ever undertaken by the United States.
Kosovo: The United States deploys 80 civilian police officers, 4 rule of law advisors and two political advisors to the European Union Mission in Kosovo. This is the first EU peacekeeping mission that the U.S. has participated in and the only mission in which the U.S. participates that carries the powers of executive authority. Rule of Law Advisors assist the Kosovo Judiciary in prosecutions and adjudications.
Liberia: The United States seconds up to 20 civilian police officers to serve as UN Police with the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL). UN Police train, mentor and advise the Liberian National Police (LNP) and its constituent units.
INL’s contribution to UNMIL’s UN Police contingent includes the Senior Advisor Team (SAT), which comprises up to eight senior level officers and U.S. rule of law advisors that strengthen linkages between the LNP and other Liberian criminal justice professionals, including prosecutors.
Sudan: INL provides a contingent of 15 police, judicial and corrections officers within the UN Mission in Sudan to facilitate comprehensive criminal justice sector development activities in support of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Separately, INL supports Foreign Police Units to Darfur and will deploy police advisors to the UN-AU Mission in Darfur.
Palestinian Territories: West Bank — CIVPOL work with the U.S. Security Coordinator in Jerusalem to enhance the capabilities of the Palestinian Authority Security Forces (PASF) in the West Bank. INL provides 30 senior trainers who work with Jordanian instructors to provide basic, leadership, and specialized training for the National Security Forces at the Jordanian International Police Training Center, and with Palestinians to deliver leadership, refresher, and specialized training in the West Bank.
The Department of State contracts with private companies to recruit, select, equip, and deploy subject-matter experts in policing, criminal prosecution, court administration, judicial adjudication, criminal appellate practice and correctional programs. Following pre-deployment training in the U.S., criminal justice program personnel are sent to the mission area or are “seconded” to the UN (or other sponsoring organization—such as OSCE). Within a mission, officers function under the operational control of the sponsoring organization, which also provides them with an allowance to cover food, lodging, and incidental expenses. The contractors maintain offices in the mission areas to handle administrative and support issues, and to assist with programs designed to improve quality of life.