Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs

Africa Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP)

2,500

2,500

3,500

Partnership for Regional East African Counterterrorism (PREACT) *

2,000

-

1,000

West Africa Regional Security Initiative (WARSI)

**

2,433

14,650

Total

4,500

4,933

19,150

* In FY 2010 PREACT funding was notified under the East Africa Regional Strategic Initiative.

** Funding for West African countries in FY 2010 ($3.35M) and FY 2011 ($2.25M) was requested under bilateral program line items.

Program Overview

The Africa Regional program includes three initiatives covering different regions in Africa. These funds are divided among the Trans-Sahara Counter-terrorism Partnership (TSCTP), Partnership for Regional East African Counterterrorism (PREACT), formerly known as East Africa Regional Strategic Initiative (EARSI), and a new initiative named West Africa Regional Security Initiative (WARSI). WARSI focuses on establishing and sustaining effective, professional, and accountable law enforcement services as well as improving the capacity and sustainability of civil and criminal justice sector actors and institutions in West Africa. The initiative provides technical assistance, advice, and training to facilitate partner efforts to counter transnational threats such as illicit trafficking in arms, persons, and drugs and to strengthen conflict mitigation and state legitimacy. This initiative subsumes West African programs requested bilaterally in past years.

Additional details on each of the three Africa Regional initiatives are provided in the following chapters.


Africa Regional (Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership)

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

2,500

2,500

3,500

Program Overview

The Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) is a multi-faceted, multi-year U.S. strategy aimed at disrupting terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, and enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region’s security forces. Funds will assist in the development of the capacities of law enforcement organizations in TSCTP-eligible states in the Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal) to confront the challenges posed by terrorist organizations in the region, particularly al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).

Program Goals and Objectives

The Africa Regional program supports the objectives of Countering Terrorism and Peace and Security as outlined in the FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plans of the regional countries. It also supports INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goal of Transnational Crime.

Objective 1: To provide training, technical assistance and equipment support to civilian law enforcement organizations to build their capacity to prevent and respond to terrorist events.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Funding will support ongoing police advisor projects in Mali and/or Mauritania to facilitate police training and technical assistance planning and implementation. Funding may also support other training and technical assistance to professionalize law enforcement organizations and strengthen border control capacity in one or more TSCTP-eligible countries.

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Africa Regional

Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stability Operations and Security Sector Reform

Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP)

2,170

2,050

3,150

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

330

450

350

1.3 Subtotal

2,500

2,500

3,500

Total

2,500

2,500

3,500


Africa Regional (Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism)

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

2,000

-

1,000

Program Overview

The Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism (PREACT) is a multi-faceted, multi-year strategy aimed at defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, and enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region’s security forces. Since the Embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam in 1998, East African countries have recognized the threat of terrorism, and have coordinated their defense and law enforcement agencies with the United States Government (USG) to detect and obstruct terrorist and other international criminal activities. INCLE funds will continue to assist in the development of the capacities of law enforcement organizations in East Africa to confront the challenges posed by terrorist organizations in the region.

Program Goals and Objectives

To build sustainable security and counterterrorism capacities in partner nations.

To improve and expand border security in East Africa, particularly around Somalia.

To improve inter-agency and international community coordination in the Law Enforcement arena.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Counterterrorism Program funds will support a multi-disciplinary counterterrorism initiative in East Africa that is based upon best practices of the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP). Funds will be used to train and equip the criminal justice sector, with a focus on the police, to identify, prevent, and respond effectively to terrorist activity. Program activities will enhance the antiterrorism capabilities of East African governments’ criminal justice sectors and build bilateral and regional cooperation in combating terrorism. Activities will further assist in the broader reform efforts necessary to creating a permissive and trusting relationship between the police and the public, such that counterterrorism efforts can be increasingly effective.

Border Security Program funds will develop the capacities of the East African countries to control point of entry-based immigration, customs, and law enforcement units to interdict criminal elements, and to quickly and accurately share information with relevant agencies.

Anti-Piracy Program funds will improve East African law enforcement capacities to detect, arrest, and prosecute pirates along the East African coast through trainings and technical assistance.

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Africa Regional

Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stability Operations and Security Sector Reform

Partnership for Regional East Africa Counterterrorism

1,900

0

950

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

100

0

50

1.3 Subtotal

2,000

0

1,000

Total

2,000

0

1,000


Africa Regional (West Africa)

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

3,353 *

4,683 *

14,650

* In FY 2010 and FY 2011, $3.353M and $2.25M, respectively, was requested under bilateral program line items.

Program Overview

West Africa is facing a significant threat from transnational organized crime, as seen most prominently by the dramatic increase in drug trafficking through the region. The same factors that make West Africa vulnerable to narco-trafficking—weak criminal justice institutions, corrupt government facilitators, and large territories not governed by state authorities—have created an operating environment attractive to a variety of transnational criminal actors. Transnational crime is a threat to stability and good governance in West Africa and poses a direct threat to the security of U.S. citizens. INCLE funding has traditionally supported building counternarcotics capacity in individual West African countries. WARSI is designed to continue bilateral engagements, while providing greater flexibility to improve cross-border cooperation and enhancing the ability of West African states to respond to the threats of transnational crime at the regional level.

Program Goals and Objectives

The West Africa program supports the embassies’ Peace and Security and Rule of Law objectives in the FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plans of the regional countries. It also supports INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of Transnational Crime, Building Criminal Justice Systems, and Counternarcotics.

To strengthen information sharing between West African states;

To share lessons learned and best practices within the region, thereby enhancing national capacity development;

To support the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) fulfill its regional role on counternarcotics issues; and

To build national counternarcotics capacities throughout West Africa.

FY 2012 Program

Transnational Crime

INCLE resources will be used to enhance security-sector reform initiatives in the West African region by establishing and sustaining effective, professional, and accountable law enforcement and other security sector services.

Rule of Law and Human Rights

INCLE resources will be used to promote rule of law and justice systems by enhancing systematic civil and criminal justice sector performance.

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Africa Regional

West Africa

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stability Operations and Security Sector Reform

West Africa Regional

2,653

2,200

0

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

700

765

0

1.3 Subtotal

3,353

2,965

0

1.5 Transnational Crime

West Africa Regional

0

0

6,145

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.5)

0

0

660

1.5 Subtotal

0

0

6,805

2.1 Rule of Law and Human Rights

West Africa Regional

0

1,553

7,055

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 2.1)

165

790

2.1 Subtotal

0

1,718

7,845

Total

3,353

4,683

14,650


Democratic Republic of Congo

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

1,700

6,000

6,000

Program Overview

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), despite a resurgence of violence in the eastern provinces in 2009, continues to emerge from a brutal and complex conflict. However, the security situation remains precarious, and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo has been unable to agree on a coherent plan for security sector reform. As cooperation increases among countries in the region, a continuing priority is assistance to the Congolese National Police and customs authorities on border controls. Continued funding is important to support Congolese and international donors’ efforts to reform Congo’s security sector and reinforce central African regional stability.

Program Goals and Objectives

The DRC program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan priority of Peace and Security and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR) and Transnational Crime.

Objective 1: To improve DRC capacities in border control, customs, and related policing efforts.

Objective 2: To build the capacity of law enforcement services in the DRC to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes.

Objective 3: To increase coordination amongst international donors to ensure assistance efforts are reinforcing and complementary.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Police Development and Reform Program funds will improve law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations. The Narcotics and Law Enforcement Advisor will establish law enforcement initiatives such as providing training in basic policing skills to help increase Congolese capacity.

Border Security Program funds will develop the capability of the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo to control point of entry-based immigration, identify and track illegal immigration and trafficking on drugs, weapons, contraband, and persons.

Rule of Law and Human Rights

Justice Sector Support funds will improve the capability for regional and provincial prosecutors and judges to advance criminal court cases through the legal system. Efforts will be focused on proper court procedures, extending rule of law to rural areas, with a focus on sexual and gender based crime initiatives.

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Democratic Republic of Congo

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Police Development and Reform

0

2,000

1,845

Border Security

1,600

1,000

2,200

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

100

1,500

455

1.3 Subtotal

1,700

6,000

4,500

2.1 Rule of Law and Human Rights

Justice Sector Support

0

1,500

1,500

2.1 Subtotal

0

1,500

1,500

Total

1,700

6,000

6,000


Djibouti

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

-

750

Program Overview

Djibouti is a critical partner for stability in the Horn of Africa region, especially given potential threats from extremists operating in neighboring Somalia, Yemen, and the hostile government in Eritrea. Given the military’s shift of emphasis to defending the northern frontier against Eritrea, the development of the police as the institution responsible for internal security is vital. This program will assist the Djiboutian criminal justice system, especially law enforcement agencies, to address regional threats such as piracy and terrorism. Djibouti is central to a regional approach to counter-piracy. This program is important given the relevance of each of these types of threats to U.S. interests, and the general U.S. interest in a stable Horn of Africa.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Djibouti program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan goal of Achieving Peace and Security - Preserve Djibouti as a stable partner in the Horn of Africa. It further supports INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals for criminal justice sector capacity building, and transnational crime.

Objective 1: Assist the Djiboutian criminal justice sector to better provide internal security, such that Djibouti is both responsive to the security needs of its public and remains a key partner for stability within the Horn of Africa region. This could include police training to respond to threats of terrorism, or other extremists operating in the region.

Objective 2: Increase the capacity of Djibouti to contribute to a regional criminal justice system to counter piracy and other related threats to international security. This could include increasing the capacity of the Djiboutian coast guard, corrections facilities, or maritime training center, or other related law enforcement and security measures.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Support

Internal Security: This program will evaluate the role of the police and other criminal justice sector actors in providing internal security for the public of Djibouti while facing regional threats. After an initial assessment by Embassy Djibouti staff, with support from INL, specific and timely programmatic goals will be developed and executed to develop and maintain Djibouti’s capacity as a regional partner for stability in the Horn of Africa.

Counter-Piracy: To support ongoing review of the dynamic counter-piracy criminal justice efforts in the Horn of Africa, funds will be used to support those sectors of the criminal justice sector in Djibouti that are deemed useful to combating piracy, and other related threats to regional stability.

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Djibouti

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Support

0

0

712

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

0

38

1.3 Subtotal

0

0

750

Total

0

0

750


Ethiopia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

-

500

Program Overview

The Ethiopia program will support criminal justice sector and police reform to build capacity to address regional and organized crime. It is especially important that the Ethiopian criminal justice sector be able to adequately address regional threats, especially given the nexus of organized criminal networks, violent extremism, and regional instability. Patterns of child-trafficking also represent a disturbing pattern of organized crime in the region. It is vital to U.S. interests that this program be funded given the importance of the stability of Ethiopia to the stability of the Horn of Africa as a whole.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Ethiopia program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan peace and security priorities that are focused on assisting Ethiopia in achieving internal stability and acting as a force for regional peace and security. The program also supports INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals for criminal justice sector development and combating transnational crime.

Objective 1: Develop the capacity of Ethiopian criminal justice sector and national law enforcement agencies to address regional organized crime such as trafficking and violent extremism. These efforts will also take into consideration the overall professionalism and responsiveness of internal security forces to the Ethiopian public.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Support

Regional and Organized Crime: This program will evaluate the role of the police and other criminal justice sector actors in providing internal security while facing regional threats. The thematic emphasis of these efforts may include both counter-terrorism and anti-trafficking. After an initial assessment by Embassy Addis Ababa staff, with support from INL, specific and timely programmatic goals will be developed and executed to develop and maintain Ethiopia’s capacity as a regional partner for stability in the Horn of Africa.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Ethiopia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Support

0

0

475

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

0

25

1.3 Subtotal

0

0

500

Total

0

0

500


Kenya

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

2,000

2,000

Program Overview

The violence that swept Kenya from December 2007 to February 2008 highlighted longstanding institutional, electoral and socio-economic factors that had been undermining Kenya's democracy and prospects for long-term stability. Among the key areas requiring reform is the Kenyan criminal justice sector. The capacity of the Kenyan system to address crimes such as sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) and regional piracy is increasing but much more is needed. Strong Kenyan cooperation is critical to a regional counter-piracy approach. Given the importance of Kenya as a regional partner, supporting improved internal security, including respect for civil liberties and human rights, and combating regional organized crime is of paramount importance to U.S. interests.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Kenya program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan Goal to build capacity to prevent and respond to threats of terrorism, crime, and conflict, and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform. Specifically, the Embassy seeks to continue the development of the criminal justice sector in Kenya.

Objective 1: Support Kenyan efforts for national police reform and the ongoing Kenyan-led efforts to transform the Kenyan police forces into publicly responsive and professional services.

Objective 2: Increase capacity of Kenyan law enforcement to investigate and successfully prosecute cases of SGBV. Increase the capacity of the Kenyan judiciary to competently adjudicate such cases.

Objective 3: Assist the Kenyan law enforcement agencies and justice sectors in their efforts to improve criminal prosecution, including piracy cases.

FY 2012 Program

The Criminal Justice Sector Reform project supports Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform and Rule of Law and Human Rights program areas.

Criminal Justice Sector Reform

National Police Reform: Initiated through Department of Defense 1207 funds provided after the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008, this project will support Kenyan–led efforts toward national police reform.

Sexual and Gender Based Violence: Previously funded through the Women’s Justice and Empowerment Initiative, this bilateral program will increase the capacity of the criminal justice sector to respond professionally to instances of SGBV and domestic violence in Kenya.

Counter-Piracy and Judicial Reform: The Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) will focus on improving Kenya's ability to effectively and efficiently prosecute crime, with a significant focus on piracy cases. This RLA will continue efforts to assist Kenya's Department of Public Prosecution and the judiciary.

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Kenya

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Reform

0

1,100

1,130

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

150

120

1.3 Subtotal

0

1,250

1,250

2.1 Rule of Law and Human Rights

Criminal Justice Sector Reform

0

750

750

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 2.1)

0

0

0

2.1 Subtotal

0

750

750

Total

0

2,000

2,000


Liberia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

9,000

16,000

17,000

Program Overview

Decades of instability and conflict have weakened many of the countries in West Africa, and problems frequently have spilled over borders and undermined already troubled states. This state of affairs has the potential to undermine West Africa’s general stability, good governance and development and threatens U.S. strategic objectives in the region. These same conditions have also resulted in West Africa becoming a significant transshipment point for narcotics, further exacerbating the potential for regional instability.

Liberia emerged from a14-year civil war in 2003 and has experienced six years of relative peace and stability. However, the Government of Liberia (GOL) still requires significant external donor support in order to provide for its own security and rule of law. Since 2003, the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) has had the lead in supporting the GOL with reforming and developing the Liberia National Police (LNP). With the planned drawdown of UNMIL in 2012, after the presidential elections, the ability of the GOL to contribute to the country’s lasting peace and security becomes critical.

Program Goals and Objectives

INCLE programs support the international community and the GOL goals to strengthen, develop, and reform its police and other criminal justice institutions. These programs are part of the increased USG policy focus on these issues enunciated by the Secretary of State and the Bureau of African Affairs in 2009 and 2010. They support Embassy Monrovia’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan priorities of peace and security and rule of law and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of criminal justice and counternarcotics development. The programs will also implement the recommendations of the INL-led interagency 2010 counternarcotics assessment of West Africa.

Objective 1: To further strengthen law enforcement’s ability to contribute to Liberia’s peace and security and increased adherence to laws and international standards.

Objective 2: To increase the capacity of criminal justice institutions to provide rule of law in Liberia and increased adherence to laws and international standards.

Objective 3: To strengthen law enforcement and criminal justice institutions’ capacity to combat narcotics trafficking in the region.

FY 2012 Program

Stability Operations and Security Sector Reform

The Civilian Police (CivPol) Program consists of U.S. advisors and the provision of equipment and infrastructure development. The advisors include police officers and related experts who either are seconded to UNMIL or work directly with the LNP. The CivPol program will continue to support the development of the LNP, including its Emergency Response Unit (ERU) and Police Support Unit (PSU). Emphasis will be given to increasing the capabilities of these institutions nationwide, furthering the capacity of personnel, and infrastructure development.

-- The Senior Advisor Team will continue to support the LNP leadership in institutional reform and capacity building.

-- Continued assistance for the PSU, responsible for low-grade civil disorder management, will be provided.

-- ERU advisors will continue and expand upon the field mentoring for the Unit within and outside of the capital. The ERU is responsible for supporting the PSU as necessary and responding to violent situations requiring greater skills and experience.

-- Training and mentoring of civilians in the LNP to take on administrative and logistical functions, such as maintenance, human resource management and budgeting, will continue.

-- In-service training will continue for officers in general, advanced and supervisory policing skills and include additional counties outside of Montserrado.

-- Assistance will also include essential, non-lethal equipment and infrastructure support, such as construction or renovation of ERU and PSU facilities in the leeward areas and expanding communications networks in select locations throughout Liberia.

Counternarcotics

Counternarcotics: In the second year of this program, assistance will be provided to agencies responsible for counter-narcotics efforts, directly and/or via the West Africa Coastal Initiative’s Transnational Organized Crime Unit. Assistance will include training, provision of non-lethal equipment and infrastructure development.

Governing Justly and Democratically

The Justice Sector Support Liberia (JSSL) Program, consisting of rule of law advisors and the provision of equipment and infrastructure support, will continue to strengthen criminal justice institutions. JSSL legal experts will work with judicial, justice, and corrections institutions. JSSL program activities will expand nationwide with emphasis on increasing the capabilities of these institutions throughout Liberia, furthering the capacity of personnel and infrastructure development.

-- Through mentoring, training and advising activities, the JSSL advisors will foster institutional reform, build capacity and encourage a more consistent and effective justice process among the criminal justice institutions.

-- Both technical and material assistance will be provided to help the GOL address the large number of pre-trial detainees in the corrections system.

-- Attention will be given to strengthening a national case management system that will be accessible to all justice sector institutions.

-- Technical assistance will be provided to further strengthen police-prosecutor cooperation.

-- Continuing training of prosecutors and judicial personnel will be provided.

-- Continuing technical assistance will be provided in reviewing and updating the criminal procedure code.

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Liberia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Civilian Police Program

8,550

8,800

9,300

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

450

300

500

1.3 Subtotal

9,000

9,100

9,800

1.4 Counternarcotics

Counternarcotics Program

0

1,000

1,000

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.5)

0

50

0

1.4 Subtotal

0

1,050

1,000

2.1 Rule of Law and Human Rights

Justice Sector Support

0

5,700

6,200

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 2.1)

0

150

0

2.1 Subtotal

0

5,850

6,200

Total

9,000

16,000

17,000


Mauritania

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

-

330

Program Overview

As an area of operation for Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and the site of numerous recent terrorist attacks against Western targets, Mauritania is critically important to achieving U.S. counterterrorism goals in the Sahel region. The Government of Mauritania’s (GOM’s) capacity for action remains limited and it is in the U.S. Government’s interest to strengthen the GOM’s ability to counter the terrorist threat in Mauritania and the Sahel region.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Mauritania program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan Goal of Countering the Terrorist Threat. It also supports INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goal of Transnational Crime.

Objective 1: To provide training, technical assistance and equipment support to civilian law enforcement organizations to build their capacity to prevent and respond to terrorist events.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Law Enforcement Support: Funds will support training and technical assistance to law enforcement organizations to build capacity to prevent and respond to terrorist activity.

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Mauritania

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Law Enforcement Support

0

0

310

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

0

20

1.3 Subtotal

0

0

330

Total

0

0

330


Mozambique

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

300

500

600

Program Overview

Mozambique’s vast landmass, coupled with its limited capacity to patrol land and sea borders, raises counter-terrorism and counternarcotics concerns. Mozambique operates as the southern Africa “middleman” for African and Asian criminal activities, including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband, as well as alien smuggling, money laundering, and financial crime. The Government of Mozambique’s current leadership, anticipated to remain unchanged through 2014, views the U.S. Government favorably and wishes to increase strategic military, economic, security, and political linkages with the United States. The FY 2012 program will allow us to capitalize on the opportunity to build a broader base of engagement and advance U.S. Government goals for the southern African region.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Mozambique program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan priority of Enhancing Capabilities of Mozambican Security Forces and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of Counternarcotics and Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR) and Transnational Crime.

Objective 1: To improve border control at land borders and seaports of entry.

Objective 2: To improve law enforcement capabilities in Mozambique through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations.

Objective 3: To improve the Government of Mozambique’s capacity to detect and address corruption.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Border Security Program funds will develop the capability of the Government of Mozambique to control point of entry-based immigration in the land and maritime sectors, identify and track illegal immigration and trafficking of narcotics, contraband and persons.

Police Development and Reform Program funds will improve law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations. Funds will also help develop and implement modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities.

Transnational Crime

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering Program funds will provide technical assistance, training and select material to the Mozambican law enforcement sector for detecting, investigating, and prosecuting corruption.

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Mozambique

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

275

175

275

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

25

25

25

1.3 Subtotal

300

200

300

1.5 Transnational Crime

Transnational Crime

0

300

275

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.5)

0

0

25

1.5 Subtotal

0

300

300

Total

300

500

600


Somalia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

-

2,000

Program Overview

The inability of Somali institutions to provide internal security and to combat organized crime and violent extremism damages U.S. interests both regionally in the Horn of Africa and more globally. It is vital to U.S. interests that criminal justice sector development efforts in Somalia receive support.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Somalia program supports the FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan peace and security priority “Successful Dialogue and Reconciliation Contributing toward a More Stable Somalia,” and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals for developing the criminal justice sector, supporting security sector reform, and preventing transnational crime. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is already active in Somaliland, and their programs are seen as a priority by the international and U.S. Government counter-piracy community.

Objective 1: Promote areas of stability within Somalia, with the aim of promoting stability and combating violent extremism within Somalia as a whole. This will increase not only the stability of Somalia, but also stability of the Horn of Africa.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Development

Initially supported through Department of Defense 1207 funds, this activity will support the development of a sustainable and independent criminal justice sector in Somalia. INL will support law enforcement initiatives including criminal justice, community security and policing, and civilian police training.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Somalia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Development

0

0

1,900

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

0

100

1.3 Subtotal

0

0

2,000

Total

0

0

2,000


South Africa

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

2,000

3,000

Program Overview

South Africa is an anchor of stability and prosperity for the Southern African region. However, South Africa has one of the most critical crime problems in the world and is an attractive operating environment for organized crime and terrorist groups. Porous borders and inadequate controls expose South Africa to an influx of illegal goods, including weapons. The South African Police Service (SAPS) remains in need of additional resources and training. The Government of South Africa has been reluctant to seek U.S. Government assistance, but recent law enforcement cooperation has been increasing in depth and range. The FY 2012 program will allow us to capitalize on these overtures to increase South African law enforcement capacity and reinforce regional southern African stability.

Program Goals and Objectives

The South Africa program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan target of A Safe South Africa and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR) and Transnational Crime.

Objective 1: To improve the Government of South Africa’s capacity to detect, deter and prosecute complex crime.

Objective 2: To train the South African police to effectively operate against national and transnational crime.

Objective 3: To assist the South African police in developing regional training capabilities in order to train and assist other countries in the region.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Police Development and Reform Program funds will improve law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations. The Narcotics and Law Enforcement Advisor will establish law enforcement initiatives such as providing training in basic policing skills and forensics to help increase South African capacity.

Border Security Program funds will develop the capability of the Government of South Africa to control point of entry-based immigration, identify and track illegal immigration, and trafficking of drugs, contraband, and persons.

Transnational Crime

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering Program funds will provide technical assistance, training and select material to the South African law enforcement sector for detecting, investigating, and prosecuting complex transnational and organized crime.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

South Africa

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

0

700

1,750

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

1,000

750

1.3 Subtotal

0

1,700

2,500

1.5 Transnational Crime

Transnational Crime

0

0

500

1.5 Subtotal

0

0

500

2.1 Rule of Law and Human Rights

Justice Sector Support

0

300

0

2.1 Subtotal

0

300

0

Total

0

2,000

3,000


Sudan

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

16,000

27,000

37,000

Program Overview

The largely peaceful and orderly self-determination referendum in January 2011 was a testament to the developing capacity of the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) and the international community’s critical role in support of this nascent government. As the GoSS now prepares for Southern Sudan’s independence in July 2011, expectations for delivery of services, including providing internal security, are very high. The GoSS will need to make decisions and enact policies that put the needs of the people of Southern Sudan first, and the international community has a responsibility to hold the GoSS to a realistic but sufficiently high standard of governance and accountability. INL remains committed to support the GoSS in providing internal security in the post-independence period. To assist with program planning through this crucial period, INL is conducting an updated inter-agency assessment of the criminal justice sector in March and April of 2011.

Established in 2005 to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), the INL program in Sudan focuses on two main components. The first is the development of a Southern Sudanese criminal justice sector to better maintain security, enhance governance and ensure a peaceful completion of the CPA including through the anticipated transition to independence this July through effective civilian policing. This component consists of three mutually dependent pillars that support a functioning criminal justice sector in the South: assistance to the police, to rule of law institutions, and to the corrections system. The second component is INL’s support to United Nations (UN) Peacekeeping Missions in Southern Sudan and Darfur in their efforts to enhance security and stability in Sudan through civilian policing.

With independence expected in July 2011, local police must be capable of stabilizing areas throughout Sudan and responding to security threats and civil disturbances. With independence, institutions that have been functioning on an interim basis will transition into permanent institutions and, in some cases, transform themselves based on the new realities associated with statehood. This is especially true of the judicial sector, which will need to transform from a sharia and civil law system of the North to the common law system of the South. The Southern Sudan Police Services (SSPS) will require significant donor assistance for strategic planning, training, and infrastructure development in order to accommodate the necessary and projected increase of competent police officers within the SSPS. Maintaining security and stability in the Darfur region also will be a concern during these uncertain times.

Southern Sudan’s independence also will affect the level of INL support for the civilian police component of the UN missions. INL plans to continue its support to the UN African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID); however, a number of different scenarios could arise after the referendum with regard to the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The UN is expected to establish a follow-on mission to address outstanding CPA issues, monitor security arrangements, and support the GoSS’ efforts to improve security throughout its territory. INL must be prepared for all scenarios, though the most likely will involve an increase in support for additional civilian police advisors and other assistance.

Program Goals and Objectives

The United States played a significant role in brokering and supporting implementation of the CPA. Throughout the CPA’s interim period, USG policy has been to build capacity within the GoSS to improve governance and security to allow for full implementation of the agreement. This support will be even more important over the next year as the results of the referendum are implemented. This program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan Goal #1 (Assist the Peaceful Transition of Sudan) and Goal #3 (Promoting Democratic Reform in the North and South) as well as INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goals of Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform.

Objective 1: Criminal Justice Sector Development as a vital component of security sector transformation in Southern Sudan: To enhance governance, rule of law, and security for the Southern Sudanese people through comprehensive development and capacity building of legitimate criminal justice sector institutions in Southern Sudan. This includes the development of the enforcement, judicial, and corrections pillars of the civilian security sector of Southern Sudan. Additionally, INL will explore means to improve the criminal justice sector capacity to uphold the law through impartial investigation and prosecution.

Objective 2: Support to United Nations Police (UNPOL) components of Peacekeeping Missions in Sudan: INL will provide support to U.S. contingents of Individual Police Officers (IPOs). Additionally, INL may provide training, equipment, or other support to prepare Formed Police Units (FPUs) for deployment into peace-keeping missions in Sudan. If the mandates for the UN Missions do not include Formed Police Units, or if INL cannot support those units for another reason, then these funds will be used either to support U.S. officers seconded to the Missions, or to support bilateral assistance to the police to increase the geographic footprint of our assistance at state capitals. This will depend on the status of the UN Missions in FY2012.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Support to UN Missions

Parallel to the bilateral efforts, INL will continue to support UN peacekeeping missions in Sudan in assisting the local police to build enforcement capacity through training and mentoring. Pending the mandate of any new mission, INL plans to increase the number of civilian police, judicial, and corrections advisors seconded to the UN who will train and mentor local police, as well as provide equipment and other training support.

Development of the Southern Sudan Police Service

The number of INL advisors will be increased to assign experienced law enforcement officers to SSPS headquarters and to provide training in various facilities, with primary training programs being conducted in Central Equatoria, Jonglei and Lakes states. These advisors will support both capacity building for strategic planning by the SSPS and development of technical skills. INL will continue to expand training operations in Juba, Rumbek (Lakes state), and Bor (Jonglei state).

INL is in the process of developing program plans for rural safety in Southern Sudan with the SSPS, especially for issues of road safety and cattle raiding. Southern Sudan has little paved road outside of the capital Juba. Banditry and accidents are already significant problems in remote areas only serviced by dirt roads; this could worsen as roads are paved. Cattle-raiding is a major source of rural violence, and the SSPS is developing specialized units in key state capitals to address this crime. Illiteracy continues to be a major problem within the SSPS, and literacy programs for the police are extremely limited. As such, INL also will continue to plan programs that address this critical need.

INL will continue a program to protect vulnerable populations in contact with the criminal justice sector through the use of FY 2012 funds.

Development of the Southern Sudanese Correctional Service

GoSS Prison Services continue to be under-resourced, and a high population of prisoners is held on remand while awaiting trial. With other partners contributing to prison infrastructure development, INL will be focusing on prison management and protection of vulnerable populations such as children, the mentally ill, and prisoners awaiting trial. This will be done through support to the nascent corrections service training academy as well as to corrections advisors to assist in the ongoing management of corrections facilities in South Sudan. INL also is specifically developing programming aimed at protecting vulnerable populations within prisons including juveniles, pre-trial prisoners, women and the mentally ill.

Rule of Law and Human Rights

Development of the Southern Sudanese Judicial System

INL currently has three components to its justice sector programming. This includes an ongoing Resident Legal Advisor, trainings on Southern Sudanese law to judges trained primarily in the North, and the development of the only law school in South Sudan. Funding to these three projects will grow in order to assist the Judiciary and Ministry of Legal Affairs and Constitutional Development with their current functions, as well as to train legal professionals in the newly created legal system of South Sudan.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Sudan

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Support to United Nations Peace-Keeping Missions

5,000

3,500

9,000

Police Development and Reform

7,750

7,500

9,000

Correctional Services Development

1,250

7,500

9,000

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

1,000

700

800

1.3 Subtotal

15,000

19,200

27,800

2.1 Rule of Law and Human Rights

Justice Reform

1,000

7,500

9,000

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 2.1)

300

200

2.1 Subtotal

1,000

7,800

9,200

Total

16,000

27,000

37,000


Tanzania

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

450

450

950

Program Overview

Tanzania, the site of one of two U.S. Embassy bombings in 1998, remains vulnerable to international crime and terrorism. The Government of Tanzania, recognizing this threat, continues to partner and coordinate their defense and law enforcement agency activities with the U.S. Government to detect and obstruct terrorist and other international criminal activities. However, Tanzanian institutions continue to have minimal capacity to combat illegal migration and trafficking. Corruption reduces that capacity even further. As a historically stable state and integral member of both eastern and southern African regional associations, the U.S. Government should continue to work with Tanzania to improve Tanzanian law enforcement capabilities and reinforce regional stability.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Tanzania program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan goal of a Region at Peace, Secure Nation and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goal of Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR).

Objective 1: To improve law enforcement capabilities in Tanzania through the continued modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations.

Objective 2: To increase Tanzania’s capacity to control its borders through trainings and technical assistance.

Objective 3: To increase Tanzanian capacity and willingness to detect, investigate and prosecute piracy along the east African coast.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Police Development and Reform Program funds will improve law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations. Funds will be used to expand programming at select police training facilities, and to develop and implement strategic plans for improving law enforcement training.

Border Security Program funds will develop the capability of the Government of Tanzania to control point of entry-based immigration and customs. This program will also build the capacity of law enforcement units to interdict criminal activities, and to quickly and accurately share information with relevant agencies.

Transnational Crime

Anti-Piracy Program funds will improve Tanzanian law enforcement capacity to detect, arrest, and prosecute pirates along the east African coast through trainings and technical assistance.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Tanzania

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

425

420

600

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

25

30

50

1.3 Subtotal

450

450

650

1.5 Transnational Crime

Transnational Crime

0

0

300

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.5)

0

0

0

1.5 Subtotal

0

0

300

Total

450

450

950


Uganda

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

235

235

1,535

Program Overview

Uganda continues to be a leader in East Africa and a strong partner to the United States in advancing wider regional peace and security goals in the Great Lakes region and its own northern region. Challenges stemming from the Lord’s Resistance Army withdrawal in 2006 and recurring civil disturbances highlight a need for re-strengthening civilian law and order institutions nationwide.

Among the key needs for promoting Uganda’s transition to a fully representative, multi-party democracy and restoring public confidence in Ugandan law enforcement institutions is the reform of the Ugandan criminal justice sector. Improving these institutions will enable Uganda to continue playing a strategic role in resolving regional transnational crime and terrorism threats.

In FY 2009, INL received Department of Defense 1207 funds for Embassy Kampala’s Law and Order Program, and Non-Proliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs (NADR) funds from the Department’s Office of Anti-Terrorism Assistance for a regional law enforcement project. The INL program in Uganda represents one of our largest programs in Africa, thus the FY 2012 request would allow continuation of these projects and permit expansion upon the multi-sector rule of law program launched with FY 2009 funds. INL’s partnership with the Uganda Police Force directly contributes to the USG strategy of supporting East African civilian law enforcement institutions.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Uganda program supports Embassy Kampala’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan regional Peace and Security priorities of continuing the development of the criminal justice sector in Uganda.

Objective 1: Promote broad based rule of law reform by improving the coordination between the police, prosecution, and the judiciary, and increasing access to justice in Uganda.

Objective 2: Assist Ugandan justice sector institutions in addressing quality of life concerns such as domestic violence, gender based violence, child abuse/neglect, and human trafficking.

Objective 3: Assist the Ugandan Police in its efforts to combat corruption and enhance the accountability of police officers.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Law Enforcement Support

Community Policing Project will support Ugandan police efforts nationwide in establishing strong relationships with the communities they serve by effectively combating crime and addressing quality of life issues.

Regional Police Academy Project will enhance the Ugandan Police Force by modernizing curricula, providing training materials, and teaching methodologies at both the academy and the in-service levels. Uganda’s national academy has begun to train police officers from neighboring countries such as Sudan and Somalia, and this project would assist the police in restructuring the curricula and reinforcing the skills of law enforcement personnel in Uganda and surrounding countries. .

Criminal Investigative Division (CID) Project provides technical assistance to the Ugandan police to investigate transnational crimes and enhance their counter-terrorism capacity.

Counterterrorism Project improves the capability of Ugandan police officers to combat terrorism by building intelligence and analysis skills.

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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.
Uganda

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Police Development and Reform

0

160

1,435

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

75

100

1.3 Subtotal

0

235

1,535

1.5 Transnational Crime

Trafficking in Persons

210

0

0

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.5)

25

0

0

1.5 Subtotal

235

0

0

Total

0

235

1,535


Zambia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2010 Actual

FY 2011 Estimate

FY 2012 Request

-

-

900

Program Overview

Zambia has been a pillar of peace and stability in southern Africa. However, Zambian security forces continue to lack the capacity to monitor and control the borders, serve effectively in law enforcement operations, and fight terrorism. The Government of Zambia has requested U.S. Government assistance in training and technical assistance to increase Zambian security sector capabilities. Building Zambian police forces’ professional law enforcement capacity through training supports U.S. regional stability goals and strengthens the U.S.-Zambia bilateral partnership.

Program Goals and Objectives

The Zambia program supports the Embassy’s FY 2012 Mission Strategic and Resource Plan priority of Peace and Security and INL’s FY 2012 Bureau Strategic and Resource Plan goal of Criminal Justice Sector Capacity Building and Security Sector Reform (SSR).

Objective 1: To develop Zambian police force law enforcement capacity through trainings and technical assistance.

Objective 2: To increase Zambia’s capacity to control its borders.

FY 2012 Program

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Police Development and Reform Program funds will improve law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations. Funds will also help develop and implement modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities.

Border Security Program funds will develop the capability of the Government of Zambia to control point of entry-based immigration, customs, and law enforcement units to interdict criminal elements, and to quickly and accurately share information with relevant agencies.


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If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

Zambia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2010

FY 2011

FY 2012

Actual

Estimate

Request

1.3 Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform

0

0

855

Program Development & Support (objective 6.2 attributed to 1.3)

0

0

45

1.3 Subtotal

0

0

900

Total

0

0

900

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