International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement
The International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) request of $1,511.8 million for FY 2012 will continue to support country and global programs critical to combating transnational crime and illicit threats, including efforts against terrorist networks in the illegal drug trade and illicit enterprises. INCLE programs seek to close the gaps between law enforcement jurisdictions and to strengthen law enforcement institutions that are weak or corrupt.
Significant INCLE funds are focused where security situations are most dire, and where U.S. resources are used in tandem with host country government strategies in order to maximize impact. In countries that have specific challenges to overcome, INCLE resources can help to establish a stable and secure environment, including in Afghanistan, Pakistan, West Bank and Gaza, Yemen, Lebanon, Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Sudan, and Liberia. The Near East, South and Central Asia, and Western Hemisphere account for most of the INCLE request, although continuing concerns in both Africa and East Asia (i.e. West Africa and Indonesia) require continued policy and programmatic attention.
In addition, $1,000 million FY 2012 INCLE was requested for Iraq under Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO), resulting in an overall INCLE request of $2,511.8 million. The INCLE OCO programs are described further in a separate section.
• Sudan ($37 million): Funding will support the development of southern Sudanese capacity to provide security in support of the rule of law in a post-referendum setting. Funds will provide technical assistance and training for southern Sudan’s criminal justice sector and law enforcement institutions, as well as contribute toward UN civilian police and formed police units in southern Sudan and Darfur.
• Liberia ($17 million): In order to continue Liberia’s transition to peace, the country’s police and justice institutions require much greater levels of support. Assistance will continue to fund a civilian police contribution to the United Nations Mission in Liberia and increase support to critical bilateral police and justice reform projects. Advisors will provide training and mentorship on a range of issues such as investigation skills, leadership, and sexual and gender-based violence. Technical assistance will be supplemented by material assistance such as infrastructure support, communications equipment, and office supplies will be provided throughout the country to the police, the judiciary, the corrections system, and the justice ministry.
• Africa Regional ($19.2 million): Funding includes three initiatives covering different regions in Africa. These funds are divided among the Trans-Sahara Counter-terrorism Partnership (TSCTP), Partnership for Regional East African Counterterrorism (PREACT), formerly known as East Africa Regional Strategic Initiative (EARSI), and a new initiative named West Africa Regional Security Initiative (WARSI). WARSI focuses on establishing and sustaining effective, professional, and accountable law enforcement services as well as improving the capacity and sustainability of civil and criminal justice sector actors and institutions in West Africa. The initiative provides technical assistance, advice, and training to facilitate partner efforts to counter transnational threats such as illicit trafficking in arms, persons, and drugs and to strengthen conflict mitigation and state legitimacy. This initiative subsumes West African programs requested bilaterally in past years.
• West Bank and Gaza ($113 million): Funding will continue to support efforts to reform the security sector by providing training, equipment, and infrastructure support to the Palestinian Authority Security Forces and by providing the Ministry of Interior with technical assistance and program support to improve its ability to manage the security forces. Additional training, equipment, infrastructure support, and technical assistance will be provided for the justice and corrections sectors to ensure their development keeps pace with the increased performance of the security forces.
• Lebanon ($25 million): Support for Lebanon’s security forces is a key component of U.S. efforts to strengthen the institutions of the Lebanese state, promoting stability and security in both Lebanon and the region. The United States is closely watching recent developments in Lebanon. The next government should be judged by its actions and decisions. Until there is a new Lebanese government, it is premature to make any determinations about the future of U.S. assistance to Lebanon. However, it is important that the United States continue to plan for ongoing assistance through FY 2012 as an incentive for the next government and to consolidate gains.
• Yemen ($11 million): Funds will support efforts to enhance justice, security, and the rule of law in Yemen by building a more professional, accessible, and accountable criminal justice system. Technical assistance, training, and equipment will be provided to Yemen’s civilian law enforcement and judicial institutions. Specifically, funds will support efforts to enhance the Yemeni government’s delivery of basic policing and justice services that respond to citizens’ crime and public safety concerns, particularly in underserved regions, and that combat the influence of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). Assistance will also foster more professional, accountable, and responsive criminal justice institutions and help the government provide correctional services that respect human rights and counter radicalization.
• Afghanistan ($324 million): Programs will focus on addressing two of the greatest strategic challenges facing the United States in the war in Afghanistan – Afghan rule of law development and the drug trade that fuels the insurgency. Funds will maintain the current presence of the longstanding and successful Justice Sector Support Program (JSSP) and Corrections System Support Program (CSSP) in the Afghan provinces of Kabul, Herat, Nangarhar, Balkh, Kunduz, Kandahar, Paktia, and Bamiyan as well as mentoring presence in the national-level institutions including the Attorney General’s Office, Ministry of Justice, Supreme Court, and Ministry of Women’s Affairs. Funding will also support the expansion of the Judicial Security Unit program and provide initial capacity building and mentoring to the Ministry of Justice as it prepares to assume responsibility for detainees transitioned from U.S. military custody. Funding will also continue to support juvenile and Ministry of the Interior detention facilities, maintain assistance to women and their children in prison, and continue providing support for legal aid. Finally, funding will continue support to the Major Crimes Task Force, the Anti-Corruption Unit, and the Counter-Narcotics Justice Center (CNJC).
Afghanistan’s drug trade funds insurgent operations, undermines the Afghan government, and is a stumbling block to a sustainable transition of U.S. assistance to Afghan leadership. The FY 2012 budget will continue to strengthen the ability of the Counternarcotics Police of Afghanistan to interdict drug smugglers and disrupt criminal networks, both independently and in partnership with neighboring countries; increase the capacity of the central Ministry of Counter Narcotics (MCN) to formulate and coordinate national-level drug policy; continue Afghan-led efforts to implement counternarcotics public information programs via radio, television, and mobile theater; and promote regional cooperation against the drug trade between Afghanistan and its neighbors. Funding will also continue drug demand reduction efforts with support to outreach, treatment, and rehabilitation centers.
• Pakistan ($125 million): In support of the Administration’s top national security priorities, funding will continue civilian law enforcement assistance throughout Pakistan and support an expanded border security aviation fleet. This critical support will provide training, equipment, infrastructure, and aviation assistance to civilian law enforcement and border security agencies that are responsible for maintaining peace and security following military operations. Funds will also continue current rule of law, corrections, and counternarcotics programs.
• Mexico ($248.5 million): The United States and Mexican Governments will continue to focus on four pillars of cooperation: disrupting and dismantling criminal organizations, institutionalizing the rule of law, building a 21st Century border, and building strong and resilient communities. Programs will focus heavily on developing Mexico’s rule of law institutions through training, technical assistance, and limited equipment purchases. Programs will continue to provide assistance to federal level criminal justice institutions, including law enforcement, prosecutorial, judicial, and corrections institutions. Funding will increasingly support similar and supporting programs for state and local institutions, especially in areas of high criminal activity in Mexico – for example, along the Mexico’s northern border. These efforts will also support efforts at the federal level.
• Colombia ($160.6 million): Funding will focus on supporting Colombian-led consolidation programs that seek to expand security, reduce drug trafficking and illicit drug growth, and promote economic development through a comprehensive whole-of-government approach in former conflict areas. Consolidation efforts not only address lingering security threats in Colombia, but they also utilize traditional interdiction and eradication programs to prevent illegal drugs from reaching the United States and further disrupting the transit zone. U.S. assistance in FY 2012 will also help improve Colombia’s judicial institutions, including enhancing the protection of human rights and developing local capacity to address sensitive criminal cases. INCLE resources in Colombia will both aid the Colombian National Police in assuming additional security responsibilities and combating emerging criminal drug organizations and fund important military programs such as navy maritime interdiction. Coordinated efforts to nationalize planned financial and operational responsibilities in a sustainable manner will require FY 2012 funding for successful completion.
• Peru ($29 million): Funding will support efforts by the Government of Peru (GOP) to eliminate the illicit drug industry, which includes extending state presence in the Apurimac and Ene River Valleys in order to oppose drug traffickers aligned with the Shining Path terrorist group. The program will support drug interdiction and coca eradication operations as well as precursor chemical seizures; improve controls at ports and airports; modernize and refurbish police stations and bases; and maintain and replace communications equipment and vehicles.
• Bolivia ($10 million): Funds will advance nationalization efforts by preparing the Government of Bolivia to absorb costs for programs such as eradication, and continuing targeted technical assistance for counternarcotics, law enforcement, and rule of law programs, while seeking cost efficiencies with the Government of Bolivia (GOB). Support will continue extensive training programs for counternarcotics and other police; support interdiction efforts at reduced levels; build the capacity of law enforcement, prosecutors and the judiciary; support trafficking-in-persons and other rule of law initiatives; and continue public awareness on the damage caused to Bolivian society by drug trafficking and consumption.
• Haiti ($19.4 million): Assistance will support the UN stabilization mission (MINUSTAH) and related activities through civilian police, counternarcotics, rule of law and corrections programs and support efforts to rebuild operational capacity of the Haitian National Police with infrastructure improvements and specialized equipment and training.
• Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI) ($55 million): Citizen safety in Central America is deteriorating rapidly as criminal organizations seek to establish strongholds in the region. Funds will continue to support training and build capacity of law enforcement and rule of law institutions throughout Central America, with less focus on procurement of equipment. Funds will support efforts to address border and port security; continue support for vetted units and maritime and land interdiction; sustain the final year of the four-year investment for aviation based in Guatemala; and continue to build capacity of law enforcement and other actors to address transnational crime, including anti-gang training. Funds will also support improved prison management and equipment, and encourage cooperation and joint operations throughout the region. The program reduces funds for basic law enforcement equipment, while continuing to provide programs that support justice sector reform and local capabilities.
• Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI) ($30 million): Funding will continue to support efforts to combat illicit trafficking and organized crime, strengthen the rule of law, reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and promote social justice in the Caribbean region. Funding will be directed primarily toward enhancing the capacity of criminal justice and regional security institutions such as the Regional Security System in the Eastern Caribbean but will also provide technical assistance to support the investigation and prosecution of financial crimes, prison reform, maritime interdiction, and border control efforts.
These programs target challenges to transnational crime and counternarcotics efforts, and policing in peacekeeping and crisis response operations worldwide. Key components include:
• Inter-regional Aviation Support ($60.7 million): Funding will provide centralized core services for counternarcotics and border security aviation programs. These programs involve fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft deployed worldwide.
• Program Development and Support ($34.5 million): Funding will provide for annual costs of direct hires, contractors, travel and transportation, equipment, communications and utilities, and other support services.
• International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) ($31.3 million): Funds will support existing ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, San Salvador, and the Regional Training Center (RTC) in Lima. Additionally, funds made available to support the Shared Security Partnership (SSP) initiative will further develop an RTC for West Africa, which will be affiliated with ILEA Gaborone, and contribute to new training efforts to support SSP in other strategic regions worldwide with ties to terrorism, corruption and other transnational criminal activities. Funds will also support continued transition of the Lima RTC into a permanent ILEA for the Southern Cone and Andean regions; further develop an internet-based ILEA Alumni Global Network to encourage bilateral and regional cooperation; facilitate distance learning; and provide equipment and technical support for ILEA participating countries.
• Critical Flight Safety Program ($17.3 million): Funding will provide programmed depot-level maintenance for the fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft fleet supporting counternarcotics and border security aviation programs worldwide.
• International Police Peacekeeping Operations Support (IPPOS) ($15 million): This is an important initiative that builds capacity of police contributing countries to deploy highly trained and well-equipped police to peacekeeping and stabilization missions, as well as help the United Nations with the coordination, policy, and projects in support of policing in peacekeeping missions. Funding will be used for training and capacity building efforts.
• Demand Reduction ($12.8 million): Funding will support programs designed to reduce drug use, related crime and violence, and high-risk injecting drug use behavior. Funds will support sub-regional demand reduction training centers, regional and global knowledge exchange forums, development of national and regional drug-free community coalitions, and research and demonstration program development, with emphasis on specialized initiatives for drug addicted women and children.
• Civilian Police ($4 million): Funding will strengthen the Department’s ability to launch quality criminal justice and law enforcement programs globally, a critical task for preventing and responding to conflict and counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts. Funding will be used to further develop and maintain a cadre of police, justice sector and corrections senior experts who provide a key resource to the Department in conducting technical assessments, program development, monitoring and evaluation, and coordination with law enforcement, the interagency and international organizations. Funds will also support the continued development of policies and procedures to guide field and Washington-based staff, and will support a program to directly manage pre-deployment training of contracted personnel in the field. Finally, funds will continue to support the already fruitful efforts to both recruit and partner with state, municipal, and county-level police, justice and corrections personnel to implement and provide expertise to INCLE programs.
Overseas Contingency Operations (INCLE)
The Administration’s FY 2012 request includes $1,000 million INCLE to fund extraordinary and temporary costs for assistance in Iraq. The request is the first under the Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) method used by the Department of Defense to identify funding requirements or exceptional costs incurred in this country.
• Iraq ($1 billion): FY 2012 funds will support a full year of operations of the Police Development Program (PDP) in Iraq. The PDP, designed as a strong successor to the U.S. military police training program, will increase the ability of the Ministry of Interior and the Iraqi Police Services (IPS) to manage and sustain the full range of policing operations and ensure that civilian police have primacy for providing Iraq’s internal security. This effort will support and protect U.S. strategic interests in the region by promoting democracy and the rule of law, discouraging corruption and sectarian behavior, and assisting in the development of a sovereign, stable and self-reliant Iraq.
The PDP is complemented by robust rule of law programs for integrated criminal justice sector development. The DOJ/FBI-led joint Government of Iraq – United States Government Major Crimes Task Force will provide law enforcement agents who will work closely with Iraqi investigators building capacity to investigate high profile crimes such as terrorism, public corruption, kidnapping, human trafficking, and organized crime. DOJ also will participate with a number of other implementers in efforts to build communication between the provincial courts and the central courts in Baghdad, resolving roadblocks in the Iraqi legal system, and helping develop the Higher Judicial Council’s administrative capacity.
In addition to providing criminal justice sector programmatic support, funds will pay for Embassy-provided security and life support, aviation and other transportation operations and maintenance, and personnel recruitment and training.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Capitalizing upon Bureau-initiated evaluation enterprises, INL will invest a modest increase of funding over previous years to expand Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) in FY 2012. The key expansion will be to standardize essential programmatic tracking and record-keeping for the Bureau’s high-priority and high-visibility programs. Monitoring and evaluation is critically important to ensure that both long and short-term planning objectives are being met. In addition, formal M&E provides a prescribed framework to assist in verifying that Bureau oversight responsibilities are properly documented.
Initial program monitoring endeavors center upon a substantial agenda of data quality analysis (DQA), especially in projects that have been largely self-reporting to date. These initial steps are to be additionally augmented by a formalized evaluation policy and M&E guidelines that are now being vetted for implementation. Finally, it is expected that the Bureau will instigate a disciplined cataloging of the aggregate M&E evaluations in an explicit and categorical process so that lessons learned are routinely gleaned, as well as providing the substantive program management score-cards.
M&E mechanisms for program/project assessment will vary based upon the scope and size of the program. Ultimately they range in rigor from basic program officer monitoring to full evaluations conducted by independent evaluators. Examples of methods for ongoing monitoring and final (and possible mid-term) evaluation includes the following:
• Informal Internal Monitoring: Utilizing routine communication from Post or partner officials to verify that short-term classes or projects have met the implementation objectives.
• Formal Internal Monitoring: Utilizing prescribed reporting by partner assistance officials to verify programmatic progress measured against the specific outputs and outcomes stipulated in project proposals and agreement documents.
• Assisted Internal Monitoring: Assessment teams conduct Management Assistance Visit Program to verify data quality of performance statistics offered by partner assistance officials and to verify achievement of specific performance measures in longer or more involved projects
• Independent Internal Evaluations: Evaluation and functional experts conduct an internal or interagency evaluation focused on overall program performance and impact measured by means of an established standard that targets specific crime areas or governmental institutions providing milestone, institutional and focused impact analysis.
• Independent External Evaluation: For larger, complex or high-visibility country programs, an independent impact and evaluation study would be conducted drawing upon experts in academia and the community of evaluative sciences.
Over the past three years, a majority of the Bureau’s bilateral and interagency agreements have been amended or rewritten to mandate performance measures that are tangible, achievable and attributable– usually in the form of outputs or outcomes. This is the foundation for the FY 2012 M&E expansion. During this budget period, the Bureau will build an incremental stepping-stone towards full formalized and timely monitoring and analysis of all significant programs.