Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Report
March 7, 2012

Department of State (INL) Budget ($000)

FY 2011-2013 INCLE Budget Allocations ($000)

If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

FY 2011
Actual

FY 2012
Estimate

FY 2013
Request

Africa

Africa Regional (TSCTP)

2,500

3,500

2,500

Africa Regional (West)

2,433

16,800

13,000

Africa Regional (PREACT/EARSI)

2,050

2,000

Democratic Republic of Congo

6,000

6,000

5,250

Ghana

500

-

-

Guinea

500

-

-

Kenya

2,000

2,000

1,800

Liberia

16,000

17,000

15,662

Mozambique

500

500

500

Nigeria

1,250

-

-

Somalia

-

2,000

1,800

South Africa

2,000

3,000

2,000

South Sudan

25,000

32,000

27,404

Sudan

2,000

-

2,000

Tanzania

450

450

450

Uganda

235

600

581

Subtotal, Africa

61,368

85,900

74,947

East Asia and the Pacific

China

800

800

800

East Asia and Pacific Regional

1,100

5,895

990

Indonesia

10,520

11,550

10,066

Laos

1,000

1,000

1,000

Malaysia

-

-

800

Philippines

2,065

2,450

2,450

Thailand

1,740

1,740

1,466

Timor-Leste

660

660

660

Vietnam

550

450

Subtotal, East Asia and the Pacific

17,885

24,645

18,682

Europe

Albania

-

-

4,450

Armenia

-

-

2,824

Azerbaijan

-

-

1,226

Bosnia

-

-

6,735

Georgia

-

-

4,000

Kosovo

-

-

10,674

Macedonia

-

-

1,663

Moldova

-

-

3,230

Montenegro

-

-

1,826

Russia

-

-

4,182

Serbia

-

-

3,000

Ukraine

-

-

4,100

Eurasia Regional

-

-

323

Europe Regional

-

-

400

Subtotal, Europe

-

-

48,633

Near East

Egypt

1,000

1,000

7,894

Iraq

114,560

-

-

Iraq (Overseas Contingency Operations)

-

500,000

850,000

Jordan

250

500

-

Lebanon

19,500

24,000

15,500

Morocco

750

1,500

1,500

Middle East Response Fund

25,000

-

NEA Regional (TSCTP)

1,030

1,000

1,000

Tunisia

1,500

-

8,000

West Bank/Gaza

150,000

100,000

70,000

Yemen

1,750

7,395

4,000

Yemen (Overseas Contingency Operations)

-

3,605

-

Subtotal, Near East

290,340

664,000

957,894

South and Central Asia

Afghanistan

400,000

-

400,000

Afghanistan (Overseas Contingency Operations)

-

324,000

200,000

Bangladesh

350

674

674

Kazakhstan

-

-

1,471

Kyrgyzstan

-

-

6,156

Nepal

3,700

3,700

3,330

Pakistan

114,298

-

124,000

Pakistan (Overseas Contingency Operations)

116,000

SCA Regional (inc. Central Asia CN Initiative)

4,210

7,000

9,000

Sri Lanka

-

1,440

1,440

Tajikistan

-

-

7,255

Turkmenistan

-

-

550

Uzbekistan

-

-

743

Subtotal - South and Central Asia

522,558

452,814

754,619

Western Hemisphere

Argentina

300

300

-

Bolivia

15,000

7,500

5,000

Brazil

1,000

3,000

2,000

Caribbean Basin Regional

37,500

30,000

21,000

Colombia

204,000

160,600

142,000

Ecuador

4,500

4,500

4,500

Guatemala

3,992

5,000

2,000

Haiti

19,420

19,420

17,500

Mexico

117,000

248,500

199,000

Paraguay

500

500

150

Peru

31,500

28,950

23,300

Western Hemisphere Regional (CARSI)

71,508

60,000

60,000

Subtotal, Western Hemisphere

506,220

568,270

476,450

Centrally-Managed

Criminal Youth Gangs

7,000

7,000

3,000

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

12,500

12,500

12,500

International Organizations

4,500

5,000

4,500

CICAD

1,375

1,750

1,500

UNODC

2,875

3,250

3,000

G-8 Roma Lyon Group

250

-

-

Interregional Aviation Support

57,052

53,652

46,322

Critical Flight Safety Program

16,250

16,250

12,385

Trafficking in Persons

16,233

18,720

18,720

INL Anticrime Programs

14,650

16,154

12,500

Alien Smuggling/Border Security

1,000

1,000

1,000

Cyber Crime and IPR

3,750

5,000

3,000

Fighting Corruption

4,750

5,004

4,000

International Organized Crime

1,000

1,000

1,000

Financial Crimes/Money Laundering/CT

4,150

4,150

3,500

International Police Peacekeeping Operations Support

-

10,000

5,000

Civilian Police Program

4,000

4,000

3,800

ILEA Operations

34,000

31,300

24,000

PD&S

29,250

34,500

32,550

Subtotal, Centrally-Managed

195,435

209,076

175,277

TOTAL INCLE

1,593,806

2,004,705

2,506,502


International Training

International counternarcotics training is managed/funded by State-INL and carried out by the DEA, FBI, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Customs and Border Patrol, and U.S. Coast Guard. Major objectives are:

Contributing to enhanced professionalism of the basic rule of law infrastructure for carrying out counternarcotics law enforcement activities in countries which cooperate with and are considered significant to U.S. narcotics control efforts;

Improving technical skills of drug law enforcement personnel in these countries; and

Increasing cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

INL training focuses on encouraging foreign law enforcement agency self-sufficiency through development of law enforcement skills. The overarching goal of our counternarcotics efforts overseas is to support effective host country enforcement institutions, which can remove drugs from circulation before they can reach the United States. U.S. law enforcement personnel stationed overseas, working closely with TDY trainers dispatched from the U.S., help promote creation of more effective law enforcement while improving cooperation and joint efforts with the United States. U.S training can take two forms: as part of a planned bilateral assistance program in target assistance countries and as training with a regional approach. The regional training provided at the ILEAs consists of both general law enforcement training as well as specialized training for mid-level managers in police and other law enforcement agencies.

INL-funded training supports the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. The U.S. bilateral training assistance program works closely with the training and assistance activities of international organizations, such as the UNODC and the OAS. During coordination meetings with major donors of training assistance like: the Dublin Group, UNODC and other international assistance agencies, the U.S. assures its training plans are well- understood by other training providers, and urges them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training which serves their particular strategic interests.

INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of U.S. law enforcement agencies in response to requests for assistance from U.S. Embassies. This will avoid duplication of effort and ensure that the expertise of U,S, embassies around the world and the Department of State’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs can contribute to success of rule of law training in foreign countries around the world.


International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs)

The mission of the regional International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) is to support emerging democracies, help protect U.S. interests through international cooperation, and promote social, political and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEA program provides high-quality training and technical assistance, supports institution building and enforcement capability development, and fosters relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts around the world. ILEAs also encourage strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity.

The ILEA mission is the result of a combined effort by all participants—government agencies and ministries, trainers, managers, and students—to achieve the common foreign policy goal of coordinated international law enforcement around the globe. This goal is to train professionals who will shape the future of the rule of law, human dignity, personal safety and global security.

The regional ILEAs address regional law enforcement priorities to combat security threats. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the core program, specialized courses, and seminars or workshops. The core program is a 6-week series of blocks of instruction tailored to region-specific needs and emerging global threats. The core program typically includes 50 participants, normally from three or more countries. The specialized courses are one or two-week courses for law enforcement or criminal justice officials on a specific topic, comprised of about 30 participants. Lastly, regional seminars or workshops present various emerging law enforcement topics such as transnational crimes, financial crimes, and counterterrorism.

The ILEAs help to develop an extensive network of alumni who exchange information with their regional and U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations. Many ILEA graduates become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective law enforcement organizations. The Department of State coordinates with the Departments of Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS) and the Treasury, and with foreign government counterparts to implement the ILEA programs. To date, the combined ILEAs have trained over 38,000 officials from over 85 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America.

Africa. ILEA Gaborone (Botswana) opened in 2001. Its main feature is a six-week intensive professional development program – the Law Enforcement Executive Development Program (LEEDP) – designed for law enforcement mid-level managers. The LEEDP brings together approximately 40 participants from several nations for instruction in areas such as combating transnational criminal activity, supporting democracy by stressing the rule of law in international and domestic police operations, and overall professional development through enhanced leadership and management techniques. ILEA Gaborone also offers specialized courses for police and other criminal justice officials to boost their capacity to work with U.S. and regional counterparts. These courses concentrate on specific methods and techniques in a variety of subjects, such as counterterrorism, anti-corruption, financial crimes, border security, drug enforcement, firearms, explosives, wildlife investigation, gender based violence and many others.

Instruction is provided to participants from Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Trainers from the United States and Botswana provide instruction. ILEA Gaborone trains approximately 500 students annually.

Asia. ILEA Bangkok (Thailand) opened in 1999. ILEA Bangkok focuses on enhancing regional cooperation against transnational crime threats in Southeast Asia, primarily illicit drug trafficking, financial crimes, and human trafficking. ILEA Bangkok provides a Core course - the Supervisory Criminal Investigator Course (SCIC) – designed to strengthen management and technical skills for supervisory criminal investigators and other criminal justice managers. In addition, it also provides over 20 specialized courses—each lasting one to two weeks—on a variety of criminal justice topics each year. The principal objectives of the ILEA are the development of effective law enforcement cooperation within the member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Timor Leste and China (including the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau), and the strengthening of each jurisdiction’s criminal justice institutions to increase its abilities to cooperate in the suppression of transnational crime.

Instruction is provided to participants from Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste and Vietnam. Subject matter experts from the United States, Thailand, Japan, Philippines, Australia and Hong Kong provide course instruction. ILEA Bangkok has offered specialized courses on narcotics trafficking, and terrorist financing-related topics such as Chemical Control/Clandestine Laboratory Investigations (instructed by DEA) and Complex Financial Investigations (instructed by IRS). ILEA Bangkok trains approximately 1,400 students annually.

Europe. ILEA Budapest (Hungary) was the first ILEA, established in 1995. The mission of the ILEA has been to support the region’s emerging democracies by combating an increase in criminal activity that emerged against the backdrop of economic and political restructuring following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Instruction is provided to participants from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Trainers from over 17 federal agencies and local jurisdictions from the United States, Hungary, United Kingdom, Russia, INTERPOL and the Council of Europe provide instruction. The ILEA provides advanced training for law enforcement and criminal justice officials on regional threats such as organized crime, environmental and cyber crimes and anti-money-laundering topics. ILEA Budapest trains approximately 950 students annually.

Global. ILEA Roswell (New Mexico) opened in September 2001. In 2011 INL revised and updated the Roswell program in an effort to address ever emerging global criminal threats. ILEA Roswell, through a combination of academic programs, senior policy forums and model law workshops will provide the tools necessary to enable partner countries to formulate and execute effective and responsible criminal justice public policy. The Academic program will equip participants with the knowledge and skills necessary for successful criminal justice careers with a strong focus on constructing an international network of like minded U.S. and foreign counterparts. The Criminal Policy Forum proceedings will focus on familiarizing high-level officials with what the international community believes are essential elements to counter emerging criminal threats and on encouraging partner country officials to work inter and intra regionally to establish cooperative means to counter criminal activity consistent with international standards. The Model Law programs will engage ILEA partner countries on enhancing their legal and regulatory framework, and instilling a deep-seated appreciation for the importance of implementing modern, effective criminal justice legislation. The participants are drawn from pools of ILEA graduates from the Academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador and the ILEA Regional Training Center (RTC) in Lima. ILEA Roswell trains approximately 350 students annually.

Latin America. ILEA San Salvador (El Salvador) opened in 2005. Its training program is similar to the ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone. It offers a six-week Law Enforcement Management Development Program (LEMDP) for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. ILEA San Salvador normally delivers four LEMDP sessions and approximately 20 specialized courses annually, concentrating on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, alien smuggling, terrorist financing and financial crimes investigations. Segments of the LEMDP focus on terrorist financing (presented by the FBI) and financial evidence/money laundering application (presented by DHS/FLETC and IRS). Instruction is provided to participants from: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, St.Kitts and Nevis, St.Lucia, St.Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. ILEA San Salvador trains approximately 1,000 students per year.

The ILEA Regional Training Center in Lima (Peru) opened in 2007 to complement the mission of ILEA San Salvador. The RTC augments the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America and concentrates on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions. The RTC trains approximately 300 students per year.


Drug Enforcement Administration

The majority of illicit drugs distributed and consumed in America originate in foreign countries. DEA’s mission is to enforce the controlled substances laws and regulations of the U.S. In furtherance of this mission, DEA targets the cultivation, production, transportation, distribution and financial operations of Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) based in foreign nations and at home. In order to dismantle and disrupt DTOs, DEA and other U.S. agencies work hand in hand with our foreign law enforcement counterparts.

DEA establishes and maintains working relationships with host nations by staffing 85 DEA offices located in 65 countries. DEA’s foreign offices act as conduits of information to DEA components in the U.S. and vice versa. In this manner, investigators are able to target DTOs from the source to the end user. DEA’s foreign offices are tasked with the following objectives:

Conduct bilateral investigations with foreign law enforcement;

Coordinate counternarcotics intelligence gathering with host governments;

Conduct training programs for host country police agencies (contingent on host nation being a recipient of US counter narcotics assistance;

Assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and develop mutually beneficial law enforcement relationships with foreign law enforcement agencies.

The emphasis placed on each objective is determined by the host nation’s unique conditions and circumstances as it relates to their infrastructure and law enforcement capabilities. DEA works side by side with host nation counterparts to develop relevant training, promote intelligence sharing, and support joint operations. The following sections highlight the assistance and joint enforcement undertaken by DEA and host nation counterparts in 2011.

Bilateral Investigative Activities

Drug Flow Attack Strategy

The primary objective of DEA’s Drug Flow Attack Strategy is to cause major disruption to the flow of drugs, money, and chemicals between the source zones and the United States.

Drug Flow Attack Strategy Highlights:

During February 23-25, 2011, agents from numerous DEA offices, along with law enforcement officers from numerous other federal, state, and local agencies, arrested 676 individuals, resulting in the disruption of the operations and financing of Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) in the U.S., Mexico, and elsewhere throughout the world. Operation Bombardier was designed to put pressure on Mexican cartels and Mexican poly-drug organizations as a response to the murder of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Special Agent Jaime Zapata and wounding of ICE Special Agent Victor Avila in Mexico. In addition to the arrests, Operation Bombardier resulted in the seizure of 467 kilograms of cocaine, 21 pounds of heroin, 84 pounds of methamphetamine, 39,363 pounds of marijuana, $12.1 million in U.S. currency, and 282 firearms. This Special Operations Division (SOD)-supported operation was conducted by DEA, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Federal Bureau of Investigation, ICE, and the U.S. Marshals Service. Assistance was provided by approximately 3,000 federal, state, and local law enforcement officers.

In FY 2011, SOD coordinated Project Delirium, a 20-month series of nationwide investigations targeting the La Familia Michoacana cartel. On July 21, 2011, DEA Administrator Michele M. Leonhart announced the results of the largest strike against La Familia in the United States: 1,985 arrests, seizure of $62 million in U.S. currency, and approximately 2,773 pounds of methamphetamine, 2,722 kilograms of cocaine, 1,005 pounds of heroin, 14,818 pounds of marijuana and $3.8 million in other assets. More than 70 of these arrests took place over the 2-day takedown, and over 200 were arrested since June 1, 2011.

On July 26, 2011, Preet Bharara, the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York (SDNY), and DEA Administrator Leonhart, announced the unsealing of 2 indictments resulting from 2 DEA narco-terrorism undercover operations: first, an indictment against Siavosh HENAREH, Bachar WEHBE, and Cetin AKSU for conspiring to provide various forms of support to Hezbollah; second, an indictment against Taza Gul Alizai ("GUL") for narco-terrorism conspiracy, narco-terrorism, and heroin importation related to his supplying of 15 kilograms of heroin and 6 AK-47 assault rifles to a DEA confidential source whom GUL believed represented the Taliban. HENAREH and AKSU were arrested on July 25, 2011 in Bucharest, Romania, where they were detained pending extradition to the United States. WEHBE and GUL were arrested the same day in the Republic of the Maldives, and flown to the SDNY. On November 17, 2011, HENAREH and AKSU were extradited from Romania.

"These DEA operations starkly illustrate how drug trafficking is a double threat that fuels both addiction and terrorism. We have successfully targeted, and substantially dismantled two dangerous and complex networks; stopped efforts to arm Hezbollah and Taliban terrorists; and prevented massive amounts of heroin from reaching illicit markets around the world. Those responsible for these crimes will now face trial due to the brave and talented men and women of the DEA, the skilled federal prosecutors of the Southern District of New York, and the extraordinary cooperation of our many international and federal agency partners, all whom were instrumental in the success of these DEA operations." - Administrator Leonhart

On August 24, 2011, based on Provisional Arrest Warrants and federal indictments issued by the Southern District of Florida, the DEA Cartagena Resident Office (RO) provided support to Colombian authorities during an enforcement operation that resulted in 19 arrests. This investigation targeted the organization led by Consolidated Priority Organization Target (CPOT) Hader NARVAEZ-Reina that specialized in the construction and deployment of self-propelled semi- and fully-submersible (SPSS/SPFS) vessels. During July 2010, the Cartagena RO and the Quito Country Office (CO), in conjunction with Colombian authorities provided information to Ecuadorian authorities that resulted in the seizure of a SPFS vessel in Lorenzo, Ecuador. As the investigation continued, Colombian authorities developed information that led to the seizure of another SPFS vessel along the Pacific coast of Colombia during February 2011. This investigation also resulted in the seizure of approximately 4,243 kilograms of cocaine. In addition, the Cartagena RO and Colombian authorities determined that the NARVAEZ-Reina DTO laundered significant amounts of drug proceeds through the purchase of properties and businesses in Colombia. As a result, Colombian authorities arrested 12 members of the organization on money laundering charges in violation of Colombian laws and seized a total of 86 residences, 33 businesses, and numerous motor vehicles with an estimated value of $62 million in U.S. currency.

DEA targeted CPOT Christopher Michael COKE and his DTO. On June 22, 2010, COKE was arrested by Jamaican authorities near Kingston, Jamaica, after a- 5-week pursuit by local authorities. COKE was subsequently transferred to the custody of the DEA and U.S. Marshals Service for transport to the U.S. On August 31, 2011, COKE pled guilty in the SDNY to a 2 count Superseding Information charging him with racketeering conspiracy and conspiracy to commit assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering. Sentencing on these charges is scheduled for 2012 in the SDNY. COKE faces a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison on the racketeering conspiracy charge and a maximum sentence of 3 years in prison on the conspiracy to commit assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering charge. Both of these charges also provide for a maximum fine of $250,000 or twice the pecuniary gain from the offense.

On June 23, 2011, in the Southern District of Florida, retired Bolivian General Rene SANABRIA-Oropeza (from the National Counter Narcotics Police) and Marcelo FORONDA-Azero entered pleas of guilty to Conspiracy to Import Cocaine into the U.S. On September 23, 2011, SANABRIA-Oropeza was sentenced to serve 14 years of imprisonment and coconspirator FORONDA-Azero was sentenced to 9 years of imprisonment, plus 5 years of supervised release. At the time of his arrest, Rene SANABRIA-Oropeza was the Director of the Center for Intelligence and Information Generation.

On September 24, 2011, the Colombian National Police seized a SPFS vessel along the Pacific coast of Colombia. The vessel had a cargo capacity of 1,500 kilograms of cocaine and a range of 3,000 miles with the capability of descending 60 meters under water.

Drugs leaving South America destined for the U.S. are transported via various means, to include go-fast boats, shipping containers, self-propelled, semi- and fully-submersible (SPSS/SPFS) vessels, non-commercial aircraft, and to a lesser extent, commercial airlines. SPSSs/SPFSs are small, self-propelled, semi- and fully-submersible vessels that transport illegal drugs and other illicit cargo to the U.S. through the transit zone in the Eastern Pacific. There has been an increase in usage of SPSSs/SPFSs, and to date, three SPFSs have been seized; one in Ecuador in July 2010, a second in Colombia in February 2011, and a third, also in Colombia, in September 2011.

Iranian Methamphetamine Trafficking Organizations are smuggling multi-kilogram quantities of high purity methamphetamine from Iran to Southeast Asia. In January 2011, the Kuala Lumpur CO assisted the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP) in several operations which resulted in the arrest of 13 Iranian nationals and the seizure of approximately 92 kilograms of crystal meth (ICE), 2 liters of liquid meth, and a clandestine laboratory. In November 2011, the Kuala Lumpur CO assisted the RMP in the arrest of an additional 6 Iranian nationals and the seizure of 124.9 kilograms of ICE. Furthermore, in June 2011 the Dubai and Tokyo COs assisted Japanese officials in seizing 181 kilograms of liquid methamphetamine concealed inside gas tanks of 2 vehicles. The methamphetamine originated in Iran.

During 2011, the Canberra CO assisted Australian authorities with several significant seizures of cocaine. In September 2011, the Canberra CO assisted in the arrest of three individuals and the seizure of 271 kilograms of cocaine and $220,000 Australian dollars ($238,000 U.S. currency). According to Australian authorities, they estimate the value of the cocaine to be approximately $80 million Australian dollars ($87 million U.S. currency). This seizure is the fifth largest cocaine seizure in Australian history. In addition, in November 2011, the Canberra CO assisted in the arrest of 4 individuals and seizure of 300 kilograms of cocaine and $3-$5 million Australian dollars (approximately $2.8 to $4.7 million U.S. currency). To date this is the fourth largest seizure in Australian history.

Between May 15-June 15, 2011, DEA participated in Operation KAHFA KARDAN, targeting drug trafficking networks operating within the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Regional Command South (Kandahar) and Southwest (Helmand). The DEA Foreign-deployed Advisory and Support Team, National Interdiction Unit (NIU), and ISAF units conducted approximately 94 narcotic-nexus enforcement operations. These operations were designed to disrupt the supply of weapons, drugs, and financing of criminal networks. During the operation, NIU officers made 18 arrests. Operation KAFHA KARDAN resulted in the following seizures: 127 kilograms of heroin; 12,766 kilograms of opium; 10 kilograms of morphine; 15,911 kilograms of hashish; 2,888 kilograms of marijuana; 25,666 kilograms of precursor chemicals; 4,741 kilograms of Ammonium Nitrate; 50 pounds of homemade explosive devices, and numerous weapons and various other explosive devices.

In 2011, DEA, the Afghan NIU, and ISAF conducted drug disruption operations in Helmand Province which resulted in the destruction of several drug processing labs. One operation resulted in the destruction of a laboratory and the seizure of 2,782 kilograms of morphine base, 16,254 liters of morphine solution, 4 kilograms of heroin, 1,045 kilograms of sodium carbonate, 1,227 kilograms of ammonium chloride, and various processing equipment. The NIU arrested 9 individuals as a result of this operation. Another operation resulted in the destruction of 3 additional laboratories and the seizure of 5,935 kilograms of morphine base, 10,810 liters of morphine solution, 100 kilograms of heroin, 3,280 kilograms of sodium carbonate, 25 gallons of acetic anhydride, and 2,850 kilograms of ammonium chloride, as well as related processing equipment. This seizure is one of the largest ever made by combined forces in Afghanistan.

DEA has also targeted major shadow facilitators that support narco-terrorists around the globe:

On November 16, 2010, after more than two years of legal proceedings, alleged international arms dealer Viktor BOUT was extradited to the SDNY from Thailand to stand trial on terrorism charges. On November 2, 2011, Viktor BOUT was found guilty of conspiring to kill U.S. nationals; conspiring to kill U.S. officers and employees; conspiring to acquire and use anti-aircraft missiles; and conspiring to provide material support to a designated foreign terrorist organization. Sentencing is scheduled for February 8, 2012, and BOUT faces a maximum of life behind bars.

On February 10, 2011, DEA and the Department of the Treasury announced the identification of the Lebanese Canadian Bank SAL (LCB) together with its subsidiaries as a financial institution of primary money laundering concern under Section 311 of the USA PATRIOT Act (Section 311) for the bank’s role in facilitating the money laundering activities of an international narcotics trafficking and money laundering network. This network moves illegal drugs from South America to Europe and the Middle East via West Africa and launders hundreds of millions of dollars monthly through accounts held at LCB, as well as through trade-based money laundering involving consumer goods throughout the world, including through used car dealerships in the U.S. Treasury has reason to believe that LCB managers are complicit in the network’s money laundering activities. This action also exposes the terrorist organization Hezbollah’s links to LCB and the international narcotics trafficking and money laundering network.

Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network also filed a Notice of Proposed Rule Making, in which it proposes prohibiting U.S. financial institutions from opening or maintaining correspondent or payable-through accounts for LCB. In addition to these regulatory measures, the Treasury Department will work with the LCB and other relevant Lebanese authorities to address the concerns highlighted by this action. This was the first time a 311 action in this manner was done in conjunction with law enforcement on a drug case.

On February 18, 2011, the U.S. Department of the Treasury designated the New Ansari Money Exchange, a major money laundering vehicle for Afghan narcotics trafficking organizations, along with 15 affiliated individuals and entities under the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The New Ansari Money Exchange is at the center of an unofficial network of individuals, money exchange houses and other businesses operating throughout Afghanistan and in the United Arab Emirates. Between 2007 and 2010, the New Ansari Money Exchange used the billions of dollars it transferred in and out of Afghanistan to conceal illicit narcotics proceeds. The New Ansari Money Exchange transfers money to its Dubai subsidiaries, Green Leaf General Trading LLC and Al Adal Exchange, which then transfer money through the U.S. and international financial systems. Elements of the New Ansari network have laundered money for Haji Azizullah ALIZAI and the Haji Juma Khan Organization, both identified as Significant Foreign Narcotics Traffickers by the President in June 2007 and May 2009, respectively. Haji Azizullah ALIZAI is a major heroin trafficker and supplier in Southwest Asia and the Middle East. The Haji Juma Khan Organization is an international opium, morphine, and heroin trafficking organization based in the border regions of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

As a result of this action, U.S. persons are prohibited from conducting financial or commercial transactions with these individuals and entities, and any assets the designees may have under U.S. jurisdiction are frozen. The investigation that led to these designations was the result of collaborative efforts of Treasury, the Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATFC), and DEA.

The individuals designated, include several who play key roles in the New Ansari Money Exchange, including Haji Abdullah Barakzai ANSARI, the founder of the New Ansari Money Exchange; Haji Mohammad KHAN, the manager of the New Ansari Money Exchange; Haji Mohammad JAN, the day-to-day manager of the New Ansari network; Haji NOORULLAH, a stakeholder and director of the New Ansari Money Exchange; Haji Mohammad NOOR, the manager of the New Ansari Money Exchange subsidiaries in Dubai; and Haji Mohammad Rafi AZIMI. Key cash couriers Eissa Jan Haji Abdul QAVOUM and Rahmatullah Mohammad AFZAL were also designated.

As a result of an investigation conducted by DEA and San Salvador CO, on May 11, 2011, Hector Antonio Martinez-GUILLEN pleaded guilty to attempting to provide material support to the FARC, a designated terrorist organization, and carrying a destructive device in relation to a crime of violence.

Martinez-GUILLEN was indicted on February 24, 2011 by a federal grand jury for terrorism and explosives charges for conduct occurring from July to November 2010, and faces a maximum penalty of life in prison. Martinez-GUILLEN admitted to selling C-4 plastic explosives, blasting caps, several automatic rifles, and ammunition to an individual whom he believed to be a member of the FARC, a Colombian paramilitary group that has been designated a foreign Terrorist Organization since 1997. The defendant admitted to believing that these weapons and explosives were to be used by the FARC in Colombia to eradicate American troops and military consultants from Colombia. The defendant was apprehended in the Eastern District of Virginia when he traveled to the District and took possession of a load of 20 kilograms of cocaine with instructions to transport it to New York City on behalf of the FARC member for whom he was working.

DEA On-Going Operations

DEA supports on-going operations in the Caribbean on one of the most important narcotics transit routes to the United States. These operations with the code names, Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT); Operation Panama Express; Operation Windjammer; and the International Judicial Telecommunications Intercept Program have operated closely with the law enforcement personnel of several Caribbean countries for years, and are responsible for literally thousands of kilograms of cocaine and marijuana seizures, and the criminal forfeiture of millions of dollars in the proceeds of narcotics crime. They have provided evidence in numerous court cases brought against narcotics criminals in the U.S. and in foreign jurisdictions and have contributed importantly to the protection of the U.S. and the Caribbean from the devastating affects of narcotics crime.

Coordinate Counternarcotics Intelligence Gathering

Centers for Drug Information (CDI) Program

The CDI Program is an internet-based network that offers foreign law enforcement counterparts a secure means to coordinate drug-related investigations and share information on drug-related events. It became operational June 2003 with 41 participating countries and protectorates located throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and South America. The user base has since expanded to over 1000 users in 58 countries that include a South Central Asia regional center in Kabul, Afghanistan, a Southeast Asia regional center in Bangkok, Thailand, and a West Africa regional center in Accra, Ghana. An automated on-line language translation feature (English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese) serves to minimize language barriers for a majority of the participants. Discussions continue in regards to expansion to Europe and additional countries in Southeast Asia and the continent of Africa.

Conduct Training Programs for Host Nation Police Agencies

DEA provides professional training in all aspects of narcotics law enforcement at numerous locations around the world. DEA is a key participant and trainer in the ILEA-International Law Enforcement Academy Training Program. DEA's role is to provide counter narcotics course instruction and best practices for the core supervisory sessions, as well as specialized training courses at the ILEAs. DEA also offers both in-country and regional training programs conducted by mobile training teams. In-country programs are seminars conducted in a host country and only include participants from that country. Regional training is designed to bring together a combination of participants from a number of countries sharing common drug trafficking issues or routes. DEA also offers Asset Forfeiture/Money Laundering Training Programs to enhance financial investigations of international drug trafficking and narco-terrorist organizations. During FY 2011, 199 participants from 14 countries were trained.

The goal of DEA International Asset Airport Interdiction Training is to educate members of foreign law enforcement about techniques for interdiction in transportation environments, especially as they relate to money launderers and the bulk shipment of currency. 117 participants from 6 countries were trained in FY 2011.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-Russia Council Counternarcotics Training Project is implemented by the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crimes and supported by U.S. Army Central Command funds. DEA provides basic drug enforcement training, tactical training, and practical training and also conducts an Advanced Instructor Development Course, as part of this program, for approximately 20 Afghan Counter Narcotics Police Instructors. DEA is also a key participant in the Afghanistan Regional Training Team (RTT) Program, which provides specialty law enforcement training to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNP-A), as well as the neighboring regional countries. The goal of this training is to develop a core of professional counter narcotics investigators throughout the Southwest Asian region. This concept was so well received that it is being used as the model for training in Central Asia.

DEA also carries out a mission to Develop Host Country Drug Law Enforcement Institutions to form effective cooperative relationships with foreign law enforcement organizations. DEA capacity-building efforts in Afghanistan are primarily focused on the CNP-A specialized units: the NIU-Narcotics Investigative Unit , the SIU-Sensitive Investigative Unit, and the Technical Investigative Unit, combining training, equipment and infrastructure with mentoring and operational interaction with DEA enforcement teams, DEA training teams, and experienced mentor/advisors. These specialized units have developed to the point where they can operate with limited coalition support and are engaged with DEA on a daily basis on joint operations and investigations. DEA also is involved with the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, which is a tactically focused, inter-agency fusion center that collects, analyzes and disseminates relevant financial intelligence on individuals and organizations involved in financing the insurgents.

The Central Asia Regional Training Team (CARTT)

DEA works with its partners to disrupt the flow of opiates that originate in Afghanistan, and that transit by land along the Northern Route through Central Asian countries to their primary markets in the Russian Federation and Europe and aims to build drug law enforcement capacity and cooperation in the Central Asian Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan and surrounding countries. In addition, as part of the Central Asia Strategy’s progressive approach, the CARTT will stand up Vetted Units, which will serve as force multipliers in the countries where the units have the greatest chance of success.

The Northern Route Working Group provides a forum for exchanging operational intelligence and initiating joint investigations on drug trafficking organizations that utilize the Northern Route to distribute Afghan opiates from Afghanistan to Russia via Central Asian countries.

Ghana Sensitive Investigative Unit’s mission is to develop, train, advise, and mentor a professional counterdrug unit in Ghana that will have primary responsibility for counterdrug initiatives nationwide. The unit serves as the cornerstone in the development of a counterdrug infrastructure needed to identify, disrupt, and dismantle criminal drug trafficking and money laundering organizations operating throughout West Africa.

The Mexico City Chemical Group provides training to the Government of Mexico (GOM) counterparts regarding methamphetamine trends and skills for targeting and combating the clandestine laboratory/precursor chemical operations of DTOs.

Financial Investigative Team (FIT) is tasked with carrying out DEA’s national financial initiatives, providing guidance to other DEA personnel in financial investigations, conducting the more sophisticated financial investigations, and servicing as DEA’s local point of contact with the financial community.


United States Coast Guard

Overview

The Coast Guard plays a crucial role in efforts to keep dangerous narcotic drugs moving by sea from reaching market countries. Working with its DHS partners in carrying out its responsibilities within the NDCS-National Drug Control Strategy, the Coast Guard leverages its unique maritime security authorities, capabilities and partnerships to mitigate risk and improve security in our domestic ports, on the high seas, and in ports abroad. The overarching strategy is to increase maritime border security through a layered security system that begins beyond the country’s physical borders. This layered approach to security begins in foreign ports where the Coast Guard conducts foreign port assessments, leveraging the International Port Security Program to assess the effectiveness of port security and antiterrorism measures. Offshore, maritime patrol aircraft provide broad surveillance capability enabling cutters to respond to potential threats, launch boats and aircraft in adverse sea states, and maintain a presence through all weather conditions. Well before vessels arrive in ports, screening and targeting operations provide critical information regarding vessels, crews, passengers, and cargo destined for the United States. To prevent and respond to potential threats approaching our coasts, Coast Guard helicopters and patrol boats provide the ability to monitor, track, interdict, and board vessels. In our ports, the DHS components, along with its federal, state, local, and tribal partners, working in concert with port stakeholders, patrol U.S. waters and critical infrastructure, conduct vessel escorts, and inspect travelers, vessels and facilities.

The Coast Guard utilizes a multi-faceted defense in depth strategy to combat illicit drug trafficking in the maritime transit zone from South America to Central America and Mexico. At the forefront of detection, monitoring, interdiction, and apprehension operations the Coast Guard leverages maritime assets against drug traffickers which include cutters, patrol aircraft, and law enforcement detachments embarked on U.S. Naval ships and Allied Nation vessels. To maximize the operational success of its organic assets, the U.S. Coast Guard uses maritime counterdrug bilateral agreements and operating procedures with partner nations to coordinate detection and monitoring (D&M) and interdiction and apprehension (I&A) endgame activities and coordinate joint operations. There are three primary elements to the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction Mission:

Detection & Monitoring

Detection of narcotics trafficking vessels occurs principally through the collection, analysis, and dissemination of tactical information and strategic intelligence combined with effective sensors operating from land, air and surface assets. The six million square mile transit zone between source nations in South America and the United States is far too expansive to randomly patrol; targeting information is necessary to focus efforts. Timely, actionable intelligence is the best force-multiplier available to the operational commander. Upon detection, the Coast Guard, and other similar U.S. and partner nation law enforcement agencies will provide monitoring, relaying data, imagery and position information until an appropriate interdiction asset arrives on scene.

Interdiction

Successful targeting and interdiction of illicit activities create a deterrent effect. Interdiction success causes Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) to incur greater costs and decreased efficiency in moving their illicit product to market. In recent years the Coast Guard has been successful in interdicting foreign flagged vessels, frequently flags of convenience, carrying multi-ton loads of contraband. A crucial element in that success was the system of agreements with many countries around the world which permit enforcement officers to stop, board, and search vessels suspected of transporting narcotics. This has caused DTOs to sharply reduce the use of flags of convenience in favor of stateless go-fast and similar style vessels, as well as investing in more technologically advanced self-propelled semi (SPSS) and fully submersible (SPFS) vessels. The result has been increased costs for DTOs to outfit their trafficking vessels and greater risk of prosecution to smugglers interdicted on stateless vessels, since stateless vessels are subject to U.S. jurisdiction. Interdiction success requires a sufficient number of air and surface assets to respond to intelligence and operational cueing. Surface and air assets equipped with robust sensor systems, endurance, range, and speed, coupled with a range of use of force options to stop non-compliant vessels, enable transit zone operations across a spectrum of weather conditions. To increase its operational law enforcement reach, the Coast Guard embarks deployable Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) on U.S. Navy and Allied warships, and embarks partner nation “shipriders” aboard Coast Guard vessels, consistent with Memorandums of Understanding, bilateral agreements and other arrangements in force.

Close Working Partnerships with both Domestic and International Agencies

The Coast Guard would not be as effective in removing drugs from the transit zone without the significant interagency and international cooperation that comes together at Joint Interagency Task Force South and West (JIATF-S and JIATF-W). The Coast Guard provides staff and command cadre to both Task Forces, which have primary responsibilities for counterdrug detection and monitoring operations in the U.S. Southern Command and U.S. Pacific Command areas of responsibility. As Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO) and DTOs in the Western Hemisphere expand their operations, the Coast Guard is also increasingly engaged with U.S. European Command and U.S. Africa Command to meet the threat in those areas. The Coast Guard contributes to international counterdrug efforts through development and active use of agreements, operational procedures, professional exchanges, sharing best practices, and deployment of mobile training teams to support Theater Security Cooperation initiatives. Engagement in joint operations and training strengthens ties with partner nations and increases maritime law enforcement competency and capability.

International Agreements: There are 44 maritime counterdrug bilateral agreements or operational procedures in place between the United States and partner nations. While these agreements greatly increase the operational reach of U.S. assets, they also enable partner nation assets to better patrol and respond to threats in their own sovereign waters. Frequent U.S. Government success in exercising these agreements has led to enhanced global governance. While individual agreements are specifically tailored for each country, each generally contains all or some of the basic provisions. These provisions are: ship boarding, shiprider, pursuit into territorial waters, entry into territorial waters to investigate, over-flight, order to land, and International Maritime Interdiction Support (IMIS). Some of the agreements are reciprocal, while others refer only to U.S. action in foreign waters or aboard foreign flag vessels.

Additionally, the Coast Guard has developed non-binding operational procedures with Mexico, Ecuador and Peru to facilitate communications between operation centers for confirmation of registry requests and for permission to stop, board, and search suspect vessels. These procedures establish a process for joint operations in lieu of a formal bilateral agreement. One example of these standard operating procedures (SOP) is the Maritime Operations Letter of Intent (LOI) signed by the Mexican Navy, Canadian Forces, U.S. Northern Command, and the Coast Guard. This LOI established a permanent working group dedicated to developing, exercising, and executing maritime security and safety SOPs in the context of coordinated bi-national maritime operations. This work is done through quarterly meetings of the North American Maritime Security Initiative (NAMSI). The LOI framework has changed the former paradigm for maritime operations with Mexico, and is delivering by proxy a similar operational relationship typically achieved elsewhere in the region through maritime bilateral agreements or arrangements.

International Cooperative Efforts: Overall during fiscal year (FY) 2011, the Coast Guard disrupted 129 drug smuggling attempts, which resulted in the seizure of 40 vessels, the detention of 191 suspected smugglers, and the removal of 75.6 MT of cocaine and 17.8 MT of marijuana. Nearly all of these interdictions involved some type of foreign partner support or cooperation, through direct unit participation, exercise of bilateral agreements, granting permission to board, or logistics support.

To counter the cocaine flow across the Atlantic Ocean into Africa and Europe, the Coast Guard continues to work with U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) to expand maritime training and operations for West African countries. In FY 2011, the Coast Guard Cutter FORWARD conducted joint training, surveillance and law enforcement operations off West Africa. During these operations FORWARD embarked law enforcement teams from Sierra Leone, Senegal and Cape Verde to conduct training and assist in their efforts to suppress illicit transnational maritime activity. These efforts continue to help African nations to gain control of their jurisdictional waters through maritime domain awareness as they attempt to thwart the growing threat from DTOs and other transnational criminals.

The Coast Guard also conducts joint, combined and cooperative operations in the maritime approaches to the U.S. littorals. Two such examples are Operations BAJA OLEADA (southern California) and JAVELINA THUNDER (Gulf of Mexico). These are ongoing operations to combat the flow of illicit traffic across the southwest maritime border. Efforts include looking for weapons and money on southbound vessels and drugs and migrants northbound. The Coast Guard coordinates and maintains communication with the Mexican Navy (SEMAR) to ensure a dynamic, combined presence is maintained along the Pacific and Gulf maritime borders. These interagency operations are supported by Customs and Border Protection Air & Marine, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and often other Federal, State, and local partners.

A previously established trilateral maritime counterdrug initiative between the United States, Colombia and Ecuador has matured into a semi-annual multilateral maritime counterdrug enforcement coordination summit, which now includes Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Peru. The Multilateral Maritime Counter Drug Summit gives participants the opportunity to share, exchange, and improve “best practices,” and to think creatively about employing new tactics, techniques, and procedures to counter drug trafficking organizations.

International Training and Technical Assistance: In FY 2011, the USCG provided International Training and Technical Assistance in support of drug interdiction programs through a variety of support efforts:

The USCG Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT) provided engineering expertise, vessel assessments, and major repair contracting services to the maritime services of the countries in the Eastern Caribbean’s Regional Security System (RSS). USCG ships conducted training and technical assistance in conjunction with normal operations in several countries to encourage operational cooperation.

The USCG’s Security Assistance Program offers a program of two-week mobile training teams (MTTs) to partner nation maritime services around the world to help advance the capability of their naval and coast guard forces to patrol their territorial waters. Courses include Maritime Law Enforcement (MLE), Boarding and Advanced Boarding Officer, Joint MLE Boarding, MLE Instructor, Basic and Advanced Port Security/ Port Vulnerability, Waterside Port Security, and Small Boat Operations/Maintenance Courses. In FY 2011, the USCG deployed 91 MTTs to 41 countries.

Individual students also receive instruction in USCG resident training programs in the United States. These students develop a broad range of skills from boat handling and boat and engine repair to senior officer leadership training. In FY 2011, 72 partner nations enrolled students in 305 resident courses at USCG training installations.


U.S. Customs and Border Protection

The Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) processes all goods, vehicles, and people entering and exiting the United States. CBP officers intercept narcotics and other contraband, improperly classified merchandise, unlicensed technology and material, weapons, ammunition, fugitives, undocumented immigrants, and unreported currency at America’s 329 international ports of entry.

United States Border Patrol (USBP) agents are assigned the mission of securing the border against all threats between the POEs along the over 8,000 miles of land and coastal border. These threats include criminal/undocumented aliens, drug smugglers, potential terrorists, wanted criminals, and persons seeking to avoid inspection at the designated POEs. CBP’s drug interdiction activity includes staffing 35 permanent and 140 tactical checkpoints nationwide. CBP checkpoints utilize experienced agents, canine teams, technology and shipper-CBP partnerships to detect and apprehend the above mentioned threats. Additionally, agents patrol targeted border areas that are frequent entry points for the smuggling of drugs and people into the Unites States.

Since its creation, CBP has also been charged with the border regulatory functions of passport control and agriculture inspections in order to provide comprehensive, seamless border control services. This division of responsibilities is intended to simplify border security operations and is termed: "One face at the border." CBP is the nation’s first line of defense against the introduction of narcotics and dangerous drugs from foreign sources.

International Training and Assistance

As part of its efforts to extend the nation’s zone of security beyond U.S. ports of entry, CBP’s Office of International Affairs (INA) works with other U.S. government and foreign government components to provide a wide array of short-term and long-term technical training and assistance to countries throughout the world. These programs are designed to standardize and build the capacity of foreign organizations to implement more effective customs trade operations, border policing, and immigration inspection.

CBP coordinates and presents over 200 technical assistance programs to thousands of foreign participants each year. Training and technical assistance programs target the full range of border control and commercial operations, including: WMD training, anti-narcotics, port security, integrity, supply chain security, and commercial operations. The majority of these programs take place outside the United States, although CBP also hosts training events at specific U.S. ports of entry.

The primary areas in which training and assistance are provided are:

International narcotics and crime control (International Law Enforcement Academy, or ILEA);

Non-proliferation, export control and related border security (EXBS);

Commercial operations (Trade Enforcement);

Private sector partnership programs (WCO-World Customs Organizaton);

Immigration programs (Fraudulent Document, Identifying Imposters); and

Anti-corruption programs (Integrity Training, Anti-Corruption Awareness).

In 2011, INA provided technical training and assistance in support of the ILEA-International Law Enforcement Academy programs currently operating in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador, and Lima. CBP supported ILEA programs by developing and conducting core and specialized training on a variety of topics, including: Land Border Interdiction; Contraband Concealment Techniques; International Controlled Deliveries and Drug Investigations (conducted jointly with the Drug Enforcement Administration); Complex Financial Investigations (conducted jointly with Immigration and Customs Enforcement); and Customs Forensics Lab capabilities and techniques. CBP/INA provided 246 capacity building sessions in over 75 countries for foreign partners, including 19 courses at the ILEAs.

The CBP Field Operations Academy (FOA) supports International Training on two fronts: conducting Academy tours for foreign dignitaries and aiding various training missions abroad. FOA has presented training in Egypt, Iraq, Afghanistan, Georgia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Estonia, Dominican Republic, and Honduras in support of drug interdiction efforts. Additionally, the FOA has conducted numerous briefings/tours of its facilities in the U.S. for the benefit of visiting foreign Customs and Border groups. Dignitaries from Kazakhstan, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia were recently shown a variety of venues and scenarios, which included drug interdiction instruction.

International Visitors Program: The State Department’s International Visitors Program (IVP) can provide an opportunity for foreign customs officials and other foreign officials working on contraband enforcement issues to consult with their U.S. counterparts and appropriate high level managers in CBP Headquarters. International visitors can also participate in on-site tours of selected U.S. ports and field sites to observe actual CBP operations.

In FY 2011, IVP made arrangements for 536 visits for 3,168 visitors. These visits were sponsored by the Department of State, Department of Defense, Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Coast Guard, various State National Guard Units, U.S. Embassies, and other components of the Department of Homeland Security.

Port of Entry Interdiction Training: The correct approach to border interdiction varies with border environments, i.e., land, seaport, rail and airport. Training has been designed for the problems encountered and interdiction techniques useful for each type of operation. Each training class is normally five days in duration and is comprised of interactive classroom discussion and practical exercises using actual CBP border facilities. In addition to port of entry operations, CBP provides training in techniques used by smugglers who do not use official ports of entry to cross borders, but who attempt to smuggle contraband in lightly patrolled border crossing zones.

International Bulk Currency Smuggling Training: With an increased enforcement focus on money laundering, organized criminals and terrorists have turned to bulk cash smuggling to move valuables across borders. Bulk Currency Smuggling training assists foreign government enforcement personnel in identifying techniques used by bulk currency smugglers. Further, it helps them to design and implement programs to counter that threat, resulting in seizures of millions of dollars in the proceeds of crime.

Overseas Enforcement Training: Overseas Enforcement Training encompasses a curriculum which includes Border Enforcement Training; Supply Chain Security; Detection, Interdiction and Investigation; Concealment Methods; Bulk Currency Smuggling; False and Fraudulent Documents; Train-the-Trainer; Anti-Corruption; Targeting and Risk Management; Hazardous Materials; and X-ray Systems. These courses can also be conducted at foreign ports of entry. They include both basic training and refresher training/mentoring abroad for graduates of training at U.S. port facilities. CBP hopes that participation in this training will assist in establishing regional and global associations of border control officials who share concerns about transnational criminal networks and who will cooperate in their dismantling. In addition, at the request of the State Department’s Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, CBP-USBP’s Border Tactical Unit (BORTAC) conducts training of foreign law enforcement agencies in an effort to intervene early in the drug smuggling process. While these training operations generally focus on South and Central American countries, BORTAC also participates in training sessions for the Drug Enforcement Administration’s Foreign-Deployed Advisory Support Teams bound for Afghanistan.

CBP Attachés, Representatives and Advisors and Special Customs’ Programs: CBP deploys a growing network of Attachés, Representatives and Advisors who serve abroad in U.S. Embassies and consulates. These personnel work closely with CBP’s foreign counterparts in the on-going effort to counter drug-smuggling. Attachés have a broad mandate, including enforcement and investigative activities on behalf of CBP. They also exchange expert information with foreign counterparts, improving the effectiveness of law enforcement activity, policies, and resources relating to border enforcement. Their efforts help to ensure that enforcement cooperation is seamless across borders and that the battle against smuggling is effective.

Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements: CBP is the lead negotiator of Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements (CMAAs). CMAAs are negotiated with foreign governments and provide for mutual assistance in the enforcement of customs-related laws. Under the provisions of U.S. CMAAs, CBP provides assistance to its foreign counterparts, and receives assistance from them in an exchange of information that facilitates the enforcement of each country’s laws. The Agreements have a high level of flexibility that allows parties to quickly communicate concerns and requests to each other.

Caribbean Border Interagency Group (CBIG): CBIG was formed in July 2006 as a collaborative effort to focus and integrate collective DHS and DOJ assets and combat the illegal flow of immigrants. CBIG has expanded its joint operations to form an all threats partnership protecting the borders of the United States and its territories in the Caribbean Basin.

Shiprider: Shiprider involves the co-crewing of vessels by Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The co-crewing allows patrol vessels to cross the US/Canada border as needed in interdiction efforts. In April of 2011, USBP trained with the USCG and RCMP and future integrated operations are underway.

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