State/INL Moldova Program
Funding FY 2006-2011:
- FY 2006 - $1,069,000 (FSA*)
- FY 2007 - $1,620,000 (FSA*)
- FY 2008 - $1,554,000 (FSA*)
- FY 2009 - $1,380,000 (AEECA**)
- FY 2010 - $2,111,000 (AEECA**)
- FY 2011 - $2,995,100 (AEECA**)
*FSA: FREEDOM Support Act
**AEECA: Assistance to Europe, Eurasia and Central Asia
- Capacity-Building: The principal goals of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Sector Programs are to help Moldova meet European Union (EU) standards; modernize and increase the capacity of Moldovan law-enforcement and criminal-justice institutions, fight corruption, and uphold the primacy of the rule of law.
- Trafficking in Persons (TIP): Moldova, the poorest nation in Europe, is a source country for sex trafficking (primarily to Turkey, Cyprus, and the UAE) and labor trafficking to Russia and Ukraine. INL anti-TIP efforts focus on increasing the capacity of Moldovan authorities to identify, investigate, and prosecute TIP cases.
- Donor Coordination: Successful assistance to Moldova requires collaboration among donors and development partners as well as the GOM. Though the EU and its implementers are the largest donors in the justice sector, INL strives to take a leadership role in ensuring effective coordination.
Program Components and Accomplishments:
Law Enforcement Capacity Development
Moldovan law enforcement and security entities remain under-funded, ill-equipped, and poorly trained, and need significant assistance. The GOM is in the process of reforming its law-enforcement and criminal-justice sectors. INL is attempting to assist, focusing on improving the quality of criminal investigations (with an emphasis on eliminating coerced confessions) and increasing the capacity to fight transnational crime. For criminal investigations, INL plans to institute a self-sustaining in-service training program through the police academy to include interviewing and interrogation, crime scene investigation, chain-of custody rules for evidence, and crime data analysis. INL will also support efforts to combat cyber-crime and bolster internal border controls.
Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program
Since 2003, INL has funded a U.S. Department of Justice Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) in Moldova. The RLA’s core mission is to align Moldova's laws – and their enforcement – with international and European standards. Initially focused on combating human trafficking and public corruption, the RLA now addresses systemic weaknesses in the criminal justice system. With the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Moldova's official academy for judges and prosecutors, the RLA mounts continuing legal education workshops in substantive criminal law as well as trial skills. With the Prosecutor General's Office, the RLA has helped overhaul the Prosecutors’ Code of Ethics and the laws governing financial disclosure for public officials. Greater stress is being placed on train-the-trainer initiatives.
Defense Bar Capacity Development
INL partners with the American Bar Association Rule of Law Initiative (ABA ROLI) to increase the capacity of the criminal defense bar. ABA ROLI prepares new legal professionals to provide competent legal representation, helps strengthen the institutional capacity of the Union of Lawyers and the National Judicial Institute; and assists legislative reform.
Human trafficking is a serious issue in Moldova, and the USG has invested over $1.9 million (from 2005 to 2010) in Moldova’s Center for Combating Trafficking-in-Persons (CCTIP), a task force comprising prosecutors, investigators, operative police, and analysts. A grant to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) supports an on-site prosecutorial advisor at the CCTIP for a year, starting in September 2011. Other components of the project include procuring video conferencing equipment to facilitate testimony from endangered witnesses, as well as a regional conference on victim-witness issues.