Report
Bureau of International Organization Affairs
September 22, 2011


INTRODUCTION

I. POLITICAL AND SECURITY AFFAIRS

Geographic Issues

Africa
Central African Republic and Chad: UN Mission (MINURCAT)
Côte d’Ivoire: UN Operation (UNOCI)
Darfur: African Union-UN Mission (UNAMID)
Democratic Republic of the Congo: UN Organization Stabilization Mission (MONUSCO)
Liberia: UN Mission (UNMIL)
Sudan: UN Mission (UNMIS)
Western Sahara: UN Mission for the Referendum (MINURSO)

East Asia and the Pacific
Burma (Myanmar)
Timor-Leste: UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

Europe
Cyprus: UN Peacekeeping Force (UNFICYP)
Kosovo: UN Interim Administration Mission (UNMIK)

Near East
Arab-Israeli Situation
Iraq

Regional Missions

  • UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
  • UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
  • UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

South and Central Asia
Afghanistan
India and Pakistan: UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Western Hemisphere
Haiti: UN Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH)

Thematic Issues
Civilians and Conflict
Children and Armed Conflict
Protection of Civilians and Responsibility to Protect
Women, Peace, and Security
Disarmament and International Security
1540 (Nonproliferation) Committee
Conference on Disarmament (CD)
Disarmament Commission (UNDC)
General Assembly First Committee and Plenary
Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Disarmament
--Security Council Sanctions Against Iran
Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)
Peacekeeping
Non-Self-Governing Territories
Security Council Reform
Terrorism and Sanctions
--1267 (al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions) Committee
--Counterterrorism
--Counterterrorism Implementation Task Force (CITF)

II. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS

Economic and Development Issues
Commission on Population and Development (CPD)
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
Development Program (UNDP)
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Population Fund (UNFPA)

Human Rights Issues
Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
Human Rights Council (HRC) and General Assembly Third Committee

HRC Country Issues
Afghanistan
Burma
Côte d’Ivoire
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Guinea
Haiti
Iran
Israel
Kyrgyzstan
North Korea
Somalia
Sudan

Thematic Issues
Defamation of Religions
Discrimination Against Women
Freedom of Assembly and Association
Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Individuals
Universal Periodic Review

Social Issues
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ or Crime Commission)
Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) and UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)
Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC)
Democracy Fund (UNDEF)
International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)

III. SPECIALIZED AGENCIES AND OTHER BODIES

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
International Labor Organization (ILO)
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Universal Postal Union (UPU)
World Food Program (WFP)
World Health Organization (WHO)
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

IV. LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS

International Court of Justice (ICJ)
International Criminal Court (ICC)
International Law Commission (ILC)
International Tribunals
Cambodia Khmer Rouge Tribunal
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
Special Court for Sierra Leone
Special Tribunal for Lebanon

V. BUDGET AND ADMINISTRATION

Accountability
Budget
Financial Situation
Human Resources
Oversight
Program Planning 


INTRODUCTION

The following is a summary of the activities of the U.S. government in the United Nations and its agencies, as well as the activities of the United Nations and UN agencies themselves. It seeks to assess in brief UN achievements during 2010, the effectiveness of U.S. participation in the United Nations, and whether U.S. goals were advanced.

In 2010, the United States continued to exercise its leadership at the United Nations and in a host of international organizations in support of U.S. national interests. That effort was evident in a host of multilateral fora, many of which are discussed in this annex.

This document summarizes efforts made by the United States in 2010 to advance its interests in the UN system within the following categories:

Key web resources employed include:

Previous versions of the United States Participation in the United Nations report can be found here. Unless otherwise noted, all references to a particular year are for calendar year 2010.

I. POLITICAL AND SECURITY AFFAIRS

Geographic Issues

Africa

The UNSC adopted several resolutions and statements relating to Africa, including the situations in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, and piracy off the coast of Somalia. The Council also adopted additional thematic resolutions dealing with Africa on a range of functional issues. The United States took a leading role in the negotiation of many of these resolutions and statements, and actively participated in all of the negotiations. The United States also frequently issued statements in the UNSC on Africa.

Associated Web Resources:

Central African Republic and Chad: UN Mission (MINURCAT)

UNSCR 1861 authorized extension of MINURCAT’s mandate mission until March 15. The resolution also authorized deployment of a UN peacekeeping military contingent of 5,200 to replace the European Union Force (EUFOR) when it began to draw down in March. On March 15, EUFOR handed over peacekeeping duties in the Central African Republic and Chad to the United Nations, with no gap in security reported during the transition. Approximately 2,000 members of EUFOR agreed to stay on under UN command and control. At the request of the United States, the Russian Federation transferred four helicopters from MINURCAT to the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS).

Associated Web Resources:

UN Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI)

The United States supported the UNOCI’s work to keep the Ivorian peace process on track, including UN support for nationwide elections and engagement in resolving the post-election crisis. The United States voted in favor of UNSC Resolutions 1911, 1924, 1933, and 1962, the last of which extended the UNOCI’s mandate until June 30; Resolution 1942, which temporarily increased the UNOCI’s ceiling by 500 to 9,150 during the election period; and Resolution 1951, which temporarily authorized the transfer of three infantry companies and one aviation unit from the UN Mission in Liberia to the UNOCI. Resolution 1946 renewed the Côte d’Ivoire sanctions regime and extended the mandate of the panel of experts.

Associated Web Resources:

African Union – UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)

UNAMID’s core mandate is the protection of civilians. In addition, it is tasked with contributing to security for humanitarian assistance, monitoring and verifying implementation of agreements, assisting an inclusive political process, contributing to the promotion of human rights and the rule of law, and monitoring and reporting on the situation along the borders with Chad and the Central African Republic. The United States continued to support the UNAMID through political and military advocacy, including repeated calls on the Government of Sudan to provide full access within the mission’s area of operations. The United States also continued to provide diplomatic support for the Secretary-General’s appeals to the international community to mitigate the UNAMID’s shortfalls in troops and critical transport and aviation assets. The United States trains and equips peacekeepers deploying to Darfur. The United States supported UNSCR 1935, extending the UNAMID’s mandate until July. It also supported the UNSCR 1945, strengthening the arms embargo by requiring member states to ensure end-user verification of arms and related materiel sold to Sudan, and by requiring all member states to notify the committee before providing military assistance and supplies to Darfur in support of the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Resolution 1945 also renewed for another year the mandate of the UNSC Sudan sanctions committee’s panel of experts.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)

MONUSCO continued to serve an indispensable role in helping the Congolese government protect civilians, counter armed groups, and strengthen and reform judicial and security institutions. The UNSC, led by the United States, adopted resolution 1925, which retained the protection of civilians as the Mission’s highest priority and emphasized the importance of stabilization activities. The UNSC also continued to highlight the problem of sexual and gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and urged the Congolese government, UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, and MONUSCO to protect civilians more effectively. The United States also supported UNSCR 1952, renewing for another year the arms embargo on non-governmental individuals and entities operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the targeted asset freeze and travel ban for those listed by the UNSC sanctions committee for the DRC, and the mandate of the committee’s group of experts. In the resolution, the UNSC also took the unprecedented step of supporting the group of experts’ due diligence guidelines for individuals and companies that import, process, or consume Congolese mineral products. These guidelines could significantly limit the illicit minerals trade, which has for many years fueled violence in the DRC.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)

The United States supported the UNSC actions to help Liberia continue to build a stable and secure environment, and to prepare for country-wide elections in 2011. These actions included Resolution 1938, drafted by the United States, which renewed the UNMIL’s mandate until September 30; authorized UNMIL support for the 2011 elections; endorsed the Secretary-General’s recommendation that free, fair, and peaceful elections be a benchmark for the mission’s drawdown; urged the government of Liberia and UNMIL to continue to plan for the eventual drawdown of the mission; and urged coherence between the government, the peacekeeping mission and the peacebuilding commission’s work in Liberia. Resolution 1961 renewed the Liberia sanctions regime and extended the mandate of the panel of experts.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

The UNMIS continued to support implementation of the 2005 comprehensive peace agreement, by providing good offices and political support to the parties, monitoring and verifying their security arrangements, and offering assistance in a number of areas, including governance, recovery and development. The Mission focused on the parties’ outstanding commitments, including redeployment of forces, resolution of the dispute over the oil-rich Abyei region, and preparations for national elections and subsequent referendums. UNSCR 1919, drafted by the United States, extended the UNMIS’s mandate until April.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)

UNSCR 1920 extended the MINURSO’s mandate through April 30. The MINURSO continued to monitor the cease-fire and prevented a return to open conflict between the Royal Moroccan Army and the Polisario. The resolution emphasized the need for progress by the parties toward a political solution through UN-led negotiations, and the importance of confidence-building measures.

Associated Web Resources:

East Asia and the Pacific

Burma

Obtaining UNSC action on Burma continued to be a challenge due to strong opposition from some Council members. During the year, the United States participated actively in UNSC consultations on Burma related to its 2010 elections, ongoing human rights abuses, and the release of Aung San Suu Kyi. The United States was also actively involved in meetings of the group of friends of the Secretary-General on Burma. In UNGA, the United States played a key role in adoption of resolution 65/241 on the human rights situation. The resolution criticized the elections as neither free nor fair; and while it welcomed Aung San Suu Kyi's release, it also noted that more than 2,100 political prisoners remained in detention in Burma.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

UNSCR 1912 extended the UNMIT’s mandate for one year. Resolution 1912 also mandated that the UNMIT support local elections and continue to hand over primary policing responsibilities to the Timorese National Police.

Associated Web Resources:

Europe

The UNSC authorized continuation of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) and the EU-led multinational stabilization force (EUFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina in cooperation with NATO.

During the UNSC debates in May and November, the United States continued to encourage Bosnia and Herzegovina to implement constitutional and other reforms needed for full Euro-Atlantic integration in accordance with the Dayton Agreement.

During the UNSC debates in January, May, July, August, and November, the United States and European members continued to highlight Kosovo’s advancement as an open, multiethnic, and democratic republic. They called on Kosovo and Serbia to find opportunities for pragmatic cooperation to improve life for all of Kosovo’s communities – particularly in Kosovo’s north – and continued to welcome robust supporting efforts to this end by the EU Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX). A General Assembly Resolution in September acknowledged the International Court of Justice's (ICJ) July advisory opinion that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate international law, and welcomed EU efforts to facilitate a dialogue between Kosovo and Serbia to promote cooperation.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

The UNFICYP provided security as peace talks continued between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot leaders. UNSCR 1930 renewed the UNFICYP’s mandate until December 15. UNSCR 1953 renewed the UNFICYP’s mandate through June 15.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

During debates in the UNSC in January, May, July, August, and November, the United States and European members continued to highlight the steps that Kosovo had taken to strengthen its multiethnic democracy; called on Kosovo and Serbia to find opportunities for pragmatic cooperation that could improve life for all of Kosovo’s communities and to promote reconciliation in the region; and welcomed robust steps by the EULEX to strengthen rule of law throughout the entire country. During an UNGA meeting in September, the United States expressed strong support for the ICJ’s July 2010 advisory opinion concluding that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate international law. The United States also supported EU efforts to facilitate a dialogue between Kosovo and Serbia to promote cooperation, improve people’s lives, and move both countries toward Euro-Atlantic integration.

Associated Web Resources:

Near East

Arab-Israeli Situation

The United States actively pursued a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace, including a two-state solution, with Israel and Palestine living side by side in peace, and continued to work in partnership with our fellow Quartet members toward this objective.

In monthly UNSC sessions on the Middle East, the United States consistently pursued international support for peace efforts, urged Arab states in particular to take clear and unambiguous steps toward normalization with Israel, denounced Iranian arms smuggling, and condemned terrorist attacks from Hamas and other violent extremists. The United States also reaffirmed that substantive and meaningful negotiations between the parties are the best path to a just and lasting peace, and urged the parties to avoid unilateral actions that would undermine the pursuit of peace.

Likewise, the United States continued to stand in firm opposition in all UN bodies – including UNGA, the HRC, and UNESCO – to resolutions that unfairly singled out Israel; prejudged permanent-status issues that Israelis and Palestinians must resolve through meaningful and substantive negotiations; advocated activities or language incompatible with basic principles of Arab-Israeli peace; or expended resources that could be used more productively to improve the lives of Palestinians. For example, in the fall session of the 65th UNGA, the United States vigorously opposed 18 resolutions concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, hostilities in Gaza, and related issues. Unfortunately, these annual resolutions continue to pass by wide margins, due to bloc voting, despite unwavering U.S. support for fair treatment of Israel.

U.S. representatives continued to speak out vigorously in all UN organizations to ensure Israel was not excluded from meetings and conferences, and that Israeli interests were given fair consideration. In bodies such as the IAEA’s general conference in Vienna, the United States successfully coordinated opposition to biased resolutions. U.S. officials responded to continuing activity in the HRC connected to fact-finding commissions on the fighting in Gaza (the deeply flawed “Goldstone report”) by forcefully and repeatedly proclaiming U.S. support for Israel’s right to defend itself and the ability of its domestic institutions credibly to investigate and follow up on possible abuses. Regarding the Mavi Marmara flotilla incident, on June 1 the UNSC adopted a presidential statement expressing regret for the loss of life and injuries resulting from the use of force during the Israeli military operation in international waters against the convoy sailing to Gaza. The United States continued to regard the Secretary-General’s panel as the primary vehicle for the international community to receive and review the parties’ investigations into the flotilla episode, and opposed several HRC follow-up resolutions on the incident.

The United States continued to work for fair treatment of Israel across the UN system, including having all the rights and responsibilities of any other UN member state. Vigorous U.S. diplomacy won several hard-fought battles, including Israeli membership in a key HRC consultative group. Israel, as chair of the Kimberly process, led negotiations in December on a draft UNGA resolution, adopted by consensus, on the role of diamonds in fuelling conflict.

As President Obama told UNGA in September, “It should be clear to all that efforts to chip away at Israel's legitimacy will only be met by the unshakeable opposition of the United States.”

Associated Web Resources:

Iraq

The UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) continued to pursue its expanded mandate as defined in the UNSC Resolution 1770 (2007), and renewed in Resolutions 1830 (2008) and 1883 (2009). In August the UNSC unanimously adopted resolution 1936 (2010), extending the UNAMI’s mandate for 12 months.

In December, the UNSC passed three resolutions to help restore Iraq to its international standing prior to its 1990 invasion of Kuwait by lifting several long-standing chapter VII restrictions. Resolution 1956 terminated the UN-supervised arrangements for the development fund for Iraq on June 30. Resolution 1957 ended restrictions related to civilian nuclear cooperation placed on Iraq after the first Gulf War, and Resolution 1958 terminated all residual activities under the Oil-for-Food program. The UNSC also issued presidential statements on government formation, and press statements on government formation, elections, violence in Iraq, and Iraq-Kuwait issues. The Secretary-General also released quarterly reports on the UNAMI, two reports from the high-level coordinator, and two reports on the development fund for Iraq.

Associated Web Resources:

Regional Missions

Syria: UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

The United States supported the UNDOF’s work in monitoring the cease-fire between Israel and Syria, supervising the disengagement of Israeli and Syrian forces in the Golan Heights, and monitoring the areas of separation and limitation between the two countries. This work included support to the International Committee of the Red Cross in facilitating passage of goods and people through the area of separation, and in undertaking a minefield security program to reduce UN and local casualties. UNSCR 1934 extended the UNDOF’s mandate to December 31, 2010 and UNSCR 1965 extended it to June 30.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

The United States continued to support the UNIFIL’s mandate to monitor the cessation of hostilities between Israel and Lebanon; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces as they deploy throughout southern Lebanon; facilitate humanitarian access to civilian populations and the safe return of displaced persons; and assist the Lebanese Armed Forces to establish an area free of unauthorized armed personnel, materiel, and weapons. On August 3, an exchange of fire occurred between the Lebanese Armed Forces and the Israel Defense Forces, resulting in deaths on both sides. The UNIFIL played a vital role in getting both sides to cease fire. The UNIFIL Force Commander also convened an extraordinary tripartite meeting on August 4, where both parties renewed their commitment to the cessation of hostilities and to the fulfillment of UNSCR 1701. In November, Israel gave provisional approval to and Lebanon approved the UNIFIL Force Commander’s plan to withdraw Israeli forces from northern Ghajar. UNSCR 1937 both extended the UNIFIL’s mandate through August 31, and strongly deplored the August incidents, calling strongly for respecting the cessation of hostilities, preventing any violation of the Blue line, and emphasizing allowing the UNIFIL to fulfill its mandate.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

The United States supported the UNTSO in maintaining a stabilizing presence in the region, including providing personnel to support the peacekeeping forces in the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) in the Golan Heights. The UNTSO observers are stationed in the Sinai to maintain a UN presence there.

Associated Web Resource:

South and Central Asia

Afghanistan

The UN Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) continued to pursue the mandate expanded in 2008 and renewed unanimously for 12 months by Resolution 1917. The UNAMA focused its activities in four areas: overseeing international assistance for legislative elections; supporting Afghan-led reconciliation and reintegration; regional diplomacy; and promoting donor aid coherence. The NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) continued to provide security under a UN mandate, which the UNSC renewed for 12 months in UNSCR 1943.

Associated Web Resources:

UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

The United States supported the UNMOGIP’s long-standing work to observe, to the extent possible, developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of December 17, 1971, and to report thereon to the Secretary-General.

Associated Web Resource:

Western Hemisphere

UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

The January 12 earthquake destroyed the MINUSTAH headquarters and killed 102 UN staff, including the special representative of the Secretary-General and much of the mission’s senior leadership. The United States actively engaged in supporting political and material actions to support the MINUSTAH, in addition to providing direct support to Haiti. Supplemented by staff from New York and other missions, the MINUSTAH continued to maintain stability and provide security while working with other UN agencies, governments, and non-governmental organizations to provide humanitarian assistance and support relief operations. After the earthquake, the MINUSTAH’s community violence reduction section undertook more than 100 debris removal projects. UNSCR 1908 authorized an additional 2,000 troops (to 8,940) and 1,500 additional police (to 3,711). UNSCR 1927 authorized an additional increase of 680 UN police to accelerate capacity-building for the Haitian National Police, to expand protection of vulnerable groups, and to combat sexual and gender-based violence in displaced persons camps. The U.S. southern command and the MINUSTAH established a joint operations and tasking center, with a particular focus on joint exercises and disaster preparedness. The United States supported UNSCR 1944, which extended the MINUSTAH’s mandate until October 15, with no change in force strength but providing additional direction on supporting the presidential and legislative elections.

Associated Web Resources:

Thematic Issues

Children and Armed Conflict

Through monitoring and reporting by the Secretary-General’s special representative on children and armed conflict, the UNSC working group on that topic continued to review conflict situations and present recommendations to the UNSC, parties to conflicts, and others on actions required to improve the situation of children in these contexts. The working group focused the international spotlight on this challenge, and sent a strong signal of the UNSC's determination to confront this problem.

Associated Web Resources:

Protection of Civilians and Responsibility to Protect

Protection of civilians continued to be a dominant theme throughout the UN system. The UNSC specifically tasked protection of civilians as a primary component of the UN peacekeeping operations in six out of the 14 existing mandates. Additionally, the UNSC continued to emphasize the need to enhance civilian protection through thematic debates, including on the protection of civilians, as well as debates on children and armed conflict and women, peace and security, and the creation of the informal expert group on protection of civilians.

Along with a memorandum on the protection of civilians, the informal UNSC expert group on the protection of civilians proved a useful vehicle to inform the council’s deliberations on particular situations. Since its 2009 establishment, the expert group met 17 times to review Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Somalia and Sudan.

Associated Web Resources:

Women, Peace, and Security

Combating sexual and gender-based violence and increasing women’s participation in conflict resolution and peace processes were top U.S. priorities throughout the year. In October, during a UNSC session to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security, Secretary Clinton announced that the United States would create a national action plan to accelerate support for women as key enablers of peace and stability in countries affected by conflict. The United States used its presidency of the UNSC in December to arrange an open debate on sexual violence in conflict. The United States led negotiations on UNSCR 1960, which called on the Secretary-General to create monitoring, analysis, and reporting arrangements for sexual violence, and to list names of parties to armed conflict responsible for rape or other forms of sexual violence in his annual report.

Associated Web Resources:

Disarmament and International Security

1540 (Nonproliferation) Committee

The United States continued actively to support the 1540 Committee’s efforts to help member states deter proliferation by non-state actors of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons and their means of delivery. During a meeting of the G-8 non-proliferation directors group in Vancouver in October, the United States shared information regarding 37 requests for assistance in meeting their 1540 obligations from UN member states. The United States also co-sponsored a meeting of international, regional, and sub-regional organizations in Vienna in December to encourage these organizations to play a larger role in implementing the resolution. In addition, the United States worked with the EU to encourage greater use of regional centers of excellence for combating weapons of mass destruction and provide capacity-building to help countries meet their 1540 obligations.

Associated Web Resources:

Conference on Disarmament (CD)

The CD is the principal multilateral forum for negotiating arms control and disarmament agreements. Its agenda includes the issues of nuclear disarmament, the prevention of nuclear war, weapons of mass destruction, conventional armaments, negative security assurances, the prevention of an arms race in outer space, and transparency in armaments. Although the CD agreed in 2009 to initiate negotiations on a fissile material cutoff treaty (FMCT) as a nuclear disarmament step, negotiations did not commence; efforts in 2010 to reach such an agreement failed. The CD has not carried out an agreed work program since 1998.

The CD adopted its annual report to the General Assembly on September 14.

Associated Web Resources:

Disarmament Commission (UNDC)

The UNDC, a subsidiary of the General Assembly, is a deliberative body intended to consider in depth, and make recommendations on disarmament issues. The non-aligned movement has historically tried to focus the UNDC discussion almost exclusively on nuclear disarmament issues. At the insistence of the United States and others, the UNDC agenda also addresses nuclear nonproliferation and conventional weapons confidence-building and/or transparency measures, to maintain a balanced consideration of arms control and disarmament matters. The UNDC last issued consensus recommendations in 1999.

Associated Web Resources:

General Assembly First Committee and Plenary

The disarmament and international security committee deals with disarmament and related international security questions. It meets as a committee of UNGA and reports out draft resolutions to the Assembly for approval.

Consistent with U.S. voting patterns during the 64th UNGA, during the 65th UNGA the United States avoided voting negatively in isolation on any item before the First Committee, while continuing to protect and promote U.S. interests. The total number of U.S. negative votes was 11, compared to ten in 2009. Only once did the United States abstain in isolation, on a resolution sponsored by Russia and China concerning outer space transparency and confidence-building measures. The Committee’s work revolved mainly around nuclear disarmament and related subjects.

The United States and Russia sponsored a resolution on the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) that was ultimately adopted by consensus, notwithstanding an Iranian motion to amend that was later withdrawn, as well as a separate paragraph vote called by Pakistan to demonstrate its opposition to the FMCT.

Associated Web Resources:

Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Disarmament

The UNSC adopted resolution 1928, which extended until June 12, the mandate of the panel of experts monitoring sanctions against North Korea. The panel had been established one year earlier by resolution 1874, which was adopted in response to nuclear testing conducted by North Korea in May 2009. The UNSC also adopted resolution 1929, which adopted a fourth round of UN sanctions against Iran for its failure to comply with its nuclear nonproliferation obligations and with previous UNSC resolutions concerning its nuclear program.

Associated Web Resource:

UNSC Sanctions on Iran

The United States led UNSC efforts to address the Iran nuclear issue, including through the adoption of resolution 1929. Despite consistent and longstanding demands by the UNSC, Iran did not suspend its uranium enrichment and other proliferation-related activities that are in direct violation of its international nuclear obligations. Resolution 1929 is the sixth UNSC resolution on Iran, and the fourth to impose Chapter VII sanctions. Resolution 1929 is intended to address Iran’s noncompliance with its international nuclear obligations, by dramatically expanding the breadth of economic sanctions imposed. Resolution 1929 also established an eight-member panel of experts to support the UNSC’s Iran Sanctions Committee (“1737 Committee”) in carrying out its mandate.

Associated Web Resources:

Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)

The PBC is an advisory body to support peace efforts in countries emerging from conflict. As a member of the organizational committee of the PBC, the United States participated actively in the committee as well as in the PBC’s work on the countries on its agenda (Burundi, Central African Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, and as of September, Liberia). The United States participated in the assessment mission to Liberia, which helped frame the priority plan for the PBC’s work there. The United States consulted with the United Nations on the five-year review of the PBC’s mandate, as the PBC began the process of considering and implementing the recommendations that resulted from that review. The United States joined consensus to adopt UNGA resolution 65/7 on the review of the PBC, while continuing to encourage greater UN interoperability with major bilateral donors and multilateral financial institutions in post-conflict countries.

Associated Web Resources:

Peacekeeping

Both the UNSC and UNGA attention remained focused on enhancing the overall effectiveness of UN peacekeeping operations. The United States supported two UNSC presidential statements on peacekeeping, one emphasizing the need to set clear goals and use benchmarks to measure progress, and the other committing to renewed focus on issues related to protection of civilians and sexual violence against women and children. During a UNSC session on “an agenda for peace,” Secretary Clinton underlined the U.S. commitment to building peacekeeping capacity; announced funding for several measures related to protection of civilians, and rule-of-law prevention of sexual violence in conflict and police training. UNGA held a debate marking the 10th anniversary of the Brahimi Report on peacekeeping. During the debate, Mr. Brahimi praised President Obama’s 2009 outreach to principal troop contributors as an important step in improving communication among peacekeeping stakeholders. During an UNGA Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) debate on peacekeeping and a UNSC discussion of key capacity gaps, the United States again emphasized its support for measures to improve effectiveness and efficiency in carrying out key mandates, including protection of civilians, measures to combat sexual violence, and strengthening UN capacity in policing and rule of law.

The United States joined consensus on the annual report of the UNGA’s Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, which included support for the development of detailed guidance on key mandates, including the protection of civilians. In the UNGA’s Fifth Committee (Budget), the United States successfully advocated for proposals, under the UN Global Field Support Strategy, to expand the standing police capacity to just under 50 officers, and create a six-person justice and corrections capacity; both these capacities are available for immediate deployment to help start new missions and fill critical gaps in existing missions. The United States also supported expanded activities at the UN Logistics Base in Brindisi, intended to help speed services to UN operations in the field and improve the ability of peacekeeping missions to carry out their mandates.

Associated Web Resources:

Non-Self-Governing Territories

The United States is the administering power of three non-self-governing territories, as defined by the Special Political and Decolonization Committee (Fourth Committee) of the General Assembly: American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The United States continued to vote against or abstain on committee-sponsored resolutions addressing the governance and independence of non-self-governing territories. The United States continued to question the underlying assumption that economic and military activity by the administering power necessarily harms the interests of an administered territory’s people, and maintains that resolutions based on this premise are unnecessary and tend to inflame rather than settle the issue in question.

The United States does not participate in the Fourth Committee’s special committee on the situation with regard to the implementation of the declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples, also known as the committee of 24 or C-24.

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Security Council Reform

Intergovernmental negotiations on UNSC reform continued with the fourth, fifth and sixth rounds of informal plenary sessions of UNGA. At the request of the chair of the negotiations, member states submitted statements at the beginning of the fifth round on the five key reform issues: categories of membership, the question of the veto, regional representation, size of an expanded UNSC and its working methods, and the relationship of the UNSC to UNGA. The United States maintained its support for reforms that preserve and strengthen the UNSC’s effectiveness and efficiency. The chair of the intergovernmental negotiations compiled the positions into a document that formed the basis for discussions of the sixth round that began in December.

Associated Web Resource:

Terrorism and Sanctions

The United States continued to support efforts in the UNSC’s three counterterrorism entities – the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) created by resolution 1373 following the attacks of September 11; the 1267 Committee (al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions) Committee; and the 1540 Committee (nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors) Committee – as well as UNGA’s efforts to address terrorism. The United States sees these committees as important fora for setting global norms and building counterterrorism partnerships and institutional capacity with vulnerable and weak states.

1267 (al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions) Committee

The United States continued to lead efforts to implement fairness and transparency reforms to the listing and delisting processes in this sanctions regime, approving the appointment of an ombudsperson to facilitate the 1267 Committee’s review of delisting petitions. By the end of the year, there were 485 entries on the consolidated sanctions list of individuals and entities associated with al-Qaida, the Taliban, and Usama bin Laden. The United States supported 22 successful new listings, 31 updates to current listings, and 40 delistings as part of an effort to ensure the al-Qaida/Taliban sanctions list remains as up-to-date and accurate as possible.

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Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC)

The CTC continued its work as the leading counterterrorism body of the UNSC. The United States actively supported efforts by the Committee’s Counterterrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) to assess and address gaps in member state implementation of Resolution 1373, and to encourage greater coordination in facilitating counterterrorism technical assistance to member states. The United States further supported thematic discussions in the CTC of issues related to border security, arms trafficking, law enforcement, and best practices. The United States welcomed the adoption of UNSCR 1963, which renewed the CTED’s mandate for three years. The United States also supported CTED by co-funding and participating in a workshop in New York which brought together senior counterterrorism prosecutors from across the globe with experience in handling high-profile terrorism cases. The United States also participated in two CTED regional workshops.

Counterterrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF)

Since the adoption of the UN Global Counterterrorism Strategy in 2006, the task force, comprised of all UN member states and 30 entities across the UN system and Interpol, has become the focal point for efforts to support implementation of the global framework. The United States supported CTITF efforts by funding a series of regional workshops aimed at raising awareness of the Strategy. CTITF also supported the Integrated Assistance for Countering Terrorism initiative to enhance information-sharing and coordination of technical assistance delivery with partnering governments and various UN entities. The CTITF also supported the UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) in opening a “Center on Policies to Counter the Appeal of Terrorism.” The Center will analyze policies and programs on detection and prevention of pathways into terrorism, early intervention efforts against terrorist recruitment, and rehabilitation initiatives.

II. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS

Economic and Development Issues
Commission on Population and Development (CPD)

The CPD advises the UN Economic and Social Council on population changes and their effects. The CPD also monitors, reviews, and assesses implementation of the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), adopted in 1994 in Cairo.

The theme of the annual CPD session was “health, morbidity, mortality, and development.” The U.S. delegation emphasized its commitment to global health, achieving ICPD goals, and the need to address the high rate of maternal mortality and lack of access to reproductive health. The United States joined consensus on the resolution adopted on the theme.

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Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

The CSD provides a forum for exchanging and disseminating best practices and lessons learned on sustainable development challenges, including climate change, energy, environmental impacts, human and labor rights, food security, the green economy, and environmental degradation. It serves as a policy-setting mechanism for sustainable development matters.

The CSD addressed mining, transport, waste, chemicals management, and sustainable production and consumption. With input from nine U.S. agencies, the United States contributed formal interventions throughout CSD’s annual session, highlighting U.S. partnerships and submitting a national report on U.S. environmental programs and case studies. The United States also sponsored learning centers, side events, and partnership fair events. The U.S. delegation laid the foundations for negotiation of a result-oriented outcome document for 2011, by incorporating value-added lessons learned, best practices, and technical recommendations for practical use. The delegation emphasized important U.S. priorities, including enhanced cooperation on established international programs, and emphasized good governance, transparency and public participation, and using best practices (including regulations and voluntary programs) to construct strong national programs.

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Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

UNCTAD is the UN focal point for integrated treatment of trade and development issues. The United States worked collaboratively to ensure that member states drove UNCTAD’s work plan, including meeting topics, budget and staffing requests, and research and publication topics.

In concert with other member states, the United States laid the foundation for negotiation of the topics that will be the basis for work over the next four years, and that will be finalized at UNCTAD’s quadrennial ministerial conference in 2012. U.S. participation in these negotiations helps ensure that UNCTAD’s work remains aligned with U.S. trade, investment and development policy goals.

The United States also continued to work to incorporate gender as a cross-cutting issue in trade and development programs, to increase the number of female beneficiaries of UNCTAD’s technical assistance, to include gender as a factor in UNCTAD research, and to track intergovernmental meeting participation and UNCTAD staffing by gender. These efforts aligned UNCTAD more closely with U.S. development priorities.

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Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

The UNCCD addresses fundamental causes of famine and food insecurity. The United States played a critical role in the Convention’s progress toward an effective new implementation phase, which began in 2007 with the adoption of the 10-Year Strategic Plan. It emphasizes a transition to a results-based management approach. After the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (in 2009, the United States worked with other delegations to realign and prioritize the Convention’s program and budget according to the results-based management approach. The United States is currently one of two representatives of the Western European and Others Group on the Conference of Parties Bureau.

The United States continued to join other parties in focusing on the implementation of the convention. The United States also participated in and supported development of the Committee on Science and Technology Scientific Conferences.

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Development Program (UNDP)

The United States continued to work with UNDP management to improve the effectiveness of UNDP programs in helping the least developed countries to promote good governance and private sector development, essential for long-term prosperity and stability. The United States also continued working within the UNDP Board and with management to push for greater transparency and accountability in UNDP management and program practices, particularly in the reporting of program results and management and program oversight. The United States contributed $100 million to UNDP’s regular budget, plus approximately $200 million in earmarked country programs.

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Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

UNFCCC is a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, specifically to “achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.”

The United States engaged actively in negotiations culminating at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP-16) in Cancun. The resulting Cancun Agreements represent an important step in meeting the climate and clean energy challenge. As a result of Cancun, all major economies will take actions to reduce their emissions in a transparent way. Cancun also made significant progress on how to address finance, technology, and adaptation. Parties additionally agreed to extend to COP-17 the mandates of the Ad Hoc Working Groups established by the 2007 Bali Roadmap.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCC conducts comprehensive and inclusive assessments of the literature on scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information relevant for the understanding of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC has three working groups: climate change science; impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability; and mitigation.

The 32nd Session addressed recommendations of an inter-academy panel commissioned by the UN Secretary-General and the IPCC Chair to review governance and procedures. The United States joined other delegates in accepting the large majority of recommendations and establishing task forces to consider and implement them further. The United States also hosted the Working Group II Technical Support Unit, which facilitated the Group’s work on “Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability.”

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Population Fund (UNFPA)

The UNFPA supports and funds maternal, child, and reproductive health care and family planning programs in over 150 countries, and works on issues of gender empowerment, child marriage, and violence against women.

The United States is a member of the executive board of the UNFPA, and participated in its decision-making processes to promote U.S. interests. The United States provided $51.4 million to UNFPA.

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Human Rights Issues

Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

In more than 190 countries, UNICEF continued to provide children with health care, clean water, nutrition, education, protection, and emergency relief. UNICEF remained active in post-disaster and post-conflict situations, including Haiti and Pakistan, as well as in working with governments to create systems to ensure that all children are safe, protected, and have access to quality basic education and health care.

The United States continued to be the largest government donor to UNICEF, and the second-largest overall donor, with nearly $300 million. The largest amount, $132 million, came from the State Department. Other contributions, for specific projects, came from USAID and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

The United States was UNHCR’s largest donor, contributing over $700 million in FY 2010. UNHCR assisted over 34.4 million refugees, internally displaced persons, stateless persons, and others of concern. As part of UNHCR's reform process to become increasingly cost-effective and results-oriented, its executive committee promulgated guidance for member states when dealing with refugees with disabilities. American T. Alexander Aleinikoff became UN Deputy High Commissioner for Refugees in February.

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Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)

The United States was the largest bilateral donor to UNRWA, contributing over $247 million, including $140 million to the General Fund, $75 million for the West Bank and Gaza Emergency Appeal, $20 million for Lebanon reconstruction and relief activities, and $10 million to construct five schools in Gaza. U.S. support for its General Fund helped UNRWA provide critical services, including primary health care from doctors and nurses who attended to more than 11 million patient visits, and education to 500,000 Palestinian refugee youth across the region. U.S. contributions to UNRWA’s West Bank and Gaza Emergency Appeal helped provide direct humanitarian assistance to over 1.8 million Palestinian refugees in the West Bank and Gaza, including food, shelter, health care, and job creation. Additionally, U.S. support for UNRWA’s Lebanon operations assisted in the reconstruction of Nahr al Bared refugee camp, which was destroyed in 2007, as well as provided humanitarian assistance to those who remain displaced.

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Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)

OCHA is the primary coordinator of UN relief efforts, overseeing humanitarian programs valued at $11 billion. The United States worked closely with OCHA to monitor and provide timely and efficient responses to 19 crises in 32 countries affecting 71 million people.

The United States was one of OCHA's top donors, and U.S. contributions were instrumental in demonstrating commitment both to humanitarian assistance and in strengthening OCHA’s structure and role as humanitarian coordinator. For FY 2010, the United States provided OCHA $32 million.

The United States worked closely with OCHA and other key UN humanitarian agencies to address issues including timely staffing of critical positions at headquarters and at the field level, broadening donor pools, mainstreaming of global cluster lead and humanitarian country team responsibilities and accountability, and advocating for a focus on meeting the most critical missions. The United States also advocated for the adoption of measures to improve the UN cluster system for humanitarian response and the global cluster lead performances of UN agencies such as UNICEF, WHO, and UNDP.

The United States worked closely to improve coordination on humanitarian assistance issues with other donors and key stakeholders.

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Human Rights Council (HRC) and UNGA Third Committee

While the United States promotes human rights in a number of multilateral fora, much of this work occurs at the HRC, as well as in the General Assembly’s Social, Humanitarian Cultural Affairs Committee (Third Committee). U.S. engagement at the UNSC and at UNGA led to a number of mechanisms to spotlight and address serious human rights concerns and focused international attention on some of the world’s most egregious human rights abusers.

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HRC Country Issues

Afghanistan: In response to the rise of violence in June, the United States worked with Afghanistan at the HRC to co-sponsor a resolution condemning attacks on school children, particularly girls, and calling for international assistance to support the Afghan government’s efforts to combat such attacks. This resolution was the first in the HRC to address the human rights situation in Afghanistan, and it passed with broad, cross-regional support.

Burma: The United States worked in March at the HRC to ensure renewal of the Special Rapporteur’s mandate on the human rights situation in Burma. The Special Rapporteur plays a critical role in reporting on the ongoing human rights abuses in Burma. The United States also led the effort to pass a resolution at UNGA on the human rights situation in Burma by the largest margin to date.

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Côte d’Ivoire: In December, the United States worked closely with the Africa Group to hold a special session on the situation in Côte d’Ivoire, sending Laurent Gbagbo a clear message that the world expected him to relinquish the presidency after his electoral defeat in November, and that atrocities and human rights violations would not be tolerated.

Democratic Republic of the Congo: The United States played a leadership role at the UNSC in strengthening the human rights mandate on the Democratic Republic of the Congo by establishing concrete human rights benchmarks and a continuing role for the UN and independent experts.

Guinea: The United States played a leading role in securing the first-ever Council resolution on Guinea, supporting that country’s transition as it sought to return to democratic governance and help build infrastructure to promote and protect human rights.

Haiti: In response to the devastation caused by the January earthquake, the United States helped mobilize HRC member states to create a special session on the situation that called for human rights to be respected in the recovery process.

Iran: In June, the United States initiated a strong joint statement on human rights in Iran at the HRC, which was endorsed by 56 countries, with cross-regional support. In the fall, the United States also took a leadership role in the effort to pass a resolution at UNGA on Iran’s human rights record. Resolution 65/226 passed by the largest margin in eight years, despite intense lobbying by the Iranian government.

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Israel: The United States continued its strenuous efforts to diminish the Council’s biased and disproportionate focus on Israel, although this remains our greatest challenge at the UNSC. The United States maintained a vocal and principled stand against this focus, preventing consensus adoption of biased resolutions, and will continue these robust efforts. With U.S. leadership, Israel was accepted into the Geneva-based consultative group known as JUSCANZ (which includes Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States) in January, allowing Israel to participate fully in this important consultative group.

Kyrgyzstan: The United States worked with Kyrgyzstan to draft and galvanize support for the first-ever Council resolution to address human rights abuses there in the wake of the violence that took place in June. It called for a credible investigation by the government, international assistance for victims, and requested the High Commissioner for Human Rights to provide follow-up reporting.

North Korea: The United States worked at the HRC and UNGA to ensure the continuation of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in North Korea. While the Government of North Korea strongly opposed this mandate, the number of votes in favor of the Council resolution increased, demonstrating the level of international concern with the situation. Resolutions critical of the human rights situation in North Korea were adopted by both UNGA and the UNSC with larger vote totals than in previous years.

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Somalia: The United States co-sponsored a Somalia-led resolution in the HRC calling for increased dialogue and attention on human rights in Somalia, and an African Group resolution offering technical assistance and capacity-building to the Transitional Federal Government in its efforts to ensure respect for human rights.

Sudan: In September, the United States led efforts at the Council to renew the mandate of the independent expert tasked with monitoring human rights throughout Sudan, including Darfur, over the Sudanese government’s strong opposition.

Thematic Issues

Defamation of Religions: Through assertive U.S. global outreach, the margin by which the pernicious defamation of religions resolution passed at the UNGA shrank from 12 in 2009 to three in 2010. The United States then worked to reframe the concept of defamation of religions which limits the fundamental freedoms of expression and religion by focusing on combating discrimination.

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Discrimination Against Women: In September, the United States championed the establishment of a Working Group of Independent Experts at the UNSC to prevent and examine discrimination against women in law and practice. One of the experts is the first Israeli citizen to be appointed by the HRC president to a special mechanism.

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Freedom of Assembly and Association: In September, the United States co-sponsored an HRC resolution to create the first-ever Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Assembly and Association, to monitor crackdowns on civil society groups and advance protection of the rights to free assembly and association through its vigilant exposure of state conduct. This was the first civil and political rapporteur to be created in the UN human rights system in 17 years.

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Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Individuals: In a resolution on Extra-Judicial, Summary, and Arbitrary Executions at UNGA, the Organization of the Islamic Conference intensively lobbied the African Group to co-sponsor an amendment to delete a reference to killings based on sexual orientation. The United States galvanized support to defeat the amendment, to ensure that the resolution addressed the need to protect Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) individuals from violence based on sexual orientation. The amendment was defeated in plenary, and the resolution passed without it. At the annual meeting of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in July, the United States led a successful effort to accredit, for the first time, a U.S.-based non-governmental organization (NGO) representing LBGT individuals: the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission.

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Universal Periodic Review: The United States set the standard for transparency and empowerment of civil society in its approach to the HRC’s Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process in November. The UPR involves a review of the human rights records of every UN member state once every four years, and provides the opportunity for each state to declare what actions they have taken to improve their domestic human rights situations and to fulfill their human rights obligations. The review was approached seriously, from a report based on input from civil society consultations across the United States, to the high-level interagency delegation present for the governmental review in Geneva. The United States also held the first-ever civil society event at the review, a town hall meeting involving over 120 NGOs from around the world. The United States is using the UPR process to spotlight the world’s most notorious human rights abusers, and has worked in Geneva and in capitals across the globe to urge others to do the same.

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Social Issues

Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ or Crime Commission)

The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice is the principal UN policy-making body on criminal justice issues. Through its statements and through active participation in thematic debates, the United States succeeded in raising awareness of U.S. efforts to combat trafficking in cultural property. Of 14 crime control resolutions adopted by the commission, the United States co-sponsored seven: establishing the UN Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules); supporting the realignment of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); strengthening public-private partnerships to counter crime; promoting international cooperation in the forensic field; supporting UNODC’s integrated approach to program planning; countering maritime piracy off the coast of Somalia; and strengthening regional networks for international cooperation in criminal matters.

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Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) and UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

The CND and the UNODC support U.S. drug control objectives. Three UN drug control conventions provide the legal framework for international drug control. The CND adopted 16 drug control resolutions to guide the work of member states. The United States initiated two resolutions on promoting community-based drug use prevention and promoting adequate availability of internationally controlled licit drugs for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion. Both resolutions were adopted by consensus. The U.S. delegation also hosted side events to advance its position on methamphetamine and precursor chemical control and to raise awareness of the growing trend of driving under the influence of drugs in the United States.

The UNODC used more than $34 million in voluntary U.S. contribution funds to enhance global programs to prevent the smuggling and diversion of precursor chemicals; combat money laundering and terrorist financing; provide legal advice and technical assistance in support of treaty implementation of the UN drug conventions; combat piracy in the Horn of Africa; support the Sudan prison reform project, the Global Program Against Smuggling of Migrants, and financial investigative training for Iraq’s Commission of Integrity; and augment an international network of drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centers. The United States also supported a wide variety of UNODC activities, including support to the UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch and to UNODC research efforts on Afghan heroin production and trafficking.

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Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)

At the 54th session of the CSW, member states adopted a declaration to mark the 15th anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women. The United States initiated and co-sponsored a resolution on eliminating preventable maternal mortality and morbidity. The United States also co-sponsored a resolution on the merging of four UN gender-related entities to form UN Women, an important statement of support from CSW for the consolidation, as well as a resolution on women’s economic empowerment.

The United States joined consensus on resolutions on women, the girl child, and HIV/AIDS; ending female genital mutilation; and women and children taken hostage. The United States opposed and delivered an explanation of vote on a resolution on the situation of Palestinian women. At the conclusion of the CSW session, Secretary Clinton urged implementation of the commitments made at the 1995 Beijing women’s conference.

The United States played a crucial role in negotiating an UNGA resolution on system-wide coherence, which established the UN Women entity. The U.S. delegation helped resolve a major disagreement about the composition of the executive board. The United States will have a seat on the executive board for its first three years.

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Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)

After successfully leading the effort to adopt a new peer review mechanism to identify gaps and promote implementation of the UNCAC’s comprehensive anticorruption standards, the United States joined over 135 member states for the inaugural meeting of the peer review mechanism’s Implementation Review Group (IRG) in June, held under the auspices of the UNODC. The United States was selected to be reviewed by Sweden and Macedonia and to join Bangladesh in a first-year review of Fiji.

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Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC)

At the Fifth Conference of the Parties to the UNTOC and its Protocols, the United States helped broker an agreement that should lead to the creation of a mechanism to review implementation of the UNTOC and its protocols in 2012. The United States worked closely with Mexico, Peru, Argentina, and EU member states to create a roadmap to develop terms of reference by the next meeting in 2012. In addition, the United States secured adoption of two U.S.-sponsored decisions on trafficking in persons and on migrant smuggling. The Conference adopted additional substantive decisions on trafficking in firearms, international cooperation, technical assistance, and a general “omnibus decision” to advance effective implementation of the Convention.

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Democracy Fund (UNDEF)

UNDEF’s mission is to support democratization throughout the world by empowering civil society organizations. The United States remained UNDEF’s leading donor, contributing $4.5 million to the Fund’s budget. The United States also implemented high-level diplomacy in a successful effort to encourage the Government of India, UNDEF’s second leading donor, to make its contribution to the Fund. The United States participated actively in the Fund’s Advisory Board, aiming to ensure the high quality and relevance of the projects.

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International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)

The INCB is an independent, quasi-judicial control body with a mandate to promote governments’ compliance with the provisions of international drug control treaties, and to assist governments in this effort. The United States continued its funding support for the work of the INCB to advance implementation of a 2006 U.S.-sponsored resolution to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals to the illicit market.

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III. SPECIALIZED AGENCIES, FUNDS, AND PROGRAMS

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

UNESCO contributes to peace and security through international cooperation in education, science, and culture. It strives to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights, and fundamental freedoms. Priority programs foster and defend the free flow of ideas and information and open access to education for all, build understanding of democratic principles and practice, promote scientific knowledge, and protect the cultural and natural heritage of all.

The UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee inscribed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Hawaii) onto the World Heritage List, making it the 21st UNESCO World Heritage Site in the United States, and the first U.S. site to be inscribed in 15 years.

The 185th session of the UNESCO’s executive board took up the controversial issue of the UNESCO-Obiang Nguema Mbasogo International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences (“Obiang Prize”), named for the prize’s donor, President Obiang of Equatorial Guinea. The United States worked with human rights non-governmental organizations to oppose the implementation of the prize; ultimately, the board adopted by consensus a compromise text, suspending implementation of the Obiang Prize until consensus is reached by all parties concerned. At the same session, the board also broke with its long-standing tradition of consensus decisions on sensitive Middle East issues by voting on recurring agenda items concerning cultural sites and educational institutions in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza. The United States voted against all five decisions, which contained one-sided condemnations of Israeli excavations and activities.

The UNESCO’s regular budget was approximately $327 million; the U.S. assessed contribution was approximately $80 million, nearly 25 percent of the total. In addition, the total U.S. voluntary contribution was $2.836 million.

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Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

FAO is the lead UN specialized agency providing knowledge management and policy advice to raise agricultural production and productivity, increase nutrition, promote agricultural development, and meet the food security-related Millennium Development Goals. In addition to its normative work in such bodies as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention, and the Committee on Agriculture, in 2010, FAO also provided emergency assistance to countries struck by natural disasters, including Haiti and Pakistan, to help them rebuild their damaged agricultural sectors, and successfully eradicated rinderpest, a deadly bovine disease. FAO also continued its wide-ranging reform process, which included the first meeting of the revamped Committee on World Food Security (CFS). In addition, FAO continued its work with the World Trade Organization on sanitary, phytosanitary, and food standards issues.

The FAO biennial budget for 2010-2011 is approximately $1 billion in assessed contributions, plus nearly $1 billion more in anticipated voluntary contributions. In FY 2010, the United States provided 22 percent of FAO’s assessed budget ($112.5 million), plus about $110 million in extra-budgetary funding, mostly for emergency programs.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

The IARC is a leading cancer research institute that coordinates and conducts research on the causes of cancer, and develops scientific strategies for cancer prevention and control.

The IARC Governing Council discussed the program of work and various collaborative research efforts, and took action on budgetary and administrative issues. Among IARC’s activities during 2010, it promoted new recommendations for reducing breast and colon cancers through the promotion of physical activity. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (both agencies of the Department of Health and Human Services) were major technical partners with IARC.

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International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

The IAEA advances critical U.S. interests related to nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safety and security, and the promotion of peaceful applications of nuclear energy. The assessed U.S. contribution to the IAEA regular budget was approximately $116 million, while the Department of State provided $63.5 million in voluntary contributions. In May, states parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) underscored the vital role of the IAEA to the nonproliferation regime at the NPT Review Conference.

Regarding nuclear safeguards issues, the United States continued to press Iran to comply with its international nuclear obligations, including those arising from Iran’s IAEA safeguards agreement and those imposed by the UNSC. In addition, the United States kept up calls for Syria to cooperate fully with the IAEA investigation into its undeclared nuclear activities. The U.S. support program to IAEA safeguards continued to provide extra budgetary assistance for cost-free experts, equipment development, and projects to address technical safeguards issues. For example, the U.S. program, cooperating with the German support program, funded the field-testing of next-generation surveillance systems to enhance IAEA safeguards capabilities.

The United States continued to support the Agency’s efforts to improve nuclear safety and security. In April, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano represented the IAEA at the Nuclear Security Summit convened by President Obama, and the Summit’s communiqué reaffirmed “the essential role of the [IAEA] in the international nuclear security framework.” In this regard, U.S. experts actively participated in the process of strengthening IAEA guidance on the physical protection of nuclear material and facilities. Moreover, the United States provided extra budgetary contributions to Agency initiatives to repatriate highly enriched uranium from a Serbian nuclear research reactor, and to improve the operational safety of a research reactor in central Asia.

The United States strongly supported IAEA efforts to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. An ongoing priority is the development of a mechanism for ensuring reliable access to nuclear fuel, which can also serve as an important incentive for states to forego indigenous development of sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technologies. To that end, the board of governors approved the creation of a low enriched uranium bank under IAEA auspices, with extra budgetary support provided by the United States and other member states, as well as the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a non-governmental organization. Additionally, at the NPT review conference, Secretary Clinton announced the creation of the $100 million IAEA Peaceful Uses Initiative. The Initiative aims to highlight and strengthen the IAEA’s role in increasing access to the benefits of peaceful nuclear technologies while building support for the IAEA and the nonproliferation regime. The United States pledged $50 million to the Initiative over five years (2010-2014), and is seeking contributions from other member states for the remaining $50 million.

The United States also contributed $21 million to the IAEA’s technical cooperation program, which helps member states use nuclear technologies to pursue sustainable development in a manner that is safe, secure, and does not raise the risk of proliferation.

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International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

The ICAO promotes global cooperation for the safety, security, and sustainability of international civil aviation. The United States contributed 25 percent of ICAO’s assessed annual budget of $79.2 million (Canadian), and also made a voluntary contribution of nearly $1 million to ICAO’s aviation security program.

The United States supported many resolutions in the triennial Assembly concerning new safety management programs and policies. The United States continued to support ICAO's transition to a continuous monitoring approach to safety oversight. The assembly strongly endorsed a major U.S. goal of increased transparency and the sharing of critical safety information between governments and industry stakeholders. In support of this idea, the United States signed a memorandum of understanding with ICAO, the EU, and the International Air Transport Association to create a Global Safety Information Exchange.

The United States took the lead to organize and conduct five regional aviation security conferences that resulted in the adoption of an unprecedented global declaration on aviation security at the Assembly, reflecting new levels of global cooperation to combat threats to civil aviation. The United States played a key role in drafting the declaration. The Assembly endorsed the ICAO comprehensive aviation security strategy, a new approach comprised of seven focus areas for the next six years. Member states also unanimously supported continuing the universal security audit program.

The United States also worked to ensure that the ICAO remained heavily engaged in developing and obtaining global support for environmental mitigation measures, as the appropriate forum for addressing environmental measures concerning aviation. In particular, the United States was successful at the high-level meeting on international aviation and climate change in securing consent for continuing the ICAO process for developing medium-term and long-range goals for limiting aviation emissions, including development of a global emissions standard for aircraft. The United States was active in the effort of the Group on International Aviation and Climate Change (GIACC) to develop a comprehensive plan on international aviation and climate change.

During the Assembly, member states adopted a resolution on aviation and climate change. The resolution endorses the global aviation industry’s medium-term goal and calls for carbon-neutral growth from 2020 as a collective, non-attributable goal that does not place any binding obligation or requirement on individual member states.

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International Labor Organization (ILO)

By negotiating among governments, workers’, and employers’ organizations, the ILO adopts international labor standards which are binding on governments that ratify them, and supervises their application, including by providing technical assistance to governments that request it.

The ILO provided key support to the G20 efforts to address the global jobs crisis. In April 2010, the ILO provided extensive technical support to the meeting of G20 Ministers of Employment and Labor in Washington, D.C., and developed a training strategy at the request of the Pittsburgh G20 Leaders’ Summit. ILO technical assistance programs have helped to address labor issues in countries in which the United States has negotiated trade agreements.

The ILO remained a partner in U.S. efforts to combat exploitative child labor and promote worker rights. The United States continued to be the largest contributor to ILO programs to eradicate child labor, providing $40 million in voluntary contributions. The United States also provided a $5 million voluntary contribution to the ILO’s “better work” program to promote improvements in factory working conditions.

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International Maritime Organization (IMO)

The IMO promotes maritime safety, maritime security, and protection of the marine environment. Most of the IMO’s work is performed by its standing technical committees, in which the United States was heavily engaged.

The Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) and its subcommittees continued to provide review and updates to the key safety convention, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, and other safety-related instruments. With heavy U.S. involvement, the IMO adopted International Goal-Based Ship Construction Standards for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers. The MSC also adopted, with significant U.S. input and support, an International Code for the Application of Fire Test Procedures. The United States co-sponsored proposals to begin developing a polar code, which will prescribe mandatory requirements concerning design, training, and operations for ships operating in ice-covered areas in the Arctic and Antarctic. The United States also participated actively in efforts to revise and improve the international convention on standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for Seafarers.

The MSC and its subcommittees are also responsible for piracy-related issues and maritime security. The IMO focused on protecting vital shipping lanes of strategic importance. With pirate attacks on merchant vessels in waters off the Gulf of Aden and in the Indian Ocean on the rise, the IMO has supported U.S. efforts to coordinate international cooperative efforts, encourage development and dissemination of industry guidelines to protect against attacks, and improve regional capacity to counter future attacks. Through U.S. initiative and strong support, the IMO also addressed the resolution of stowaway incidents, and provided guidance to enhance domain awareness of ships entering port. The IMO also finalized implementation of the Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) system, a U.S. initiative, to enhance maritime domain awareness and security, including development of a financial model to ensure sustainability.

The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) and its subcommittees reviewed and updated the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), and other environmental protection-related instruments. Acting on a U.S. proposal, the IMO designated waters adjacent to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands as an Emission Control Area, in which stringent international emission standards will apply to ships when operating generally within 200 miles of their coastlines. These standards will dramatically reduce air pollution from ships. In addition, the IMO banned heavy-grade oil on ships operating in Antarctica. The MEPC also made significant progress in promoting measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping by focusing on mandatory energy efficiency measures.

The IMO also continued auditing member states under the IMO Voluntary Audit Scheme. The Audit Scheme assesses and provides feedback on how effectively member states are implementing and enforcing IMO convention standards. Most recently the IMO endorsed a plan, strongly supported by the United States, to implement a mandatory audit scheme that is scheduled to be institutionalized by the end of 2012.

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International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

The ITU serves as a forum for governments and the private sector to facilitate the technical operation of international telecommunication networks and services. The ITU also provides a forum for allocating radio frequencies and registering satellite orbits to facilitate the global provision of radio-based terrestrial, aeronautical, and maritime services efficiently. U.S. commercial and governmental sectors rely on the ITU to enable their global communications services.

The United States actively supported the establishment of a working committee to prepare for an ITU world conference on international telecommunications in 2012 to revise its International Telecommunications Regulations (ITRs). The regulations are used to settle international telephone traffic, but have not been amended since 1988.

The United States supports an open internet that encourages innovation, freedom of expression, and the participation of multiple stakeholders in internet governance. The United States advances cybersecurity as a priority in the ITU, while advocating that the organization remain within its fundamental mandate on that issue.

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Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)

UNAIDS is a joint program of the UN system and partners from government and civil society. It coordinates policy and ensures an effective division of labor among the 10 co-sponsoring organizations: International Labor Organization; UN Development Program; UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; UN Population Fund; UN High Commissioner for Refugees; UN Children’s Fund; UN Office on Drugs and Crime; World Food Program; World Health Organization; and the World Bank. The United States contributed approximately $40 million to UNAIDS. Within UNAIDS, the United States advocated for greater emphasis on gender, the economic empowerment of women, and ending gender-based violence. The United States has also worked to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, as well as support orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV/AIDS, de-stigmatize HIV/AIDS, and ensure equitable access to treatment.

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Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)

The PAHO is the world’s oldest intergovernmental health organization. U.S. officials participated in the meeting of the PAHO directing council, as well as in meetings of the subcommittee on planning and programming and the PAHO executive committee. PAHO’s strategic priorities included working toward achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals, strengthening preparedness for and response to disasters, improving immunization coverage, addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases, and strengthening health systems and services.

Following the earthquake and subsequent cholera outbreak in Haiti, PAHO assumed the health cluster lead, coordinating with UN agencies, NGOs, and donor countries in the emergency response. The CDC and USAID worked closely with PAHO in the field and there was excellent coordination between PAHO headquarters and U.S. government agencies.

Under PAHO’s leadership and with U.S. technical support, the Americas region has been at the forefront worldwide on childhood vaccinations, including eliminating endemic rubella in the Western Hemisphere in 2009. The United States continued to work closely with PAHO in the development of technical policy guidance, helping craft new regional strategies on issues such as substance abuse and gender equity. The United States also urged implementation of budgetary and accounting system reforms.

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Universal Postal Union (UPU)

The UPU is the primary forum for postal sector cooperation. It helps to ensure a network of up-to-date products and services, provides technical assistance, sets rules for mail exchanges, and makes recommendations to increase mail volumes and improve customer satisfaction.

The United States supported further development of the UPU global monitoring system, a worldwide service measurement system for letters and a quality-of-service link to the payment postal operators receive to deliver international mail.

The Departments of State, Homeland Security, the Transportation Security Administration, Customs and Border Protection, and the U.S. Postal Service coordinated with the UPU, postal operators, airlines, and air cargo carriers to counter terrorist threats to the global postal network and the supply chain it supports.

The United States also announced the candidacy of the Department of State’s Dennis Delehanty for UPU Deputy Director General in 2012.

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World Food Program (WFP)

WFP, the world’s largest emergency food assistance agency, provided food aid to some 108.2 million hungry and vulnerable people in 75 countries. WFP continued to be active in countries affected by war, civil conflict, and natural disasters. After the cause of the emergency has passed, WFP uses food as a tool to help local communities rebuild. Of those reached by the WFP in 2010, 89 million were women and children (including 21.1 million children reached through school feeding programs), and 2.5 million were people affected by HIV/AIDS.

The United States was again by far the WFP’s largest contributor. WFP provided $3.8 billion worth of assistance in CY 2010. In FY 2010, the United States contributed $1.665 billion worth of support through the WFP: $1.479 billion from USAID, $151 million from the Department of Agriculture; and $35.2 million from the Department of State.

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World Health Organization (WHO)

The WHO’s objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” U.S. representatives participated in World Health Assembly (WHA) and WHO executive board meetings. U.S. officials also participated in other intergovernmental processes, including a working group on public health, innovation, and intellectual property, and an intergovernmental meeting on pandemic influenza preparedness.

The WHO Director-General gave priority to achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals, strengthening health systems, and reinvigorating primary health care. The WHA focused on the H1N1 outbreak and pandemic-influenza preparedness, implementation of the international health regulations, adoption of a voluntary code of practice for the international recruitment of health personnel, approval of global strategies on the marketing of foods to children and the harmful use of alcohol, and other issues.

The WHO declared the global H1N1 pandemic to be over, reporting that the H1N1 was a worldwide event that highlighted weakness in health services and global inequities in access to commodities. The Director-General initiated a rigorous review of WHO’s performance during the pandemic, and an assessment of the overall functioning of the international health regulations. The WHO launched a new strategy for polio eradication and a meningitis vaccine for afflicted African countries. The WHO engaged in health responses to emergencies, including the earthquake and cholera outbreak in Haiti, where WHO’s response was through the Pan-American Health Organization. The United States provided technical expertise, collaboration, and coordination in these areas through the HHS and USAID.

The WHO total budget was slightly more than $2 billion, with the United States paying about $410 million (20 percent). The WHO assessed budget was about $473 million; the U.S. portion of that was $109.4 million (23 percent). The WHO also received $1.63 billion in voluntary contributions, of which the U.S. share was $304.4 million (19 percent).

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World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

WIPO promotes the protection of intellectual property rights through cooperation among member states. U.S. patent and trademark filers depend on WIPO for worldwide patent and trademark protection.

The United States worked closely with member states to adopt the current program and budget. It established a strategic realignment initiative to streamline the secretariat and enhance its efficiency. This budget, funded almost entirely by fees paid for WIPO services, was set at 618.6 million Swiss francs for the current biennium, 1.6 percent below the prior budget. (As of May, the exchange rate was $1=1.13 Swiss francs.)

In the Intergovernmental Committee (IGC), the United States engaged heavily and made good progress on intellectual property and traditional knowledge, traditional cultural expressions, and genetic resources. The U.S.-supported establishment of expert group meetings streamlined consideration of traditional culture and knowledge issues. Regarding protection of genetic resources, a U.S.-sponsored paper refocused the discussions on objectives and principles. The IGC emerged with a mandate to submit to the 2011 WIPO General Assembly the texts for an international legal instrument to ensure effective protection of genetic resources, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.

In the Standing Committee on the Law of Patents (SCP), the United States forged a consensus agreement for the next SCP meeting on an expansive and broadly representative agenda. The United States was the lead sponsor in its group of a future agenda item on patent quality, an issue of vital interest to patent offices and users alike.

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World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

The WMO facilitates free and unrestricted exchange of weather- and climate-related data, products, and services in real or near-real time among members. Significant issues addressed by the WMO executive council included developing a framework for disaster risk reduction and a strategy to deliver environmental services to all sectors of members’ economies. As a result of U.S. efforts, the council also adopted decisions on transparency and management issues, including approving terms of reference for an audit committee, establishing an ethics officer, and opening the council and its relevant working group meetings to all WMO member states.

In addition to supporting WMO programs through assessed dues, the United States is the largest donor to the WMO voluntary cooperation program, which funds programs in the Americas region to include the severe weather warning system (hurricanes) and training for meteorologists in Central America and the Caribbean Territories to improve data products.

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IV. LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The ICJ is the principal UN judicial organ. The court decides cases submitted to it by states and has the authority to give advisory opinions on legal questions at the request of authorized organs or UN specialized agencies. In July, the court delivered its advisory opinion on the accordance with international law of Kosovo’s declaration of independence, which had been requested by UNGA. The United States made written and oral submissions in the case in 2009. By a vote of ten to four, the ICJ concluded that the declaration of independence of Kosovo did not violate international law.

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International Criminal Court (ICC)

The ICC is not a UN body, and the United States is not a party to the Rome Statute, the treaty establishing the ICC. The ICC is a permanent tribunal, which was established to prosecute individuals for war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity.

The United States participated in an observer capacity at the Resumed Eighth Session of the Assembly of States Parties in New York, at the ICC Review Conference in Kampala, Uganda and at the Ninth Session of the Assembly of States Parties in New York. The United States joined consensus on UNGA’s adoption of its annual resolution on the report of the ICC on November 23.

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International Law Commission (ILC)

UNGA established the ILC to promote the codification and progressive development of international law.

The ILC did not have a U.S. member during its most recent five year term (2006-2011). At the fall UNGA session, the United States delivered its statements on the ILC report during discussion in the Sixth Committee. The United States also announced that George Washington University Law Professor Sean Murphy would be its candidate for election to the ILC in the fall of 2011.

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International Tribunals

Cambodia Khmer Rouge Tribunal

UN and Cambodian government officials agreed in June 2003 to establish the Extraordinary Chambers in the courts of Cambodia (Khmer Rouge Tribunal), composed of international and Cambodian judges, to hold accountable senior leaders and those most responsible for crimes of the Khmer Rouge regime from 1975 to 1979, during which as many as two million Cambodians died.

The United States supported the Tribunal in several ways, including contributing $5 million to the UN-led side of the court, and helping to coordinate additional fundraising efforts. The United States participated in – and chaired for the first quarter of the year – meetings of the Tribunal’s New York-based Steering Committee, and participated in the Phnom Penh-based “Friends of the ECCC” consisting of major donor countries.

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International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

The UNSC established the ICTR in November 1994 to prosecute individuals accused of committing genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law in Rwanda and Rwandan citizens accused of genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law in neighboring states in 1994.

The United States continued to work within the UNSC’s Informal Working Group on International Tribunals (IWGIT) to ensure that the ICTR has the resources, including personnel, to reach closure efficiently and effectively. For example, the United States has worked to ensure that the duration of the terms for Tribunal judges allows them to complete their cases successfully. Further, the United States worked within the IWGIT to draft UNSCR 1966, which established a “residual mechanism” for the ICTR and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia to fulfill functions that must necessarily outlive the tribunals themselves, including witness protection and archives management. This resolution was the culmination of a multi-year process undertaken by the UNSC and the IWGIT.

U.S. funding for the ICTR was $29.9 million.

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International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

The ICTY was established in May 1993, pursuant to UNSCR 808, to investigate and try individuals accused of committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and other serious violations of international humanitarian law on the territory of the former Yugoslavia.

The United States has worked within the UNSC’s Informal Working Group on International Tribunals to ensure that the ICTY has the resources, especially personnel, to reach closure efficiently and effectively. For example, the United States has worked to ensure that the duration of the terms for tribunal judges allows them to complete their cases successfully. Further, in accordance with UNSCR 1503 (2003), which provided an endorsement of the tribunals’ first completion strategy, the United States has worked within the IWGIT and bilaterally to design an effective and efficient residual mechanism that would carry out those functions of the ICTY (and ICTR), including witness protection, that must continue after the tribunal closes. The United States worked within the IWGIT to craft UNSCR 1966, which established a residual mechanism for the ICTY and ICTR. The United States also continued to support domestic courts in the region in their efforts to adjudicate war crimes cases and supported the processing of cases that had been transferred from the ICTY to domestic courts. The United States provided direct assistance to domestic judicial mechanisms and promoted regional cooperation among judicial professionals. U.S. funding for ICTY was $38.8 million.

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Special Court for Sierra Leone

UNSCR 1315 (2000) called on the Secretary-General to conclude an agreement with the Government of Sierra Leone to create an independent special court to prosecute persons who bore the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law committed in Sierra Leone since November 30, 1996. The Court has completed the cases for eight accused, who are now serving sentences in a prison in Rwanda. The prosecution of Charles Taylor is the only ongoing case.

The United States contributed $7.5 million in FY 2010 to support the work of the Special Court. The United States also plays a substantial role on the Court’s Management Committee, comprised of major donors to the Court, and provides an important administrative oversight function for the Court.

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Special Tribunal for Lebanon

Pursuant to UNSCR 1664, the United Nations and the Government of Lebanon negotiated an agreement on the establishment of a special tribunal for Lebanon. Further to UNSCR 1757, the provisions of the document annexed to it and its attached statute of the special tribunal entered into force in 2007. The tribunal’s mandate is to prosecute persons responsible for the attack of February 14, 2005, resulting in the death of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri, and those responsible for certain connected cases. The United States pledged $10 million in FY 2010 to support the tribunal’s work.

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V. BUDGET AND ADMINISTRATION

Accountability

The United States continued to play a leading role in efforts to strengthen accountability. In the spring, UNGA considered the Secretary-General’s proposals on the UN accountability framework, which included a proposed definition of accountability for UN officials. During discussion of the report, several member states expressed concern that the proposed definition of accountability did not adequately address matters of personal accountability within the Secretariat, or institutional accountability toward member states. With strong leadership from the United States, member states approved UNGA resolution 64/259 which defined, for the first time, accountability of UN officials to hold them responsible for safeguarding resources and achieving results.

The United Nations made incremental improvements to its procurement practices. The United States had expected that an independent bid protest system, designed to promote transparency and fairness in awarding of contracts, would be implemented fully. However, progress on this initiative was limited, though a pilot program continued. UNGA and the United States will continue to monitor progress.

The United States continued to advance its UN Transparency and Accountability Initiative (UNTAI). As of December, most UN organizations had made considerable progress. A few UN specialized agencies and related organizations continued to lag in their efforts and lacked formal policies for the disclosure of internal audits and/or a comprehensive system to promote integrity and ethical conduct.

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Budget

UNGA took several actions related to the UN budget for the 2010-2011 biennium. In March, the 64th UNGA adopted resolution 64/260 by consensus, extending the Secretary-General’s limited budgetary discretion authority, which allows the Secretary-General to utilize up to $20 million to meet unexpected needs of the organization. In the fall, at its 65th session, UNGA considered revisions to the 2010-2011 budget in accordance with UN budget procedures. UNGA adopted resolution 65/260 by consensus, approving a revised biennial budget of $5.367 billion, an increase of $208.3 million, most of which was for UN special political missions, including additional resources to enhance security for the UN Missions to Afghanistan and Iraq. In resolution 65/259, UNGA approved a budget for its authorized special political missions, plus additional resources for the new office of the special representative of the Secretary-General for sexual violence in armed conflict, the special court for Sierra Leone, and UN Women. UNGA also adopted resolution 65/262 by consensus, inviting the Secretary-General to prepare his 2012-2013 proposed program budget on the basis of the preliminary estimate of $5.397 billion.

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Financial Situation

The total U.S. payments in the course of CY 2010, for all UN assessments, amounted to $3.35 billion. Most of the U.S. payments, approximately $2.67 billion, related to assessments for peacekeeping. With respect to the UN regular budget, the United States paid $532.5 million.

The United Nations ended the year with unpaid assessments from all member states totaling $2.86 billion. This includes assessments relating to the UN regular budget, the international war crimes tribunals in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, UN peacekeeping operations, and the UN Capital Master Plan. This figure is $610 million higher than at the end of 2009, when $2.25 billion was outstanding. At the end of 2010, the United States owed $736 million to the United Nations (including $430.6 million for peacekeeping operations and $278 million for the regular budget), of which $104 million was unpaid for the regular budget as a result of our fiscal-year payments not being synchronized with the UN financial period, and a total of $544 million was unpaid for the regular and peacekeeping budgets as a result of past U.S. legislation or policy.

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Human Resources

U.S. leadership in the Fifth Committee of UNGA led to agreement on two major, far-reaching human resources management-related issues. Resolution 65/247 completed the contractual reforms begun two years ago in UNGA resolution 63/250 through the establishment of an explicit process for granting continuing contracts. The other, resolution 65/248, made significant strides in harmonizing the conditions of service for staff of the common system organizations serving in non-family duty stations in the field. Both represent significant reforms.

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Oversight

The primary UN oversight bodies are the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS), the Board of Auditors, and the Joint Inspection Unit (JIU). In addition, the Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is a subsidiary of UNGA that assists in fulfilling oversight responsibilities and provides advice on the effectiveness of OIOS.

In March, UNGA concluded its consideration of OIOS’ mandate. Every five years, UNGA reviews the implementation of the resolutions governing OIOS. The General Assembly had previously deferred consideration of this matter during its fall 2009 session due to differences among member states concerning disclosure of internal audit reports and OIOS’ operational independence. At the March session, UNGA adopted resolution 64/263, which reaffirmed the existing resolutions governing OIOS, endorsed IAAC recommendations where consensus had been reached, and deferred consideration of other IAAC recommendations related to OIOS’ operational independence and access to internal audit reports until the main session of the 66th UNGA. Resolution 64/263 also requested OIOS, in consultation with the Secretariat, to compile and define key oversight terms. In July, UNGA confirmed the Secretary-General’s nominee, Carman Lapointe of Canada, as the next head of OIOS. Her five-year, non-renewable term began in September. Also in March, UNGA adopted resolution 64/262 on the JIU’s 2009 annual report and 2010 program of work. In December, UNGA adopted resolution 65/250 on the 2010 OIOS annual report.

Also in December, UNGA adopted resolution 65/243, which endorsed the board of auditors’ recommendations and conclusions concerning its audits of the UN Secretariat, funds and programs, and international criminal tribunals, and called upon the heads of these organizations to hold managers accountable for implementing recommendations.

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Program Planning

The United States, a member of the Committee for Program and Coordination (CPC) from 1974 to 2006, continued to serve as an observer since previously deciding not to seek re-election due to its consistently ineffective, inefficient operation and continued lack of progress on reforming its working methods. The CPC’s 50th session primarily focused on the 2012-2013 strategic frameworks, evaluation reports completed by OIOS, and coordination questions related to the Chief Executives Board as well as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development. Minimal progress was made to improve the Committee’s working methods, as requested in past UNGA resolutions.

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