Andrew J. Shapiro
Assistant Secretary, Political-Military Affairs
Statement before the Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs of the U.S. House Appropriations Committee
Washington, DC
April 14, 2010

As prepared

Chairwoman Lowey, Ranking Member Granger, members of the Subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today. I appreciate the opportunity to testify on the ways in which the State Department’s security assistance programs contribute to our collective efforts to improve both national and international security.

Since its establishment a half century ago, the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs has served as the State Department’s primary link with the Department of Defense. The Bureau’s enduring and daily work is representative of the type of cooperation and teamwork that is essential in addressing the evolving security challenges that we and our allies and partners face.

A strong partnership between the State Department and the Department of Defense is critical to addressing the serious international challenges that the United States faces today. Secretaries Clinton and Gates have publicly expressed their commitment to a State-Defense relationship that is complementary, not competitive. We in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs are working to fulfill that commitment.

The Bureau of Political-Military Affairs has a critical role in providing the Secretary of State a global perspective on political-military issues, which is essential in today’s complex and interdependent world. The Bureau plays a significant role in a wide array of political-military issues from Asia to the Middle East to Africa and the Western Hemisphere.

One of the most important responsibilities of the Bureau is the management of security assistance funds, which collectively total $7.215 billion in the President’s FY 2011 budget and which provide important tools to the United States in today’s security environment. Given the difficult economic times that many American families face, we are acutely aware of the need to make every dollar entrusted to us by the taxpayers deliver the maximum benefit to our national security.

PM bureau manages security assistance through five accounts: (1) Foreign Military Financing, which provides our partners and allies with grant assistance to purchase U.S. defense articles and services; (2) Peacekeeping Operations, which supports non-UN peacekeeping operations, increases peacekeeping and counterterrorism capabilities, and supports defense sector reform in critical countries in Africa; (3) International Military Education and Training, which provides training and education on a grant basis to foreign military personnel to promote more professional militaries with an appreciation of civilian control of the military, democratic values, and respect for human rights; (4) Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs, which addresses the clearance of landmines and other explosive remnants of war and the destruction and security of illicit, unsecure, and unstable small arms, light weapons, and conventional munitions, and provides assistance to mine victims; (5) and the Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund, which assists the Government of Pakistan in building and maintaining the capability of its security forces to conduct counterinsurgency operations, and to clear and hold terrain in contested areas throughout the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and other areas.

I. Foreign Military Financing (FMF)

The FY 2011 request for the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) account is $5.47 billion. The request furthers U.S. interests around the world by ensuring that coalition partners and friendly governments are equipped and trained to work toward common security goals and share burdens in joint missions. FMF promotes U.S. national security by contributing to regional and global stability, strengthening military support for democratically-elected governments, and containing transnational threats including terrorism and trafficking in narcotics, weapons, and persons. Increased military capabilities establish and strengthen multilateral coalitions with the United States, and enable friends and allies to be increasingly interoperable with U.S. and other military forces. FMF assistance will also support ongoing efforts to incorporate the most recent NATO members into the organization, support prospective NATO members and coalition partners, and assist critical coalition partners in Afghanistan. The request includes a $225 million increase in assistance for Israel over the FY 2010 request, which is consistent with the 2007 10-year Memorandum of Understanding between our two countries. In addition, the request supports funding for coalition partners and allies, is consistent with our efforts to promote U.S. national security, fight extremists, and advance Middle East peace.

II. Peacekeeping Operations (PKO)

The FY 2011 request for the Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) account is $285.95 million. The request is intended to help diminish and resolve conflict, enhance the ability of states to participate in peacekeeping and stability operations, increase the military capabilities of select countries to address counter-terrorism threats, and reform military establishments into professional military forces with respect for the rule of law. The request supports two ongoing regional peacekeeping missions – the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) mission in the Sinai. The request also supports the ability of states to participate in peacekeeping operations through the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI); enhances the ability of states to address counterterrorism threats through the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) and the East Africa Regional Strategic Initiative (EARSI); supports reforms to military forces in the aftermath of conflict into professional military forces with respect for the rule of law, including those in Southern Sudan, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Somalia; and addresses regional conflict stabilization and border security issues in Africa.

III. International Military Education and Training (IMET)

The FY 2011 request for the International Military Education and Training (IMET) account is $110 million. IMET is a key component of U.S. security assistance which promotes regional stability and defense capabilities through professional military training and education. Through professional and technical courses and specialized instruction, the program provides military personnel from allied and friendly nations with valuable training and education on U.S. military practices and standards, including exposure to democratic values, civilian control of the military, and respect for internationally recognized standards of human rights. IMET serves as an effective means to strengthen military alliances and international coalitions critical to U.S. national security goals. IMET also helps to develop a common understanding of shared international challenges, including terrorism, and fosters the relationships necessary to counter those challenges in a collaborative manner.

IV. Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs (NADR)

The FY 2011 request for the Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Programs (NADR) account is $145.6 million. The request advances peace and security by responding to the threat posed to indigenous populations by landmines and unexploded ordnance, and from excess, loosely secured, or otherwise at-risk small arms, light weapons and ammunition, and Man-portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS). $138.6 million is requested to address the clearance of landmines and other explosive remnants of war and the destruction and security of illicit, unsecure, and unstable small arms, light weapons, and conventional munitions. $7 million is requested for the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The fund focuses on Southeast Europe and finances the clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance and provides mine victims assistance in that region.

V. Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund (PCCF)

The FY 2011 request for the Pakistan Counterinsurgency Capability Fund (PCCF) is $1.2 billion. FY 2011 will be the first year the Department of State assumes full management of PCCF. Funds will continue to be targeted at building the capability of Pakistan’s security forces directly engaged in combat operations and to clear and hold terrain in contested areas throughout the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). A more capable Pakistani military will diminish extremist access to safe havens from which attacks on Pakistan and on United States and international forces operating in Afghanistan are planned and executed. Additionally, a better trained and equipped security force will facilitate efforts to implement our $7.5 billion, five-year civilian assistance strategy, which includes efforts to improve basic government services in areas vulnerable to extremists. This is the “build” in the clear-hold-build effort of a counterinsurgency campaign.

The FY 2011 PCCF funding will continue to accelerate the development of Pakistan’s capacity to secure its borders, deny safe haven to extremists, fight insurgents, and provide security for the indigenous population. The request of $1.2 billion builds upon the $400 million provided to DoD in the FY 2009 Supplemental and the $700 million provided to State in the FY 2009 Supplemental by fully funding the expansion of training into Baluchistan and continuing efforts to expand U.S. efforts to train and equip Pakistan’s conventional military forces. The primary lines of operation continue to be: 1) training and equipping Pakistan’s security forces with a focus on the Pakistan Army, the Special Services Group, Pakistan Army Aviation, and other enabling forces; 2) training and equipping the paramilitary Frontier Scouts and; 3) providing training for humanitarian relief in post-combat operations. Capability focus areas include: command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR); air mobility; night operations; military intelligence; counter-improvised explosive devices; close air support; civil affairs and humanitarian assistance; and forward critical medical care.

The $1.2 billion PCCF program will formally transition from being a DoD managed program to a State managed program in FY 2011. In the State Department, we are continuing to develop our oversight and management procedures for the PCCF with the goal of preserving the flexibility and agility needed to support the requirements in the field while ensuring that this is truly a State Department managed program. Both State and DoD are committed to the successful implementation of the PCCF as a State Department managed program in FY 2011with the shared goal of a seamless transition that has no discernible impact on U.S. implementers and Pakistani forces in the field. A major difference in the management of PCCF will be increased State Department oversight and involvement throughout the execution process, which will ensure that this major assistance program aligns with our broader foreign policy objectives in Pakistan and complements our other foreign assistance programs in Pakistan and the broader region.

VI. Conclusion

In conclusion, we in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs take very seriously our responsibilities in managing the security assistance funds with which we are entrusted.

Managing and implementing the five security assistance programs I have outlined form a substantial part of the essential partnership between the Departments of State and Defense. In the dynamic security environment we face today, with its constantly evolving challenges and opportunities, funding of these security assistance programs provides our government with the necessary and flexible tools to advance U.S. national security interests around the globe.

Thank you for the opportunity to discuss these important programs with you this afternoon. I am committed to working with this subcommittee to ensure that these important programs are adequately funded and effectively executed. I look forward to taking your questions.