FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsINL has in recent years pursued a mix of diplomatic, policy, and programmatic efforts designed to achieve the following anticorruption objectives: increasing the number, comprehensiveness, and effectiveness of regional and global international standards to address corruption; increasing international cooperation among governments in the fight against corruption; increasing the level of political will in countries and in regional groups to pursue high-level corrupt actors and problems; increasing the commitment of governments to implementing comprehensive regimes to address their corruption problems and to prevent kleptocracies from developing; and developing and implementing innovative methods to build capacity to tackle corruption that show measurable effect.
INL advances these objectives through a four-pillar approach. These pillars, articulated in various Department reports to Congress over the past few years pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act (IAGGA), include the following:
Governments Increasingly United under Common Anticorruption Commitments
The USG opens the door to reform through the promotion of shared global anticorruption goals and standards. Shared international standards turn the debate from divisive approaches such as who is to blame for corruption to how do countries cooperate to go about addressing it, and provide road maps for reform. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of U.S. government and other aid programs that assist these efforts. Such standards also serve as platforms for peer review exercises that develop specific recommendations for reform and follow up with countries to gauge their compliance.
Increase number of States Parties of the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and other multilateral conventions.
Increase the number of countries that publicly adhere to and enforce the “No Safe Haven” policy and make related efforts to combat kleptocracy.
Governments Increasingly Meet or Exceed Those Commitments
The fight against corruption is grounded in efforts at the national level. Once standards are set, the USG can take advantage of pockets of political and/or popular will to assist and press governments in taking effective action against corruption. This part of INL’s approach includes promotion and support of mechanisms that review implementation of conventions and other commitments, which identify shortcomings, build peer pressure for follow-through, and promote sharing of good practices. It also includes providing or backstopping technical assistance to help governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures for better public administration. Finally, it includes support to strengthen existing regional initiatives and develop new ones that sustain policy dialogue on combating corruption and serve as platforms for capacity building and exchange of good practices.
Promote the design and adoption of a mechanism for review of implementation for the UNCAC.
Enhance implementation of the Convention and other multilateral commitments through actions by parties or participating countries to comply with recommendations from mutual evaluation reviews.
Increase and strengthen regional frameworks for collaboration in setting and meeting anticorruption standards.
Increase country capacity to meet and exceed multilateral commitments, with respect to issues including UNCAC implementation, investigating and prosecuting high-level corruption, prevention, international legal cooperation, and return of the proceeds of corruption,
Mobilizing Will for Change
Political will is necessary for effective anticorruption reform. The USG uses commitments and statements in high-level political fora and conferences to marshal continued political will. Additionally, popular will is an important expediter of political will. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries, and leverage efforts by bringing additional non-governmental resources to bear, by encouraging civil society, the media, and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption.
Enhanced visibility and political will related to corruption through high-level statements in fora such as G-8, Summit of the Americas, APEC, and others.
Enhanced visibility and political will related to corruption through high-level global, regional, and subject-matter specific conferences and other events.
Increased civil society/media access to results of multilateral anticorruption reviews, e.g., CoE GRECO; UNCAC; OAS.
Increased synergies and engagement through USG outreach and participation in civil society/private sector fora related to corruption.
Increased focus on the private sector to include targeting the “supply side” of corruption and by fostering public-private partnerships.
Leading By Example
The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our models, particularly regarding efforts to deny safe haven in the U.S. to corrupt officials, prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption.
Implementation and balanced use of Presidential Proclamation 7750 to deny entry into the United States by corrupt officials, those who corrupt them, and their dependents.
Sharing of other good practices related to other U.S. anti-kleptocracy tools, apart from PP 7750, such as recovery and return of proceeds of corruption and prosecution of transnational bribery.
Participation by the U.S. as an evaluated party in four (OAS, OECD, COE, and UNCAC pilot review) multilateral anticorruption monitoring mechanisms.
Increased use of public diplomacy tools to share the U.S. story, and to share good U.S. practices in combating corruption domestically and sanctioning kleptocracy internationally.
The USG has made the international fight against corruption one of its top foreign policy priorities, and its leadership on the issue has driven the global agenda. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests hamper the global economic activity of American firms; interfere with the objectives of USG foreign assistance development and democracy/rule of law goals and programs; facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations; and threaten stability and democracy. Corruption facilitates a wide range of trans-border crime such as trafficking in persons and narcotics. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and the illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons; obtain sensitive information from government sources; and move money and themselves across borders to find safe havens.
Program AccomplishmentsOver the past several years, INL has helped negotiate or support the development of several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC), the Council of Europe conventions, the Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for South Eastern Europe, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Initiative to Fight Corruption and Ensure Transparency, the OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Eurasia, and, most recently, the OECD/UNDP Middle East and North Africa (MENA) “Good Governance for Development for Arab States” Initiative.
INL continues to make it a top priority to encourage other governments to accede to and ratify the UNCAC. The United States became a party to the UNCAC in November 2006. In just over three years since the Convention’s entry into force in December, 2005, the UNCAC now has 132 States Parties (a number that constitutes over 90% of the signatory states, and which increased 30% over the last year).
As a result of INL leadership, the Conference of States Parties of the UNCAC agreed to design a mechanism to review implementation of the Convention, with recommendations to be considered for adoption in late 2009. The USG, with INL’s leadership, is an influential member of each of the priority working groups and expert consultations relating to UNCAC implementation, including review of implementation, recovery of stolen assets, and technical assistance. The U.S. is also a major donor to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). As a result of these two factors, USG positions are regularly incorporated into the policy decisions relating to implementation of the UNCAC. For example, the U.S. proposed and designed a pilot program on review of implementation, which parties adopted, and in which almost a third of the parties participate; and the U.S. launched an informal experts dialogue on recovery of stolen assets that is generating practical measures on asset recovery for potential adoption at the political level.
INL has supported processes to develop recommendations for anticorruption reform for over 70 countries, through initiatives to review implementation or foster best practice exchange within the Organization of American States (OAS), Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for South East Europe, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation’s (APEC) Anticorruption Initiative, OECD Eurasia Anticorruption Network for Economies in Transition, and OECD/UNDP “Good Governance for Development for Arab States” Initiative. With strong INL leadership, the Governance for Development initiative launched, in July 2008, a 14-country regional network of anticorruption bodies and governmental experts, the first such network in the region. INL also provided or led USG expert assistance to and participation in these regional networks.
INL has also provided targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses in their anticorruption laws and institutions, and continues to provide U.S. law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance to help countries build capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. Over 900 government officials were trained by INL-supported activities in FY 2008.
INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Department of the Treasury, Department of Commerce, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral mechanisms. These mechanisms allow other countries to observe U.S. anticorruption institutions and activities, and have helped effectively showcase our efforts as a model for other countries. With INL coordination or assistance, monitoring of U.S. compliance has not contravened USG positions or policies, avoiding contentious or burdensome recommendations for the U.S. INL also coordinates interagency policy discussions on anticorruption. INL works closely with USDOJ Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section to foster the return of stolen assets, reinforcing the framework of the UNCAC asset recovery chapter. INL also leads efforts to advance the “No Safe Haven” policy through implementation of a Presidential Proclamation to deny entry to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their dependents, signed in early 2004. The G-8 member countries, in the 2003 Evian Declaration and reinforced in the 2004 Sea Island Declarations, committed to the “No Safe Haven” policy. World leaders at the Special Summit of the Americas and APEC made a similar commitment in January and November 2004, respectively. With INL’s leadership, the U.S. worked with other G8 countries to secure new commitments on corruption at the 2008 G8 Leaders’ Toyako Summit, and the U.S. obtained agreement for the G8 to draft the first “Enhanced Accountability Report” on compliance with past G8 anticorruption commitments; INL took the interagency lead in drafting and compiling the U.S. submission. INL also led the interagency in promoting and protecting U.S. interests in the first G-8 Experts Conference on Rule of Law.
FY 2010 Program
FY 2010 funds will be used to sustain the Middle East/North Africa Governance for Development (GfD) Network, an Arab-led effort which was launched in the Dead Sea, Jordan in February 2005, with the G-8, UNDP, OECD and World Bank, to create an intergovernmental anticorruption forum. The forum will work towards developing capacity, tools, and systems – such as national action plans, stronger laws, whistleblower protection and witness security, and better trained investigators, prosecutors, and judges – to prevent, detect, and prosecute corruption cases. The Network will also promote implementation of the UNCAC in the MENA region. Funding will be provided principally through UNDP and OECD, with minimal support to DOJ for expert participation in training and steering group meetings.
FY 2010 funds will also be used to help APEC developing economies implement their commitments related to the APEC Leaders’ Santiago Commitment and Anticorruption Course of Action. The "Santiago Commitment and APEC Course of Action" requires member countries to: deny safe haven to officials and individuals guilty of public corruption, those who corrupt them, and their assets; implement anticorruption policies and practices consistent with the UN Convention against Corruption; implement the APEC Transparency Standards, with particular emphasis on government procurement and customs procedures; encourage collaboration to fight corruption and ensure transparency, including through cooperation with other multilateral and regional intergovernmental institutions; and develop innovative training and technical assistance programs to fight corruption and ensure transparency. Funding will be provided to maintain a regional anticorruption advisor program, provide targeted workshops, and participate in APEC and other regional policy initiatives in order to shape the anticorruption policy agenda, particularly for 2011 which the United States holds the APEC Presidency.
FY 2010 funds will additionally be used to pay contributions/dues to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms – the Council of Europe’s Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) and the Follow-up Mechanism of the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, with an associated regional technical assistance activity to promote international legal cooperation to investigate corruption. These mechanisms promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in over 70 countries. The U.S. will promote that countries agree to make public the results of the reviews and that civil society views are taken into consideration.
FY 2010 funds will also help sustain new initiatives launched in 2008. INL is developing a pilot project for select African countries to build investigative and prosecutorial capabilities for pursuing corruption cases, laying the predicate for seeking recovery of stolen assets, and broadening regional cooperation, and will fund country-specific follow-up. Also, INL plans to use FY 2010 funds to strengthen initiatives in Eurasia and Central Asia including to foster good governance, encourage regional cooperation, and promote strong preventive and criminal justice regimes against corruption.
With FY 2010 funds, INL will also continue to support implementation of the U.S. Strategy to Internationalize Efforts against Kleptocracy, through projects to help countries bring focused attention to high-level, large-scale corruption by public officials, including through a focus on embattled anticorruption bodies.
Border Security and Alien Smuggling
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsINL will continue to assist selected countries to strengthen their border control regimes and make it more difficult for criminals, terrorists, and contraband who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will also work with our international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible.
INL border security programs help priority countries improve their port and airport security practices, through education initiatives, training, capacity building, and technical assistance. The strengthening of security at ports and airports will help to prevent criminal and terrorist acts that could have an adverse impact on trade and transportation with the United States. INL has set goals for border security to include: conducting training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials; installing entry/exit systems at selected airports and seaports; assisting in the development of passport issuance systems with biometric capabilities; purchasing computers and software for immigration authorities at the international airports; providing funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other international organizations for capacity building programs; and providing funding to the Organization of American States (OAS) counter-terrorism subcommittee to improve port security practices through a program of technical assistance. INL helps improve integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders. Border security improvements will enhance law enforcement cooperation, reduce corruption, increase revenue collections, and strengthen rule of law in developing countries.
Performance measures will include better law enforcement controls and intelligence; increased identification and apprehension of criminals; and less illegal movement of aliens destined for the United States. INL’s attention to alien smuggling will focus on helping coordinate the activities of the interagency anti-smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings which operate both domestically and overseas.
Program JustificationPorous borders are a threat to developing countries, as well as to the United States. Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.
As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other criminals. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that help dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement at the border is also a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.
The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal networks, especially those that can be used by extremist groups, has become a high priority for U.S. authorities. An important aspect of the U.S. government’s approach to deterring and preventing the flow of illegal aliens into the United States involves disrupting alien smuggling organizations as far from our shores as possible. This means that the fight against alien smuggling must begin in foreign lands where our influence and law enforcement authorities are more limited. Weak foreign law enforcement institutions, corrupt public officials, and inadequately trained police make it imperative that guidance and technical assistance be provided to illegal alien source and transit countries. Without adequate technical assistance many of these countries will continue to contribute to the stream of illegal aliens entering the United States. This stream, if uncontrolled, will allow foreign nationals with terrorist links to slip into the United States undetected.
Program AccomplishmentsOur goal is to strategically utilize funding to ensure the most impact in this critical area. INL’s critical border security program accomplishments include:
Caribbean - Antigua, Grenada and Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis: Customs and port security training provided to customs officials and port authorities.
Central America - Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Panama: Airport, border security and fraudulent document training.
Funding provided to the OAS counterterrorism subcommittee to improve security practices in the Caribbean tourism and recreation industries. The training was conducted in Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia.
Funding provided to the OAS counterterrorism subcommittee for a Port Assessment of the Jamaican Government Ports. The Jamaican Government has been cooperating with U.S. law enforcement and is making major strides in working with the USG on Port Security as well as Narcotics, Human Trafficking and Human smuggling investigations. The assessment will form the basis of targeted assistance to Jamaica.
Funding provided to UNODC for creation, design and development of a Model Forensic Document Laboratory Manual. This manual is used by donor nations and developing countries as guidance to design, build, equip, staff and run forensic document laboratories. The labs enhance border and document security, support investigations and increase intelligence sharing leading more effective border controls and increased arrests and prosecutions.
Support provided to UNODC creation of model alien smuggling legislation which has been adopted by several countries.
Support provided to UNODC for creation of a modular alien smuggling investigations course. This is used by the US and other donor countries to train law enforcement in conducting successful investigations of criminal smuggling networks.
Funding provided to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) for the creation or development of vetted investigations units in Guatemala and Cambodia, will result in increased law enforcement cooperation with those countries, enhanced border security and increase in investigations, arrests and prosecutions of smuggling organizations.
Funding provided to ICE for special vetted unit operations in Colombia and Mexico (supporting President’s initiatives on Mexico) which resulted in increased arrests of human and arms smugglers.
INL funding supported fraudulent document detection training by the ICE/ in Honduras, Southern Mexico border and El Salvador as part of the USG’s strategy to impede and disrupt extremist travel and dismantle criminal organizations that facilitate clandestine terrorist travel.
The INL-funded OAS Fraudulent Document Training, conducted by ICE Fraudulent Document Laboratory (FDL) in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico City was met with extremely positive responses and resulted in increased cooperation and interceptions of fraudulently documented travelers.
Funding provided to the Department of Justice for the purchase of additional fingerprinting equipment for the Government of El Salvador (GOES). The FBI and the Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are actively working with the GOES on the White House gang initiative dealing with the MS-13. The utilization of the equipment will help U.S. and GOES law enforcement better identify gang members and share vital identifying data and intelligence.
FY 2010 ProgramWith 2010 funds, INL will continue to support the OAS counterterrorism committee in its efforts to improve law enforcement training and border controls in the Western Hemisphere. This will be done through a series of initiatives including airport and seaport security training, law enforcement workshops, border and port security vulnerability assessments, and document security programs. Strengthening entry-exit controls at selected foreign airports, land border points, and seaports will also be a priority. Programs designed to improve document security will also receive attention. These programs may focus on identity documents and passport issuance systems.
Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems and customs controls. Funds will also support conferences and organizations working to improve and enhance border security in the Pacific Rim. INL will also continue to build a regional network in the Pacific Rim to discuss issues related to Human Trafficking, Human Smuggling, Counterfeit Travel Documents, Money Laundering, Narcotics and Corruption. The network will deal with capacity building and synergizing a multi-government law enforcement working environment. A follow-up symposium is planned for 2010 to build on and institutionalize the networks and cooperation established by the first Symposium.
INL will continue to work with and support UNODC projects that are designed to build the capacity of developing countries’ border security. INL-supported projects such as Model Alien Smuggling Legislation and Modular Alien Smuggling Investigation Training Courses have been completed and are being implemented. INL will leverage and build-on those projects to enhance our own training and capacity building programs. The INL-funded Model Forensic Document Laboratory Manual will be the base-line standard for both donor and recipient countries. INL is funding and supporting the development of a Model Border Guard Academy that will help countries build an honest and professional border security organization.
INL plans to fund additional ICE training in the Western Hemisphere to support USG priorities and interests, as well as assist countries to establish vetted units to investigate human smuggling and other cross-border crimes.
Working with Consular Affairs and other partners, INL is planning a number of new initiatives, such as helping countries create Consular Anti-fraud Programs to prevent fraud and improve the integrity of their visa issuance, and Passport Anti-fraud Programs to improve the integrity of their domestic passport issuance processes. Building on the foundations established with past support of UNODC projects, we also plan to develop new training courses to the increase the capacity of developing countries law enforcement to successfully investigate and prosecute transnational criminal organizations engaged in alien smuggling and other cross border crimes.
In addition, INL will work with ICE and other agencies to expand U.S. law enforcement’s global reach and effectiveness and build cooperation with foreign partners. For instance, the creation of an ICE-led vetted unit in Cambodia to combat human smuggling and trafficking, child exploitation and other cross border crimes will replicate the success in a new region that other ICE vetted units have had. Operations by ICE vetted units have been very successful in disrupting and dismantling foreign-based criminal networks, resulting in numerous arrests, and seizures of contraband and assets, while helping to build host country law enforcement capacity.
In response to the escalating violence on the U.S./Mexico border, INL will fund a joint Mexican-US law enforcement operation to combat the smuggling of small arms from the US into Mexico. Part of a larger, cross border initiative, this project will result in seizure of smuggled arms, arrest and conviction of smugglers, and disruption of arms trafficking networks.
Cyber Crime and Intellectual Property Rights
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsINL training and technical assistance programs facilitate USG assistance to and cooperation with key foreign nations on matters involving cybercrime and intellectual property rights (IP) crime. INL’s training and technical assistance programs assist foreign nations to draft effective laws and build strong enforcement capacity. INL also continues to participate in a range of USG diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening international standards and cooperation in combating transnational high tech and IP crime.
In the area of cybercrime, INL continues to build the capacity of foreign law enforcement partners through training and technical assistance programs targeted at identifying, investigating, prosecuting, and preventing crimes committed through the criminal misuse of information technology (IT). Improved cooperation between the USG and foreign law enforcement officials and increased successful domestic and foreign prosecutions of criminals misusing IT demonstrate the program’s success. In the area of IP enforcement, INL training and technical assistance programs combat IP violations by building capacity among foreign border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges to detect, investigate, prosecute and prevent these crimes.
Program JustificationIntellectual Property (IP) Crime
IP crime presents a growing threat to the most innovative sectors of the U.S. economy. Losses to the U.S. copyright, patent, and trademark industries in areas such as hard goods, optical media, and pharmaceuticals have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups in IP crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IP criminals. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IP, the explosion in IP crime and the growing sophistication of IP criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. In 2008, Congress created a new executive branch Office of the United States Intellectual Property Enforcement Representative (USIPER) and the House Foreign Affairs Committee has indicated IP enforcement will be a priority issue. As co-chair with EB of the inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where IP violations are most severe. INL assistance includes seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, training police officers, investigators, prosecutors, and judges to combat IP crime, and providing direct technical assistance, such as forensic equipment to allow foreign law enforcement to successfully identify counterfeit items. Since much of the growth of violations of IP rights is fueled by the criminal misuse of IT (e.g., online piracy) there is a significant overlap with the INL mission to fight cybercrime. INL and EB are also working to coordinate their training activities with the G8 and EU, whose Member States have indicated an interest in closer coordination with the USG.
The criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cybercrimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, through which IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks, in which information networks are themselves targeted. As one of the first nations to sign and ratify (in September 2006) the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime - the first multilateral treaty dedicated to cybercrime - the USG is one of the international leaders in promoting mutual cooperation, effective laws, and strong enforcement institutions. INL provides training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement personnel to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cybercrime in many developing nations, INL’s assistance includes enabling USG subject matter experts to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing USG policy positions on cybercrime in organizations such as the G8, the Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the United Nations, where INL is working alongside the Department of Justice (DOJ) on issues related to Identity Theft (ID Theft was one of the thematic topics at the April 2009 UN Crime Commission meeting). INL has also provided assistance to help stand up a new G8-Interpol Child Sexual Exploitation Database, which will help international law enforcement investigate and prosecute those who use information technology to prey on children.
Program AccomplishmentsAs the Department of State’s designated coordinator for federal law enforcement overseas assistance, INL is the funding source for almost all USG “cop-to-cop” law enforcement training and maintains the Department’s lead on law enforcement with respect to IP rights. With respect to intellectual property rights, INL funds training and technical assistance programs to investigators, law enforcement personnel, prosecutors, judges, and other foreign officials and policy makers who investigate, prosecute, punish, and prevent violations of intellectual property rights.
INL works closely with the Department’s Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (EB) to select the training and technical assistance programs through the consideration of criteria and metrics designed to identify gaps in countries/regions where inadequate laws or weak enforcement fail to protect intellectual property rights. More particularly, INL determines the needs necessary to reduce intellectual property violations and identifies a strategy to fill in the gaps through training and technical assistance programs. In making funding decisions, INL considers input from the TCG, the USTR Special 301 Report, U.S. industry, U.S. missions and Congress to ensure the assistance is targeted to fit long-range planning goals. We expect to work closely with the USIPER.
Similarly, in the field of cybercrime, INL was able to support stepped-up activities by the Department of Justice in advising key nations in the APEC and OAS regions in designing effective laws, in training foreign police and prosecutors in cyber investigations. INL has also continued to help advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, and with multilateral organizations like the OAS, the Council of Europe, APEC, the G8, and the United Nations. INL works closely with the DOJ Fraud Section on UN activities related to identity theft and we plan to continue USG support for the G8-Interpol International Child Sexual Exploitation Database.
FY 2010 ProgramAs co-chair of the State Department Training Coordination Group (TCG), along with our partner the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau (EB), INL will continue to fight IP crime through funding for foreign law enforcement training and technical assistance. INL will be consulting closely with the USG interagency community, U.S. Missions and industry groups to ensure that INL’s FY 2010 assistance does not duplicate or undercut industry efforts. In particular, we note that the industry groups have urged INL to provide additional law enforcement training to fill critical gaps in their own efforts to assist foreign countries in fighting IP crime. As such, INL will seek not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IP assistance plans. The countries INL is particularly likely to work with to build institutions to address IPR challenges include the Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia and India, as well as programs in cooperation with regional bodies like APEC and ASEAN. IP should continue to have a high profile among multilateral organizations such as the G8, which is in the process of implementing a new initiative on IP enforcement, and in discussions between the U.S. and EU Justice and Home Affairs Ministers
On cybercrime, INL will assist by providing training to fight either cybercrime itself or substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. In particular, INL expects demands for assistance from developing nations to increase in response to the success of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime as a global model. The USG is now in a stronger position to urge nations to accede to the COE Convention now that we ourselves have ratified the instrument. INL will also work to meet the demand from APEC and OAS member states as they advance their regional strategy to fight criminal misuse of information technology. INL expects to work closely with DOJ in assessing existing cybercrime training offerings for their effectiveness, and with Department of State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS/ATA) in determining how our crime fighting and anti-terrorist cyber training can complement each other. Finally, INL expects to continue our close coordination with DOJ on the UN Crime Commission as it considers further actions in the area of identity theft.
INL believes that its efforts, as outlined above, are making a significant contribution to the United States' fight against cybercrime and IP violations. In each of the areas cited, INL is maintaining its efforts in recognition of the growing importance of these issues to U.S. interests.
Combating Transnational Criminal Networks
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsINL will be developing a new programmatic area related to President Obama’s efforts to disrupt and dismantle transnational threat networks to assist selected countries to strengthen their law enforcement regimes and make it more difficult for transnational criminal organizations that threaten the interests of the United States. INL will also work with our international partners to bring attention to the cost of the global illicit trade, highlight the impact of transnational organized crime to security and stability, and to disrupt and dismantle transnational illicit networks.
INL’s new transnational organized crime programs will help priority countries strengthen capacities through prevention, training, and technical assistance. The strengthening of diplomatic initiatives to support law enforcement efforts will help to deter, disrupt and dismantle criminal and terrorist networks that have an adverse impact on U.S. national security interests. INL has set goals for combating transnational crime include: supporting cutting-edge research to map out globally the threat posed by criminal organizations, pinpoint their illicit routes and networks, and strengthen international to combat international organized crime under the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC); training to investigate, prosecute and dismantle transnational criminal networks; providing funding to the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research (UNICRI), the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), INTERPOL, the Organization of American States (OAS) and other international organizations for capacity building programs.
Performance measures will include stronger law enforcement responses; increased identification and prosecution of criminals and dismantlement of their networks. INL’s attention to combating transnational crime and illicit networks will focus on helping coordinate the activities of the interagency national security and law enforcement communities in their efforts to disrupt and dismantle transnational illicit networks.
Program JustificationSince the end of the Cold War, we have seen international organized crime groups continue to branch out beyond their traditional parameters. Major international organized crime groups have become even more global in their reach, expanding geographically, diversifying across criminal markets, and pioneering increasingly sophisticated cyber and financial crimes. The expansion of crime groups is perhaps most visible where so-called “iron triangles” form – where corrupt business leaders, corrupt government officials, and organized crime groups work together to subvert economies and public institutions.
For example, drug cartels that have long been a key security threat in the Western Hemisphere, are now brazenly expanding their illicit operations beyond traditional areas and sectors of operation. Multi-ton shipments of cocaine from Latin America now flow through West Africa as a transit/staging area for moving the product to Europe and Asia and other regions. At the same time, Latin American drug traffickers have recently been spotted moving cocaine and heroin as far away as South Asia, China and other parts of the Asia-Pacific region. West African trafficking organizations have long been involved in heroin trafficking throughout Asia, but have moved into the cocaine trade as well. At numerous points along the illicit routes across our economies, these criminal organizations have corrupted border police and law enforcement officials. Narcotics groups have also expanded into human smuggling, whether engaging directly in smuggling people or taking tribute from traditionally less violent human smuggling organizations.
In today’s globalized world, it is becoming clearer that no region is immune from the consequences of transnational crime and corruption. Illicit actors and corrupt officials undermine our joint security, destabilize communities and entire economies, and cast a shadow of lawlessness that erodes public trust and core democratic values in government institutions. Moreover, transnational illicit actors can capitalize on political and economic turmoil to amass wealth, while fueling further insecurity, chaos, and lawlessness.
This is particularly worrisome in many parts of the world where economies may neither have the capacity, resources, or political will to counter these threats and enforce the rule of law. In a perfect storm, the confluence of illicit networks and corruption in an enabling environment could facilitate not only the movement of drugs, arms, stolen or pirated goods, and trafficked persons, but also smuggling of terrorists, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) and WMD materials, and other dangerous weapons and technologies that threaten our common security. The threat from the proliferation of dangerous materials and technologies remains a real concern to all of our economies.
Moreover, criminal syndicates have been known to support terrorist groups by facilitating their clandestine trans-border movements, weapons smuggling, and forging of documents. At the same time, terrorist groups appear to be resorting to organized criminal activity as a means of self-financing, including through drug dealing, credit card theft, and insurance scams. Such growing terrorist-criminal cooperation is of particular concern to the international community, especially because some of these criminal syndicates may be able to acquire and sell radioactive materials, chemical and biological weapons, or technologies used for weapons of mass destruction. Further, this financial independence will make it much more difficult to shut off the spigot used to finance terrorism, at least through traditional means. As terrorist groups move toward mimicking the tactics of organized crime, our international response will need to incorporate more of the tools used by law enforcement.
To make headway against transnational criminal organizations, we need to enhance international cooperation to dismantle illicit networks and combat the threats that they pose -- not only through law enforcement efforts, but also by building up governance capacity, supporting committed reformers, and strengthening the ability of citizens to monitor public functions and hold leaders accountable for providing safety, effective public services, and efficient use of public resources. These goals can be achieved through (1) the practical implementation of new and ground-breaking conventions and protocols that define and promote international standards and create roadmaps for domestic implementation; (2) the use of a broad range of bilateral, regional, and global training and technical assistance programs aimed at strengthening our foreign partners’ law enforcement and prosecutorial capacity to implement those shared standards and best practices; (3) the development and proliferation of new enforcement tools and techniques to combat these threats; and (4) the strengthening of public-private partnerships with the business and non-profit communities.
FY 2010 ProgramINL will support innovative research by UNICRI to develop an international dialogue on the threats posed by transnational criminal networks to the global economy and to the security of nations
FY 2010 funds will also help develop new initiatives that INL would like to develop in the Americas, Asia, Southeast Europe, and the Horn of Africa and West Africa to strengthen international cooperation to combat transnational criminal organizations and dismantle illicit networks. INL will also provide support to UNODC, INTERPOL, OAS and other international organizations for capacity building programs for these regional projects.
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsDenying funds to terrorist organizations is a national security priority. Thwarting terrorist financing requires the development of robust anti-money laundering regimes that contain the legislative, enforcement, and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. INL will continue to promote and develop activities and programs that will strengthen global cooperation against financial crime and terrorist financing. We will work with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing (AML/CTF) standards. INL will continue to support the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and many of the FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs), which set international AML/CTF standards, as well as international and regional organizations with programs devoted to combating money laundering and terrorist financing, such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS). INL will encourage and assist with the formation of financial intelligence units (FIUs), and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place, and by encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs. INL provides funding for the Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program (PALP), a regional technical assistance and training program. We will continue to work jointly with partner countries that have complementary objectives, such as the anti-corruption and border security programs.
Indicators of our work include increases in the following:
1) Successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important terrorist financing and money laundering cases.
2) Jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including the FATF 40 Recommendations and 9 Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing, determined by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies.
3) Countries that have criminalized terrorist financing, and an increase in the number of effective FIUs.
Program JustificationFinancial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug and arms trafficking, corruption, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes, that until very recently has frequently eluded law enforcement. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds 3 to 5 percent of Global Domestic Product, or $2.17-$3.61 trillion per year, and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes, such as the use of the internet and “e-money” only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists appear to rely less on the formal financial sector than on traditional remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers. The Internet and “e-money” poses significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.
Program AccomplishmentsIn the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. Between FY 2002 and FY 2008, INL provided approximately $22.5 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial and judicial personnel, and financial intelligence unit personnel from 120 governments. INL-funded training and technical assistance played a key role in FATF’s decision to remove 21 of the 23 jurisdictions on its Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories list. We draw upon a multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors (FRB) to deliver the training and technical assistance to most of these countries. INL’s contributions to Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD), the Pacific Islands Forum, and the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering (UNGPML) also played a significant role in providing assistance to many of these countries. INL also provided $2 million to support the President’s East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the FATF-Style Regional Bodies (FSRBs): the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), the Council of Europe Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism (MONEYVAL), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), the Intergovernmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA), and the South American Financial Action Task Force (GAFISUD), to support anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing efforts. The members of these FSRBs have made a commitment to meet international AML/CTF standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions support the ongoing operations of these bodies and fund special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars and typologies exercises, as well as training on specific issues such as the development of national task forces and strategic development plans.
INL and the Department of State’s Office of the Coordinator of Counterterrorism (S/CT) co-chair the interagency Terrorist Finance Working Group (TFWG), which has cooperatively developed a process to identify and assist the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. INL is a central contributor to assessing the counter-terrorist financing needs of these countries, developing implementation plans for them, and funding counter-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so countries can combat this threat. INL also participates in some of the country assessments and training programs.
FY 2005, INL funding enabled the Department of Homeland Security, U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement (DHS/ICE) to establish Trade Transparency Units (TTU) in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In 2006, as a result of this initiative, DHS/ICE agents teamed with Brazilian authorities to target a scheme involving the under valuation of U.S. exports to Brazil to evade more than $200 million in Brazilian customs duties over the past five years. The scheme involved tax evasion, document fraud, public corruption and other illegal activities in Brazil and the United States. In an excellent example of the long-reach of law enforcement, more than 128 arrest warrants and numerous search warrants were simultaneously served in 238 locations in Brazil. In 2007, Argentina’s TTU was also able to initiate cases based on trade-related data, as were the TTUs in Paraguay and Colombia. Additionally, in 2007, INL funding enabled DHS/ICE to establish a nascent TTU in Mexico that in 2008 opened investigations on more than a dozen cases. The ultimate goal of developing TTUs globally will be the establishment of an Egmont-like organization, through which information regarding trade-based money laundering (also used to fund terrorism) can be shared globally.
In FY 2006, INL, through the UNODC, funded the innovative “GoAML” project - the development of expandable software that can be used by FIUs of any size and eliminates the need for new FIUs to purchase several different software programs to accomplish their mission of collecting, analyzing and disseminating financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. GoAML enables jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing activities. GoAML was first installed in Nigeria’s FIU and encountered a variety of problems that were resolved with the valuable input of other FIUs and subsequent modifications to the software. In 2008, GoAML was installed in the Namibian FIU and the nascent Kosovo FIU.
FY 2010 Program
In FY 2010, INL will continue to assist countries and regions to develop capacities to address money laundering threats. Efforts will include training, technical assistance, bilateral, regional and international coordination, support to establish FIUs, and development and strengthening of legal frameworks, organizations and authorities needed to effectively monitor and regulate anti-money laundering activities, and facilitate timely and effective enforcement when warranted. INL will seek GoAML installations in nascent FIUs determined to be capable of meeting qualifications for membership in the Egmont Group within two years. INL will continue to support FATF and selected member states, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, and examine the ways it can support development of a viable FSRB for Central African countries. INL will seek to develop anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing capabilities in and with a West/Central African country that currently lacks an AML/CTF regime.
INL will also provide funding to support or place intermittent and long-term mentors in countries to assist in the development of legislative frameworks, regulatory schemes, and FIUs. INL will continue to contribute to the UNGPML, OAS, work closely with entities of USG agencies, including Departments of State, Justice, Treasury, and Homeland Security, FDIC, FRB, and OCC to provide assistance in providing specific assistance in all elements necessary for the development of viable anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist finance regimes. INL will also continue to jointly fund mentors with World Bank. Funding will support training for lesser developed countries considered to be most vulnerable to money laundering and terrorist financing. Efforts will also be directed at other strategic jurisdictions that need resources and assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economies and financial services sectors against financial crime and terrorism.
INL will continue to support international, multinational and regional anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing organizations, such as UNGPML, OAS, UNGPML, FATF, and FSRBs, such as the APG, MONEYVAL, CFATF, GIABA, GAFISUD, and ESAAMLG. INL also contemplates support to the Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF) and the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (EAG) and looks forward to working with these FSRBs to ensure counter-terrorist financing training is incorporated into their anti-money laundering criteria, including training for evaluators, and their active participation in credible mutual evaluations of member countries.
|Anti-Crime Programs |
|INL Budget |
|FY 2008 ||FY 2008 |
|FY 2009 ||FY 2010 |
|Fighting Corruption ||3,967 ||- ||4,347 ||4,750 |
|Border Security/Alien Smuggling ||992 ||- ||1,347 ||1,000 |
|Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights ||3,472 ||- ||5,000 ||3,750 |
|Combating Transnational Criminal Networks ||- ||- ||- ||1,000 |
|Financial Crimes and Money Laundering ||3,472 ||- ||3,747 ||4,150 |
|Total ||11,903 ||- ||14,441 ||14,650 |
Civilian Police and Justice Program
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe overall program objectives are to sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police, justice sector and corrections components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations involving U.S. and international coalitions; and to assist in strengthening the capabilities of the USG, United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), African Union (AU), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and other international regional organizations to address police, justice, and prison development issues in countries emerging from conflict.
The FY 2010 program will sustain INL’s capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police, trainers and advisors overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations.
Activities will include:
Maintain a capacity to deploy U.S. police and other law enforcement specialists; justice and corrections experts.
Facilitate high quality, standardized civilian police, justice sector and corrections pre-deployment selection and training.
Improve INL management and oversight capabilities by further developing in-house law enforcement and other criminal justice expertise and options to address peacekeeping and complex security operations.
U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2010 and beyond. INL will sustain a capacity to deploy and support experienced U.S. police, justice and corrections personnel assigned to countries and areas of operation as determined by policy makers, and to support foreign Formed Police Units (FPU). The world-wide support contracts awarded in 2004 provide a mechanism to conduct rapid competition and deployment of experienced law enforcement and corrections officers and criminal justice experts to support U.S. foreign policy interests in post-conflict regions around the world.
Deployment of U.S. police and other law enforcement and criminal justice advisors can range from short-term assessments, training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks, to long-term secondments of a year or more, to operational missions in dangerous and volatile environments that may include authority to carry weapons and perform the full range of law enforcement functions. To prepare for such operations, U.S. law enforcement personnel are given a standard course of training applicable to all missions with special equipment and materials, briefings, training and medical precautions needed to accommodate a particular operating environment provided immediately prior to actual deployment.
The FY 2010 program sustains logistical capabilities to ensure a rapid and timely U.S. response and requests from the UN or other international organizations to contribute American police and/or other criminal justice advisors to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation.FY 2010 funds will also sustain ongoing outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement and criminal justice agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging more interest and participation in international police and criminal justice missions. Expanded in-house senior-level expertise will increase our ability to train U.S. participants in complex security operations and international peacekeeping missions, and assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate such participation.
Program AccomplishmentsINL manages three contractors to support program implementation and funds police training advisors, and senior corrections and police advisors.
The Civilian Police Program (CIVPOL) has become a vital tool of U.S. foreign policy. In FY 2009, INL supported the training and preparation of police, corrections and criminal justice advisors who are deployed in support of critical criminal justice sector missions in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Sudan, Liberia, Lebanon, Haiti and other places around the world. Currently there are more than 1,700 such expert advisors serving in INL missions. INL also expanded its support on outreach efforts, participating in several major policing conferences including the International Association of Chiefs of Police as well as groups like the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives. INL also hired a senior advisor for criminal justice, expanding our pool of available expertise for the bureau. INL CIVPOL experts support assessments and short-term training exercises in nearly every region of the world including high priority efforts in Pakistan, Nepal, West Africa, Afghanistan and Iraq. INL also completed a comprehensive review of the pre-deployment training facilities and programs which formed the basis of our plans for future improvements in the program.FY 2010 Program
The FY 2010 budget sustains INL’s capacity to identify, train, equip, pre-position, deploy and support law enforcement and other criminal justice personnel who participate in an overseas mission. The FY 2010 program will sustain standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, code of conduct, ethics standards, and systems needed to effectively manage this complex program. Through these efforts, U.S. police will receive basic and advanced pre-deployment instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. The FY 2010 program expands INL training staff, and maintains support for in-house senior police, corrections and criminal justice advisors. The FY 2010 program maintains personnel and resources dedicated to supporting INL capabilities to address peacekeeping and complex security matters and provide management and oversight of police, justice and prison programs.
|Civilian Police Program|
|FY 2008||FY 2008 Supp||FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Civilian Police Program||1,984||-||5,147||4,000|
|Oversight and Outreach||-||-||2,560||1,500|
Criminal Youth Gangs
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Enhance the capacity of governments in the Central American region to combat youth gang crime and prevent youth from being drawn into gangs by integrating law enforcement and prevention.
- Program activities extended to Belize, Panama, and Nicaragua.
- Reduced gang-related crime in areas served by the program.
- Stable or declining rates of gang membership in areas served by the program.
- Increased regional collaboration and information sharing on gang prevention and law enforcement.
Transnational gangs, such as MS 13 and M18 are a security threat for the United States as well as the Central American countries where they are active, and are becoming a threat to governance in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Gangs are responsible for massive extortion, homicides, drug distribution, thefts and other crimes. A regional approach is needed because, while some gang issues are unique to some countries, gang crime is not confined by country borders. The justice sector and communities also benefit from common procedures and shared knowledge and information, including best practices, lessons learned, standardizing operating procedures, and building on investigative and prevention successes to build better programs. An example of this approach is the multi-nation group of law enforcement officers that visited the Community Policing Institute in Florida. In addition to the technical learning, officers built links with each other and with counterparts and resources in the United States. Another example is information sharing for fingerprint analysis, which has yielded successes in capturing gang members in the United States and in other Central American countries.
INL fielded a Regional Gangs Advisor at the beginning of 2008. The advisor conducted detailed assessments of the extent of the problem and host country resources for Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, and spot assessments for Belize and Panama. In conjunction with the host governments and other U.S. agencies he developed a work plan that covers 6 primary areas: investigative, legal, information sharing, community policing, prevention, and prisons. He also set up technical assistance instruments with the FBI, the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) prevention program, the Regional Community Policing Institute, International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA), and, with INL’s corrections advisor, two state prison systems. Individual country and regional prevention activities have begun; and technical exchange visits/courses were conducted with community police, prison officers, and anti-gang police, and taught an ILEA anti-gang course. Sites in El Salvador and Honduras have been identified for replication of the Guatemala Villa Nueva model precinct program.
FY 2010 Program
The FY 2010 program will implement the six elements identified in the work plan for Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, adding prevention and prison programs in Belize, and a prevention program in Nicaragua.
Investigative Capacity - The program will provide vetting and group training in investigative technique, portable fingerprint registration devices and related training, and digitization of paper fingerprint cards.
Legal Capacity - Judges, prosecutors and technicians will be trained in evidence collection by ballistics and fingerprint analysis, including collection and use in courts. Regional lawmakers and judicial branch officials would be brought together to discuss technicalities and legalities of certifying information to be used in other countries’ trials.
Intelligence Capacity - This component will include training and tools such as computers, computerized data bases, crime mapping, and analyst exchanges. It will also support anonymous tip lines for community members who fear reprisals for reporting gang crime in person.
Community Policing - The program will continue establishing community policing models (currently in Guatemala, and scheduled for Honduras and El Salvador), analyze successful elements of community policing in other countries, and interchange experts from programs such as the Community Policing school in Florida.
Prevention - This component will include support for in-country and regional programs that have been identified as effective, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), programs for youth at risk, media campaigns to de-glamorize the gang image, the GREAT program, and a regional prevention conference. It also includes preventative policing tools such as mapping crimes and community participation in identifying areas at risk.
Prisons - The Regional Gangs program will continue programs to train corrections officials on effective management and rehabilitation of criminals and obtaining improved investigative information from incarcerated criminals. It will also provide equipment for officers such as computers and radios, and corrections officer exchanges.
Technical Assistance - FY 2010 funds will continue support for a Regional Gangs advisor based in El Salvador , two assistant advisors (Guatemala, Honduras) and a regional prisons training advisor (based in Honduras), plus related travel, and administrative training.
Program Development and Support (PD&S) - PD&S covers administrative support for the program in El Salvador and International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs in all participating countries.
|Criminal Youth Gangs|
|FY 2008||FY 2009||FY 2010|
|*In FY 2008 and 2009, LES salaries are subsumed under program funds.|
|**In FY 2009, the $105K is primarily ICASS.|
Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Select foreign countries will be able to apply “best practices” and evidence-based drug prevention and treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at the national, community, and regional levels.
Bilateral/regional training and technical assistance delivered and effectively utilized by public/private sector demand reduction organizations in Central/South America, Africa ,and Southeast/Southwest Asia, resulting in new or enhanced programs that significantly reduce drug use, related crime and violence, and delay onset of first use in target populations.
Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America’s image overseas.
Drug-free community coalitions among public/private sector organizations in
Latin America and Africa and outreach/aftercare centers in Southwest/Southeast
Asia that reduce drug use and delay onset of first use.
The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, stability, security, and economy of all countries. At the same time, the role of demand reduction in addressing global drug consumption has become more readily apparent as a relatively small percentage of chronic drug users consume the majority of drugs in many foreign countries. Getting drug users into treatment not only reduces drug consumption, but also helps to undermine local drug markets and reduce the profitability of drug dealing. Changing the behavior of chronic drug users can have enormously beneficial consequences for society, not the least of which is to deprive illegal drug traffickers of their largest source of revenue – the addicted, frequent, high-volume drug user. Removing chronic users’ demand for drugs has the potential to cripple drug profits. As such, healing drug users through effective treatment programs can lead to long-term reductions in drug profits which can shrink local drug markets to levels that can be more easily managed by local authorities.
Finally, foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. As part of their cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in that country and thereby improving the quality of life and cutting-off a potential source of terrorist financing.
Independent, science-based evaluations on the long-range impact of INL-funded training for drug treatment programs revealed that overall hard-core drug use in the target population in Colombia was reduced from 64% to 36% in the target treatment population, while overall drug use in Vietnam was reduced from 100% to 27% in the target population. In Vietnam, heroin use was reduced by 86% pre- and post-treatment in 20 demonstration treatment centers, while intravenous heroin use (a major vector for HIV/AIDS) was reduced by 85 percent. Among female clients in targeted Thai treatment programs, overall drug use and methamphetamine use was reduced from 92% to 10% and 90% to 10%, respectively. Among female clients in targeted Colombian treatment programs, overall drug use and cocaine use was reduced from 56% to 37% and 28% to 15%, respectively. Finally, criminal activity and arrest rates pre- and post-treatment were reduced by over 85% in targeted Colombian and Thai treatment programs.
FY 2010 Program
INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, the gang problem in Central America, the shortage of treatment facilities for addicted women and children worldwide, the dearth of prevention/treatment services in Africa, and the heroin threat and addiction problems in Southwest Asia and Afghanistan. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.
The FY 2010 program is divided into three general categories. A training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, imposes a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration program initiative that began in 2000 has a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect “best practices” that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome). The coalition and network building program has a three-year time limit per region.
Training and Technical Assistance
Regional Training: INL funding will provide support for sub-regional demand reduction training that disseminates the latest science-based information and “best practices” on effective methods to prevent and reduce drug use and related violence. Training will specifically target methamphetamine abuse and intravenous drug use that leads to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS, cocaine and crack abuse, and unique addiction problems affecting women and children. Target sub-regions include Africa, South America, Russia/Eastern Europe, Southeast/Southwest Asia, and Central America (where training will address the dual threats of criminal gangs and illegal drug use). Success will be measured by reductions in overall drug use, including high-risk behavior (e.g., intravenous drug use) that contributes to HIV/AIDS, and related criminal activity. These centers (co-funded by other international organizations and donor countries) are an economical way to provide comprehensive assistance to several countries in a region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.
Research and Demonstration Programs
Women’s Drug Treatment Initiative: This initiative supports research-based prevention and treatment programs in key drug producing/using countries and disseminates the most promising results within the U.S. and overseas to improve demand reduction service delivery worldwide. INL will continue support for model residential drug treatment programs for high-risk female youth in Brazil and Peru whose technology is now being disseminated worldwide, in addition to the continued development of critically-needed training curriculum that addresses the unique needs of female addicts worldwide.
Muslim-based Anti-Drug Demonstration Programs: INL will continue to fund model outreach and aftercare centers in volatile Muslim regions where the U.S. needs to increase access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Indonesia. These centers, which can be co-located in mosques and madrassahs, serve as a prevention component to the “War on Terror” and are designed to reduce drug consumption whose proceeds are a potential source of terrorist financing; cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations; enhance America’s image in Muslim countries; provide youth in at-risk areas with alternatives to radical or terrorist indoctrination centers; and reduce the high rates of drug use, relapse, and drug-related violence in their target populations. Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.
Coalition and Network Building
Drug-Free Community Coalitions: Funding will support the enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs (in Mexico, Central America, the Andean sub-region of South America, and Africa) that assist civil society/grassroots organizations in fighting illegal drugs. These public/private sector coalitions work towards reducing substance abuse among youth, enhancing intergovernmental collaboration, and strengthening collaboration among organizations and agencies in both the private and public sectors across countries. Funds will provide for 4 training/technical assistance sessions each in the 4 target regions. The planned life of this initiative is three years, after which the coalitions will be effective vehicles for reducing drug consumption and related violence in the respective countries of each region.
|FY 2008||FY 2008 Supp||FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Training and Technical Assistance||9,403||-||6,000||8,000|
|Research and Demonstration Programs||1,000||-||3,000||3,000|
|Coalitions and Networks||1,500||-||1,000||1,500|
International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA)
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsNational law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established through training at the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs): Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador (includes the Regional Training Center in Lima, Peru) and Roswell. This will result in greater cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement authorities, and more effective investigations and successful prosecutions of cases abroad.
- ILEA curricula will encourage graduates to interact regionally and internationally to address law enforcement issues.
- ILEA graduates will apply methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigations.
- ILEA alumni will be encouraged to actively engage in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.
- ILEA curricula will continue to include topics of growing international interest, including counterterrorism, anti-corruption, trafficking in persons, financial crimes, cyber crime and intellectual property rights, and transnational organized crime.
- The total number of students’ trained at all five academies will be approximately 3,600.
Program JustificationILEAs help advance U.S. interests by developing international cooperation and promoting social, political, and economic stability. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide training and technical assistance, support institution building and developing law enforcement capabilities, and foster U.S. law enforcement relationships with counterpart agencies. ILEAs encourage strong regional partnerships to address common problems resulting from criminal activities. The ILEAs also encourage and strengthen extensive networks of alumni – many of whom will become law enforcement leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries – that can be used to in cooperation with U.S. and other counterpart agencies to assist in transnational criminal investigations.
The Department of State works with the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Treasury, and many cooperating governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the Core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level police and other criminal justice personnel in over 75 countries. State’s primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, seek funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight to ensure that ILEAs continue to support and complement U.S. foreign policy objectives.
The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing relevant, timely, and quality training within broader contexts involving diverse regional economic, social and political environments and circumstances that may be subject to rapid change. The ILEA program will seek to anticipate such constantly changing international crime-related challenges, including terrorism, financial crimes, organized crime, corruption, cyber crime, illegal narcotics and trafficking in persons.
Program AccomplishmentsINL has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, El Salvador (includes RTC) and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 29,000 officials from over 75 countries.
The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 12,000 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 8,200 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in 2001 and has since trained over 3,700 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and other Sub-Saharan countries. INL opened a graduate style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico in 2001 and has trained over 2,800 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies. The ILEA in San Salvador, El Salvador, opened in 2005 at a temporary location and is now progressing to construct a permanent facility, has trained over 1,600 students from Central and South America and the Caribbean. The Lima RTC, an auxiliary facility of ILEA San Salvador, has trained over 500 participants from the Andean and Southern Cone regions.
FY 2010 ProgramThe FY 2010 program consists of the traditional five ILEAs and a new component that supports the Shared Security Partnership (SSP) initiative. SSP is a multi-year, multi-agency initiative to address a wide array of existing threats to U.S. national security posed by terrorist organizations. SSP will forge strategic partnerships for confronting common global extremist threats by:
- Strengthening law enforcement counter-terrorism efforts by creating an infrastructure of information-sharing and coordination.
- Building capacities, including providing training and equipment, to address border security, nonproliferation of WMD, and anti-corruption.
- Developing bilateral, regional, and global partnerships.
The SSP initiative will support establishment of a regional security training center in West Africa and other critical regions of the world to assist enhancing regional and local-level criminal justice institutions, facilitate regional cooperation on such common problems and build relationships with US counterparts. These facilities will be used to deliver basic and advanced law enforcement skills needed to address transnational crime and terrorism. In its first year, INL, in cooperation with other Department of State and other USG agencies, will begin implementation activities leading to a full program within three years, and facilitated by formation bilateral and regional partners to serve as hosts, and establishment of a program of courses that reflect the needs of participating countries.
INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, and San Salvador. Utilizing additional resources made available to support the SSP initiative, INL will establish an ILEA Global Network that will provide a mechanism to develop active ILEA alumni to engage in training other instructors and mentors in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job, support alumni cooperation on investigations with counterparts, and establish a database of ILEA participants, including information sharing with U.S. counterparts.
INL will continue the development of ILEA San Salvador. As part of this effort, funds will be used to complete Phase Two (dormitories) of the ILEA compound on land donated by the Salvadoran government. Similar to the other regional ILEA curricula, the ILEA San Salvador will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking the most salient crime threats in the region, including drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, gang proliferation, money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial crimes and accountability in government, as well as enhancing the ability of law enforcement to anticipate and respond to terrorist threats. These courses will be designed to conform to regional nuances of these criminal activities as identified by ILEA needs assessment mechanisms.
|International Law Enforcement Academy |
|FY 2008||FY 2008 Supp||FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Bangkok, Thailand ||3,000||-||3,000||3,000|
|Budapest, Hungary ||2,500||-||2,500||3,500|
|Gaborone, Botswana ||3,500||-||3,000||3,500|
|Roswell, New Mexico ||5,000||-||4,000||4,000|
|San Salvador, El Salvador ||3,350||-||3,600||4,000|
|RTC Lima, Peru||350||-||-||4,100|
|San Salvador - Construction ||300||-||-||-|
|Regional Africa Security Training Center (RASTC)||-||-||-||10,170|
|ILEA Global Network||-||-||-||2,000|
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
The international organizations account supports the counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts of the following international organizations: the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), and the Organization of American States’ (OAS) Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). UNODC, INCB, and CICAD are issue-specific international organizations that leverage U.S. contributions with those of other donors to conduct capacity-building programs and treaty implementation activities that directly support USG objectives.
UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Utilize resources through the international organizations account to enable the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to develop and implement counternarcotics and anti-crime projects in countries where ongoing criminal activities, the production and transit of illicit narcotics, and illegally-diverted precursor chemicals threaten U.S. interests. Project aims include:
Promoting implementation of the 1988 UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances:
Strengthen criminal justice infrastructure through upgrading essential legislation, justice system training, improvement of judicial cooperation, and on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services. UNODC will also continue to advise on the drafting, adoption and application of all necessary legislation, strengthen the technical and operational skills of professionals in States that have adopted such legislation, and provide practical tools to help them undertake their day-to-day work. UNODC will also serve as a vehicle to promote regional cooperation to combat the transit of drugs, including the flow of Afghan heroin and South American cocaine.
Enhancing precursor chemical controls used in the production of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine type stimulants, notably methamphetamine:
Increase, through the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), cooperation to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals and provide support to the intergovernmental, operations known as “Project Prism” and “Project Cohesion.” Through these operations, the INCB assists governments with real-time prevention of diversion of precursor chemicals by monitoring international shipments for suspicious transactions.
Inhibit international organized crime and its impact on society and individuals through increased implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplemental Protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling, as well as the universal legal instruments against terrorism:
Strengthen the legal framework and law enforcement capacity to prevent, investigate, prosecute and adjudicate organized crime and advance international cooperation in criminal matters. The UNODC will continue to facilitate the assessment and revision of national legislation, including through the development of model laws, ensure compliance with the UNTOC and its Protocols; collect, assess and disseminate best practices in combating organized crime; facilitate international cooperation; and strengthen the institutional and operational capacity of law enforcement and judicial bodies to investigate, prosecute and adjudicate organized crime related offences.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
Strengthen counternarcotics capacity and performance by countries in the Western Hemisphere:
Encourage support of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), a peer review system created as part of the Summit of the Americas process, which identifies gaps and weaknesses in the anti-drug efforts of the 34 OAS Member States and provides them substantive recommendations to address shortcomings in country anti-drug programs. The findings from the MEM rounds also provide guidance to CICAD’s Executive Secretariat in prioritizing its assistance and training resources, and permits the OAS to measure progress being made by individual countries and by the Hemisphere as a whole. Endorse CICAD’s Inter-American Observatory on Drugs (OID), which strengthens the National Observatories on Drugs in the Member States, and develops standardized methodologies to produce high quality information on drug demand and supply, in addition to other key areas of research that are important to developing drug programs and policies.
Increase counternarcotics collaboration among OAS Member States:
Promote active and practical cooperation among the countries of the Western Hemisphere against drug production, trafficking (cross-border and maritime smuggling), money laundering (including terrorist financing), chemical diversion, and youth gangs by actively participating in the regular thematic experts working group meetings. Ensure that Member States are equipped with appropriate modern legal tools to confront drug-related crime and to share common legal definitions and standards to be able to work effectively together by producing and periodically updating hemispheric model regulations and best practices guides. Encourage Member States to have robust demand reduction programs and to prioritize prevention in national drug plans.
Continue progress in the inter-American region to curb money laundering, terrorist financing, and chemical diversion:
Execute technical assistance training programs to improve and enhance implementation of money laundering and chemical control legislation, to strengthen investigative and prosecutorial procedures in these two areas, and to increase countries’ institutional capability to interdict narcotics and precursors produced within or transiting through the Western Hemisphere.
Program JustificationUN Office on Drugs and Crime
With its headquarters located in Vienna, Austria, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the major multilateral organization providing assistance to combat drugs and crime on a global scale. Their work is particularly important in cases where foreign governments require a multilateral political/legal umbrella in order to accept outside assistance or where political sensitivities by either recipients or donors complicate bilateral assistance. U.S. support to UNODC complements INL bilateral programs and leverages U.S. funds by promoting increased buy-in and support from a broader array of donor countries. The organization has a unique role in assisting states in ratifying and implementing international conventions including the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC), the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), the three UN anti-drug conventions as well as the universal instruments against terrorism. It is also the only multilateral organization that maintains the global reach and credibility necessary to deliver technical assistance in relation to these aforementioned instruments. The United States was a primary architect of the counter-drug and anti-crime treaties. These instruments mirror and globalize U.S. counternarcotics and anti-crime policies and establish the first ever global framework for international legal cooperation to investigate and prosecute serious transnational offenses.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the drug control arm of the Organization of American States (OAS), is the premier counter-drug forum for the Western Hemisphere. It is also one of the most effective entities within the OAS. CICAD combines a policy-level Commission that meets twice a year with a technical Executive Secretariat that supports the Commission and conducts programs and training throughout the year. CICAD’s technical sub-groups facilitate valuable exchanges of information and experience among national experts on topics ranging from money laundering to drug abuse treatment and prevention and lay the basis for action plans. The Secretariat provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, training and technical support, legal standards, national experiences and research. The Secretariat, using funds from INL and other donors, provide a wide array of technical assistance to Member States, some on an individual basis (e.g., national drug strategies) but most often in sub-regional groupings (e.g., Central America, the English-speaking Caribbean, the Andes). With INL funding, CICAD has been a useful and effective forum to address emerging threats in the counternarcotics area like internet-based drug sales and methamphetamine trafficking. CICAD has been instrumental in developing hemispheric solidarity on the drug issue and ended finger pointing between “supplier” and “consumer” nations, and has encouraged member states that have been identified as “producer” countries to realize that they too are becoming “consumer” states and that drug use is also increasing in their own countries. Hemispheric efforts are guided by the Summit of the Americas-mandated “Anti-Drug Strategy in the Americas.”
Much of CICAD’s success has been due to sustained U.S. foreign policy efforts to promote a strong anti-drug coalition and sense of shared responsibility among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. Active participation by the U.S. interagency community in specialized CICAD activities has been critical to achieving high standards of performance as well as keeping CICAD’s efforts relevant to U.S. counterdrug agencies. In fact, at the most recent Regular Session meeting in November 2008, the U.S. was elected Vice-Chair of the CICAD Commission. At the November 2009 meeting the U.S. will assume the Chairmanship for the 2010 fiscal year, and will host its first Commission meeting. This represents the first time that the U.S. has assumed such a leadership role in the OAS/CICAD, and it offers a unique opportunity for U.S. engagement in hemispheric regional affairs.
UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Funding from the international organizations account supports priority UNODC technical assistance and projects to promote implementation of the three drug control treaties, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the legal instruments against terrorism.
In 2008, U.S. funding supported the International Narcotics Control Board’s (INCB) Database for Precursor Chemical Control, which plays a vital role in the INCB’s two inter-governmental projects that focus on preventing the diversion from licit commerce those chemicals used to manufacture heroin and cocaine (“Project Cohesion”), as well as amphetamine type stimulants (“Project Prism”). In addition, the 2006 UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) passed a U.S.-sponsored resolution requesting that States provide the INCB with their legitimate requirements for precursor chemicals used to make synthetic drugs, notably methamphetamine. U.S. financial support for the INCB helped continue implementation of this resolution. The data collected pursuant to this resolution serves as a baseline for authorities in importing and exporting countries, facilitating quick “reality checks” on the chemicals and the quantities proposed in commercial transactions in order to determine whether importation is warranted.
During 2008, the INCB achieved particular success in identifying new methods and routes of diversion being employed by traffickers to circumvent existing controls in the major manufacturing and exporting countries. Following the success of a time-bound operation called “Operation Crystal Flow”, which was conducted over a six-month period in 2007, the INCB launched another inter-governmental operation focusing on the trade of precursor chemicals to the Americas, Africa, Oceania and West Asia. The operation was known as “Operation Ice Block” and was conducted over a nine-month period from in 2008. During the operation, more than 49 tons of those chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine were suspended, stopped, or seized. The INCB issued 49 notifications of suspicious shipments to governments. Analysis of the 49 notifications reveals two shipments were suspended, 20 shipments stopped, 15 were seized, and two were released.In addition, operational activities continued under the INCB’s “Project Cohesion” focusing on acetic anhydride and potassium permanganate used in the production of heroin and cocaine, respectively. In 2008, the Task Force of Project Cohesion launched a time-bound international operation which focused on the exchange of information on seizures, identified diversion attempts and suspicious shipments of acetic anhydride. This operation, known as “ Operation DICE” (Data Intelligence Collection and Exchange), sought to fill the intelligence gaps related to the diversion of chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of heroin or suspected to be precursors of these chemicals. DICE focused on a real-time exchange of intelligence on seizures, identified diversion attempts and suspicious shipments of acetic anhydride and, where possible, glacial acetic acid and sulphuric acid. The information was shared among the Governments concerned and the Task Force of Project Cohesion, which received communications related to seizures, stopped shipments and identified suspicious consignments involving over 200 tons of heroin chemicals.
Since September of 2003, UNODC has performed a crucial role in promoting the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplementary Protocols to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. In 2008, UNODC launched numerous tools to assist States in implementation of the UNTOC, including an online directory of competent national authorities designated to handle requests for international cooperation; the Mutual Legal Assistance Request Writer Tool to assist practitioners in drafting correct and effective requests; a case management tool to enable jurisdictions to investigate serious crime cases in an effective, transparent and timely manner; model laws to assist States in their review and adaptation of national legislation; a toolkit to combat trafficking in persons; and, indicators to detect the smuggling of migrants. In addition, UNODC continued to provide technical assistance for legislation and capacity-building, including several workshops devoting to seizing, confiscating and sharing or returning the proceeds of crime transferred to foreign jurisdictions.
The UNODC also excels in providing practical technical assistance rooted in the rule of law to promote ratification and implementation of the legal instruments against terrorism. Since the inception of UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch in 2002, UNODC has assisted over 160 states in ratifying and implementing the legal instruments, trained over 7,700 officials on their application and held over 63 regional and sub-regional workshops. These efforts have led to an estimated 469 new ratifications (as of December 2008) of the universal legal instruments against terrorism.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
While CICAD has been well known in anti-drug circles for years, it rose to presidential attention at the Santiago and Quebec Summits through its development of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). The MEM is considered one of the most successful programs of the OAS in general. Mandated by the Heads of State and Government of the Hemisphere, it has become a diagnostic tool in all drug-related matters in most countries of the Hemisphere. The MEM serves as a tool to guide policy and programs. CICAD’s Executive Secretariat has increasingly used MEM Recommendations as a determining factor when deciding on the technical and financial assistance given to countries. The MEM process has matured in its evaluative component over its four evaluation rounds. CICAD published the report entitled The Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism Achievements, 1997-2007 that assesses the MEM’s performance through the first three evaluation rounds, both on a country-by-country and regional basis. CICAD assisted the UNODC with how to incorporate evaluative information from regional organizations into the United Nations’ own statistical information process.
CICAD provides technical support on epidemiological surveillance, research, and drug prevention and treatment for OAS Member States. CICAD developed and supervised drug use prevalence studies, through its standardized methodology, in multiple member states and coordinated this research with UNODC. Through this, it has been possible to measure drug consumption in the Americas, and using the standardizing methodology it is possible to analyze trends over time, and compare consumption behaviors across the countries of the Hemisphere. In November 2007, CICAD inaugurated an online country profile data bank of drug information on all 34 Member States. CICAD also launched an online certificate program on substance abuse prevention and treatment aimed at the English-speaking Caribbean. CICAD has encouraged the introduction of Life Skills and Culture of Lawfulness curricula for school-based drug prevention, following the Hemispheric Guidelines for School-based Prevention approved by the CICAD Commission.
Through the Supply Reduction and Anti-Money Laundering programs, drug law enforcement officers throughout the Americas have been trained in diverse techniques to control drug shipments, money laundering, and related crimes. In 2007, 37 regional or national training seminars for nearly 1,000 law enforcement and customs officers covering a range of subjects such as the control of chemicals, officer safety, maritime cooperation, profiling of suspicious containers and passengers, port security and vessel inspection. In addition, CICAD conducted a training program to involve private sector participation in port and airport security. CICAD has also trained judges and prosecutors to try money laundering cases, and instructed bankers and regulators in techniques to prevent and detect money laundering schemes. In conjunction with the Inter-American Development Bank, CICAD undertook the program to create and strengthen, as necessary, Financial Intelligence Units to control money-laundering activities in South American countries. Given the success of this program in South America, it was extended to include the countries of Central America and the Dominican Republic in 2007-2008. In December 2007, CICAD launched a specialized on-line database of money laundering typologies that will pool and catalog information from the entire hemisphere.
Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering, CICAD has emerged as an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS’ Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing. CICAD has also become increasingly active in law enforcement policy development and institution building. CICAD’s supply reduction and control activities are aimed at helping member states improve their capacity to reduce the production, distribution and availability of illicit drugs and the diversion of chemical products used in the manufacture of drugs. CICAD has also been a leader in developing chemical control regimes (laws, regulatory bodies, investigations). In response to the growing use of the Internet for illicit sales of controlled substances (both legitimate and counterfeit), CICAD partnered with Microsoft in 2007 to deliver a series of five seminars on the tools, resources and techniques needed to investigate the sale of drugs over the Internet.
CICAD also seeks to support member states in carrying out development projects to reduce, eliminate or prevent the illicit cultivation of coca, poppy and cannabis. In November 2007, the CICAD-supported Andean Countries Cocoa Export Support Opportunity (ACCESO) program, aimed at promoting improvement in the quality, quantity and marketing of cacao production in traditional coca-growing areas, completed its first year of operations in Peru. At 34 farmer field schools, 796 producers were trained, 65 of whom were certified as trainers. The ACCESO program is a public-private partnership among World Cocoa Foundation (private business interests), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Inter-American Institute for Agricultural Cooperation (IICA) and CICAD. CICAD also launched the Alternative Development Knowledge Network (ADKN) both in English and Spanish, an on-line knowledge-sharing and communication tool for people working in rural development, especially drug-crop producing highland areas. ADKN is an interactive means for sharing development information, allowing users to contribute their own knowledge via simple but powerful tools for uploading documents, making announcements, having discussions and making their own web pages.
CICAD works closely with a number of international organizations, and has gained prestige in forging partnerships in order to build a strong and united front against the constantly evolving trends in substance abuse and international drug markets.
FY 2010 ProgramUN Office on Drugs and Crime
In FY 2010, funding will be provided to the following longstanding programs of the UNODC that support strict enforcement of drug control and anti-crime policies:
Precursor Chemical Control: Funds will be used to continue support for INCB activities, including its global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs, as well as support for its “Project Prism” and “Project Cohesion” operations. In addition, funding will allow the INCB to support implementation of the U.S.-sponsored resolution that requests countries to provide their legitimate needs with regard to those precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of synthetic drugs, including methamphetamine.
Implementation of the UNTOC: Funds will be used to expand UNODC technical assistance and capacity building efforts to promote implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC), particularly in the areas of international cooperation, migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons.
Implementation of the Legal Instruments against Terrorism: Funds will support the efforts of UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) to promote international cooperation in criminal matters through the implementation of the legal instruments against terrorism, including in the areas of nuclear terrorism and counter-terrorism finance.
General Purpose Fund: Funding will be provided to the UNODC’s General Purpose Fund, which in part supports the field office infrastructure necessary to implement U.S.-funded projects. The Fund also allows UNODC to maintain its drug control center of excellence that has developed through its core programs based out of its Headquarters in Vienna. Such programs focus on implementation of the three UN Drug Control Conventions and involve strengthening criminal justice infrastructure through upgrading essential legislation, justice system training, improvement of judicial cooperation, and on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services.
Santo Domingo Partnership Monitoring Mechanism: Funds will support UNODC’s Santo Domingo Partnership Monitoring Mechanism (PMM) to promote regional cooperation to combat the transit of drugs through Caribbean states. Similar to the acclaimed Paris Pact Initiative developed to stem the flow of Afghan heroin, the Santo Domingo PMM will bring government representatives together at the expert and policy level to advance joint operations and to develop concrete measures aimed at enhancing regional cooperation to stem the flow of South American cocaine.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
In FY 2010, sustained funding to CICAD is needed to advance the objectives of the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere, and will be used for CICAD projects, training and technical assistance. CICAD programs complement INL’s bilateral programs and fill gaps in multinational support efforts. INL has encouraged close collaboration between CICAD technical staff and U.S. Embassy program managers. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following priority areas:
Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): The MEM is a peer review system that provides governments with recommendations on how to strengthen their anti-drug efforts (staff, travel, and processing costs) with capacity building, follow-on training, and technical support. In 2009, the MEM will present its fourth round evaluation conclusions and recommendations, and will begin its fifth round of evaluation with a newly streamlined review process adopted by an inter-governmental group that reduced costs of the mechanism to permit more funding to be directed towards implementing recommendations. INL funds will continue to support this exemplary peer-review mechanism.
Legal development: INL will continue to support the updating of a regional model legislation (money laundering and chemicals), orientation for legislators and judges; communications systems to facilitate regional exchange of information and cooperation; and programs relating to the control of money laundering and chemical diversion; training for regulators (financial and chemical) and investigators. CICAD will provide advanced training for specialized technology-based law enforcement investigations for illegal internet drug sales to augment the basic training offered in 2007. Funds in FY 2010 will also allow for the creation of a regional money laundering training center in South America and will offer an online graduate program on the investigation and prosecution of money laundering.
Supply Reduction Efforts: This program intensifies/expands work in promoting maritime and port security, customs controls, and cooperation/communication among law enforcement entities throughout the Americas through training, technical assistance, best practices guidelines, building public-private partnerships.
Demand reduction and youth programs: CICAD assists Member States to build effective national drug awareness/education programs, conduct epidemiological surveillance (according to hemispheric standards), and upgrade the skills of counselors and support staff at non-governmental drug abuse treatment centers and juvenile detention centers (through unprecedented certification programs). This program will continue to work with countries on a sub-regional basis to develop comprehensive national plans for addressing youth gangs, to incorporate material on drugs awareness and addiction into professional nursing and medical school curricula, and to develop national certification processes for treatment providers. In parallel, CICAD is pursuing a partnership with the National Strategy Information Center (NSIC) to promote “Culture of Lawfulness” as a regional “best practice.” This approach seeks to stimulate young people to be good citizens and work to promote a corruption/crime/drug-free society. CICAD also plans to expand its demand reduction programs to include workplace prevention by initiating a two-year effort to draft hemispheric guidelines on substance abuse prevention it the workplace, similar to the school-based prevention guidelines that CICAD approved in 2005.
Maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system: Continued support will be provided for CICAD’s Hemispheric Observatory on Drugs, the hemispheric statistical systems (demand and supply side) to maintain a centralized, dependable source of statistics to track progress in hemispheric anti-drug programs. The unit has developed and is training governments in a standardized approach to estimating social and economic costs of the drug problem to assist decision makers in determining budget priorities and to better inform the public, legislatures and media about the impact of drugs on a society and its economy.
|FY 2008||Supp||FY 2009||FY 2010|
Interregional Aviation Support
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Interregional Aviation Support budget provides coordinated core-level services necessary to operate the Air Wing’s fleet of over 140 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities worldwide. This base of support is essential to sustain logistical systems and depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. Centrally-administered oversight includes: setting, implementing and monitoring uniform safety and training standards consistent with aviation industry practices; compliance with standard operational procedures; a logistics support system for acquiring, storing and shipping critical aviation parts and components worldwide; fleet-wide maintenance management; management of the Critical Flight Safety Program; and administration of the aviation support contract. INL aircraft are employed in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Guatemala, Afghanistan, and Pakistan and are also available, as needed, to support other temporary deployment locations. This budget is augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local Embassy and cooperating host government missions.
In FY 2010, INL will continue to assist the Government of Colombia in conducting eradication operations aimed at reducing coca cultivation and production, as well as support the Colombian Army and Police in their larger counternarcotics aviation operations.
In cooperation with the Government of Colombia, areas of coca cultivation in Colombia will be aerially sprayed with herbicide, and cocaine production will be reduced as a result of this eradication.
Successful interdiction missions will be conducted against narco-terrorists and their infrastructure.
The Governments of Peru and Bolivia (with INL provided air transportation support to move people and materials) will continue to conduct manual eradication efforts in outlying areas of their respective countries.In Bolivia, coca cultivation will be reduced and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare and Yungas regions (subject to the cooperation of the host government).
In Peru, coca cultivation will be reduced as evidenced by the eradication/ abandonment of remaining coca fields (subject to the cooperation of the host government). Opium poppy field surveillance will be increased.
INL will support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counternarcotics military personnel by air in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Guatemala, and other countries for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking activities to the extent possible using current assets.
The number of interdiction and eradication missions flown in Peru will continue at a high level using the helicopter fleet which has been upgraded to Huey-II configuration and expanded to 23 aircraft. Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops and production facilities, and verify eradication program results.Drug production areas and facilities will be successfully identified and mapped year-round in Colombia and on an as-needed basis in other countries.
Recently established helicopter operations in Guatemala will continue to enhance interdiction capabilities.
Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism.Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistani border security aviation program will result in more frequent and effective surveillance and interdiction missions.
The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will be performed to the highest standards of safety and efficiency with due regard for increased security risks.
Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.
Afghanistan illicit poppy cultivation figures continue to be daunting. Afghanistan tops the world in opium production. INL will continue to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2009, and will continue into FY 2010.
Program JustificationThe interregional aviation program supports both eradication ($48.7 million) and interdiction ($11.4 million) program elements in the counternarcotics program area of the Department’s peace and security objective. INL’s efforts support the Department’s objectives in the rebuilding countries of Colombia and Afghanistan by combating illicit drug enterprises that pose a threat to U.S. and global security and undermine good governance and economic growth. Similarly, aviation support to counternarcotics activities in Peru, Guatemala and Pakistan, as well as border security in Pakistan, bolster efforts to improve peace and security, good governance and economic growth in those developing nations. In Bolivia, the Air Wing has been instrumental in developing host nation institutional capabilities for counternarcotics operations and will continue to support building the capacity of host nation organizations.
The INL aviation program is central to achieving of our counternarcotics objectives in the key source countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. INL assists these governments and others to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, protect borders, and develop internal institutional counternarcotics aviation capabilities. FY 2010 funding will provide for continuation of core activities with the existing fleet. Potential losses and upgrades of aircraft are not included.
The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. In Colombia, the program supports aerial eradication in hostile, remote and increasingly scattered regions that would otherwise be inaccessible to manual eradicators. In Peru and Bolivia, the program supports transportation for manual eradication. Airplanes and helicopters transport law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, and unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible, as well as provide medical evacuation capability for eradicators and law enforcement personnel when needed. Air reconnaissance assets are essential in locating, identifying, and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results. In Guatemala, the INL Air Wing established a new air interdiction capability consisting of four Huey-II helicopters, available to conduct operations against drug trafficking in the transit zone.
Afghanistan represents a tremendous challenge in the international fight against drugs. Aviation support to eradication and interdiction efforts is absolutely essential in conducting operations in this large, rugged country with poor road networks and widely dispersed areas of cultivation, production and trafficking.
In all assisted countries, the assets are also employed for interdiction efforts. In Colombia they are also used to conduct operations against narco-terrorists under expanded authorities. In Pakistan, the assets are used for the monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and technology transfer, INL supports the operational goal of enhancing political determination to combat illegal drug production and trafficking. This builds long-lasting institutions that have the trained personnel and demonstrated abilities to assume increased responsibility for counternarcotics air activities.
In 2008, INL-owned aircraft flew 53,689 flight hours (14,015 fixed-wing and 39,674 rotary-wing), an average of approximately 1,032 flight hours per week.Colombia – Eradication
The Interregional Aviation Support program supports aerial eradication in Colombia. INL and the Colombian National Police (CNP) have collaborated in mounting an effective campaign using AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate coca. In 2008, 133,496 hectares of coca were sprayed. INL has assisted the CNP with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) and Gyrocam equipment mounted on Cessna C-208 Caravans for targeting and verifying eradication of coca.
Colombia – COLAR
In addition to supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and helps sustain the Colombian Army (COLAR) Aviation Brigade that provides rotary-wing air mobility to the Counter Drug Brigade (CD Brigade). Most of the aviation support and maintenance for the Colombian Army Aviation Program, also known as the “Plan Colombia Helicopter Program” (PCHP), is part of a contract administered by the INL Air Wing. The Air Wing’s contractor provides pilots, maintenance technicians, trainers, and logistics support to the PCHP, since the Government of Colombia is not yet able to provide all of the resources necessary to support these operations. The current PCHP helicopter fleet consists of 21 Huey-II helicopters and 13 UH-60L “Blackhawk” helicopters. The result of this effort, a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air mobile operations, is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. That unit has flown 189,253 hours since its inception, including over 1,200 medical evacuations. PCHP assets have been instrumental in the takedown of a number of high value targets.
Peru and Bolivia
INL aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL-owned Huey-II helicopters and fixed wing aircraft (C-208 and B-1900D) continue to transport manual eradication teams and Peruvian counternarcotics police in order to implement far-reaching counternarcotics operations using a mobile-basing strategy. In Bolivia, INL helicopters have enabled the government to project authority over key drug trafficking areas and to establish mobile, forward operating bases. During times of violent attacks against eradicators and law enforcement personnel, the air assets have conducted life-saving medical evacuations. INL provided aviation technical support and training and logistical support were essential ingredient of the success enjoyed by host nation personnel operating these helicopters. The aviation program has also continued to build capacity in host nation counternarcotics aviation organizations.
INL established in 2002, and now supports, a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provides nine Huey-II helicopters and three C-208 Cessna Caravan airplanes to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement personnel with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. During the past year, these aviation assets assisted the GOP in accomplishing many objectives, including aerial surveillance of opium poppy fields utilizing mounted cameras and GPS capabilities, medevac and rescue operations, and counter-terrorism activities. These aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day and night, including use of night vision goggles (NVGs). This support makes possible the only NVG aviation interdiction force in Pakistan, and due to its unique capability and past performance, this unit is considered to be the premier interdiction force. The aircraft provide surveillance along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border area. The unit participates in the interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, and assists in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts.
INL effectively employs ten Huey-II helicopters, one DC-3 and several leased fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft in Afghanistan to support manual eradication and interdiction efforts. This support is critical to progress in eradicating poppy and interdicting production and trafficking activities as well as movement of police training program personnel to areas that would otherwise not be reachable due to security conditions and poor roads in Afghanistan.
INL continues to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow us to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at these locations.
INL has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of its programs. INL has continued to modify its aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art satellite guidance systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews while delivering herbicide precisely and recording spray data. The aviation program continues to improve and expand the use of a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation, known as the Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS).
FY 2010 Program
In FY 2010, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core level services necessary to operate the current fleet of over 140 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. The IAS program will: continue to provide aerial eradication and COLAR aviation support in Colombia while continuing to promote the transfer of responsibility and equipment to the Host Government; continue to provide logistical and technical support and training to successful, mature aviation programs in Peru and Bolivia; provide critical aviation support to counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan and border security efforts in Pakistan; and support a four helicopter air interdiction program in Guatemala directed against drug trafficking in the transit zone. This base of support is essential to sustain logistical systems and depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local Embassy Narcotics Affairs Section and cooperating host government missions.
The aerial eradication program is expected to conduct many operations in a hostile environment. Funding in FY 2010 does not cover replacement of destroyed assets.
Bolivia, Peru, and Pakistan
In Bolivia, INL will continue to support (with continuing GOB cooperation) the Red Devil Task Force (RDTF) efforts to eradicate coca and prevent new plantings in the Chapare and Yungas regions. INL aviation assets will also support interdiction operations. In Peru, we will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and support interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL will continue to provide interdiction and eradication support, operational procedures, and logistical support for the fixed- and rotary-wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.
INL deployed (with the cooperation of the GOG) four Huey-II helicopters in FY 2008 using reprogrammed funds. In 2010 we will continue to support the training of host nation personnel and operational missions to support counternarcotics aviation activities in country.
In FY 2010, INL will continue to employ aviation assets in Afghanistan to support movement of personnel and cargo for eradication and other counternarcotics missions. INL aircraft are essential for reaching distant areas without roads and infrastructure, and provide security, reconnaissance, medevac, command and control, logistics, and other capabilities that are invaluable to programs in the country.
The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counternarcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority. In 2010, we will operate with the minimum required number of contractor and INL Air Wing staff in Bolivia, Peru and Guatemala, effectively monitoring and assisting the daily operations and maintenance activities of the RDTF and the Peruvian National Police. In Colombia, we expect to continue to increase the number of local personnel capable of assuming functions previously done by contractors. We expect that these advances will begin to permit greater host nation management of the assets. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.
The Interregional Aviation Support program, augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counternarcotics and border security programs worldwide.
|Interregional Aviation Support|
|FY 2008||FY 2008|
|FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Aviation Support Services Contract|
|Maintenance and Overhaul||1,900||-||1,300||1,300|
|Salaries and Benefits||7,000||-||7,760||8,525|
|Administrative Services and Program Support||1,144||-||1,096||1,352|
|GSA Warehouse Leases||850||-||1,050||1,134|
|Base Support at Patrick AFB||300||-||330||312|
Critical Flight Safety Program
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual*
FY 2009 Estimate*
FY 2010 Request**
**FY2010 $28,680 reported within Colombia country program budget, $20,750 within centrally-managed program budget
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) is a multi-year program to modernize the INL air fleet and then provide ongoing life cycle fleet management (life cycle analysis, safety upgrades and programmed depot level maintenance).
The primary objectives of the CFSP are to (1) ensure the structural integrity and airworthiness of all aircraft operated by the INL Air Wing, and (2) guarantee that INL aircraft are maintainable, commercially supportable, and reliable.
Ultimately, the CFSP will:
- Increase the safety margin for aircrews and personnel flying aboard INL aircraft.
- Extend the service life of aircraft, thus maximizing their value to the USG.
- Control or potentially eliminate excessively high maintenance and replacement parts cost growth rates by making aircraft more supportable through the use of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) resources.
- Increase operational readiness and sustain mission success.
In 2003, the INL Office of Aviation (INL/A) identified a need to stop the degradation and extend the service life of its severely aged aircraft fleet to sustain its counternarcotics (CN) mission. The declining condition of the fleet presented the mission with potentially unsafe aircraft, un-forecast increased costs for amplified maintenance man-hours and material requirements, and degraded performance capability.
In FY 2006, INL/A initiated the multi-level, multi-year CFSP to stop and prevent any further deterioration of the INL fleet of 160 plus aircraft. Near-term and long-term programs were established to identify and repair the structural integrity, improve the maintainability and sustain the fleet at an established standard of airworthiness. Since that time, selected other elements of the INL fleet (specifically, INL-owned, Colombian National Police-operated UH-60 and Huey-II aircraft) have been incorporated into this program.
Simultaneously, a Programmed Depot Maintenance Program (PDM) was established to ensure that INL aircraft would be maintained at the proper level and remain available for mission support in the future. Using an analysis of recognized commercial and DOD depot maintenance programs, a recurring 5 year PDM schedule was established.
The CFSP extensive Airframe Condition Evaluation (ACE) was used to identify the aircraft with the most severe age, structural integrity and airworthiness issues. Depending on the aircraft type and the severity of the identified problems, each aircraft was programmed to initially undergo either an in-depth PDM or complete remanufacturing process such as the UH-1N or Super Huey Service Life Extension Program (SLEP).
PDM is a thorough Safety of Flight/airframe airworthiness evaluation to include areas not normally accessible during scheduled phase inspections. Every aircraft in the program will be inducted at the appropriate time, based on the aircraft type, location, and condition with consideration to mission requirements, geographical location, and funding. PDM provides the opportunity to replace airframe and structural field repairs, temporary or battle damage repairs with permanent depot level repairs. All outstanding modifications will be applied. Critical to aviation in general and extremely critical to this program is the identification and treatment of corrosion on the airframe and dynamic components. PDM requires a higher level of skill, facilities, technical information, materials and resources than are provided for in the field locations. PDM provides:
- Thorough Safety of Flight/airframe airworthiness evaluation to include areas not normally completed or in areas accessible during scheduled phase inspections.
- Predictable scheduling to ensure aircraft will be inducted at the appropriate time.
- Provides the opportunity to replace airframe and structural field repairs, temporary or battle damage with permanent depot level repairs.
- A plan for incorporating all outstanding modifications.
- Identification and treatment of corrosion on the airframe and dynamic components.
- Availability of a higher level of technical skills, facilities, technical information, materials and resources than are provided for in the field locations.
- A continuous ongoing multi-year program for all INL aircraft.
- Identification and initiation of repairs prior to degradation of aircraft beyond uneconomical limits.
- Prevention of situations that would otherwise result in significantly higher costs to undergo a protracted depot overhaul, questionable airworthiness and structural integrity, increased costs per flight hour, decreased mission availability, and safety concerns.
The supportability and maintainability effects of an aged aircraft fleet, maintained in austere environments in many cases by local mechanics, are very much a reality in current INL operations. Many aircraft in the INL fleet are excess defense aircraft that are no longer supported by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) or have been discontinued in the Department of Defense inventory. Department of Defense declared these aircraft excess and ceased flying these aircraft due to supportability, reliability, engineering support and Safety of Flight issues. At the inception of the CFSP, the average INL airframe was over 40 years old and had accumulated in excess of 10,000 airframe hours. In many cases, INL/A witnessed evidence of severe structural failures that grounded a single aircraft, and in some cases, an entire model, design and series of aircraft. Many of the failures and problems associated with the aging aircraft emerged with little or no warning. This raised the concern that an unexpected airframe or material failure could suddenly jeopardize the entire fleet’s flight safety and mission readiness or significantly increase support costs. Should replacement aircraft be required, an extended period of time would be required for procurement and fielding, and replacement would be at a much greater expense than overhaul/SLEP.
Additionally, obsolete military aircraft were no longer supportable at a reasonable cost. Components and parts were not being manufactured or had limited repair capability reducing availability and driving up costs. In general, the declining market for military aircraft and related materials had combined with the rapid technological advances to make production of many older military components unprofitable, thereby creating a lack of vendors or materials entirely. Some older components simply could not be manufactured any longer. In many cases these flight critical components such as engine assemblies and rotor systems were experiencing failure far more frequently, never reaching time-life expectancy. Failure and premature removal rates of major components were compounded by the incidence of battle damage and the consequences of operating in hostile and austere environments. These factors made readiness and cost uncertainties an extremely difficult challenge.
The Aircraft/Aircrew Safety category within the CFSP was developed to capture immediate safety risks to either the aircraft or aircrew that historically manifested themselves during the normal course of conducting missions but required immediate attention or action to prevent loss or damage to aircraft or aircrew. Many of these are actions are required by Federal regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration in the form of an Airworthiness Directive, or by Safety of Flight grounding messages that Department of Defense imposes on ex-military aircraft being maintained to the DOD standards. Others are requirements imposed by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) such as Pratt and Whitney engines, Honeywell engines, Bell Helicopter, Sikorsky Helicopter, Cessna, and Air Tractor. The high speed shaft replacement required in the UH-60s in Colombia is an example. This represented $1 million in un-projected costs that had the potential to ground the UH-60 fleet. Due to the nature of the mission, requirements for upgraded or replacement armor, emergency locator beacons, and satellite aircraft tracking and communication systems are all examples that fit within this category. The standardization of cockpits for AT 802 training aircraft is another requirement within this category. Conditions in Colombia do not allow for the basic supervised instrument flight training in country that is needed to ensure that the aircrew can safely transition from visual flight rules into an in an instrument environment safely without risk. The only place where real proficiency can be taught or practiced is in the supervised training environment (in the United States with an adequately equipped trainer that is reconfigured to the same standard as the aircraft in Colombia.
In FY 2008, the Critical Flight Safety Program will complete 10 Huey-II re-wires; 1 AT 802 Program Depot Maintenance (PDM); 1 UH-60 PDM; 3 Huey-II PDM; 1 C-27 PDM; and 1 C-208 PDM. In the Aircraft/Aircrew Safety portion of the CFSP, 4 C-27s will have the Traffic Collision Avoidance System and Terrain Awareness Warning System installed; Crash airbags systems will be installed in all AT 802 aircraft; aircraft satellite tracking and communications systems will be installed in all aircraft in Colombia; Digital instrumentation systems will be installed in all Huey-II aircraft in Colombia; and IFR cockpits will be installed in AT 802 training aircraft.FY 2010 Centrally-Managed Program
In FY 2010, the Critical Flight Safety Program budget will provide ongoing life cycle fleet management with the induction of 5 rotary-wing (Huey-I) aircraft for depot maintenance; 5 Huey-IIs wiring upgrades; procurement of one attrition helicopter and 5 Huey-II engines; and continuation of the Aircraft/Aircrew Safety upgrade program.
The CFSP supports both eradication ($13.075 million) and interdiction ($7.675million) program elements in the counternarcotics program area of the Department’s peace and security objective.
Planned FY 2010 CSFP funding amounts allocated to each country program are as follows: Bolivia $1.9M; Peru $7.4M; Pakistan $5.4M; and Afghanistan $6.1M.
FY 2010 Colombia Program
In FY 2010, the Colombia Critical Flight Safety Program budget will provide ongoing life cycle fleet management with the induction of the following aircraft for depot maintenance: four fixed wing aircraft (two AT 802, one C-208, and one C-27); 5-rotary wing aircraft (1 Huey-II helicopter and 4 UH-60 helicopters; and 5 Huey-IIs for wiring upgrades. We will also procure one attrition fixed-wing spray aircraft, two attrition helicopters, and three Huey-II engines and continue the Aircraft/Aircrew Safety upgrade program.
The Colombia CFSP supports both eradication ($16.73 million) and interdiction ($11.95 million) program elements in the counternarcotics program area of the Department’s peace and security objective.
|Critical Flight Safety Program|
|FY 2008*||FY 2008|
|FY 2009*||FY 2010**|
|Fixed Wing Attrition||2,727 ||- ||- ||2,730 |
|Fixed Wing Depot||6,073 ||- ||6,011 ||5,900 |
|Fixed Wing Engines||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Rotary Wing Attrition||7,300 ||- ||3,687 ||10,500 |
|Rotary Wing Depot||14,482 ||- ||21,991 ||16,000 |
|Rotary Wing Engines||- ||- ||4,490 ||4,800 |
|Rotary Wing Wiring Upgrades ||2,400 ||- ||4,141 ||3,000 |
|Aircraft/Aircrew Safety of Flight||6,000 ||- ||2,530 ||6,350 |
|Program Management ||- ||- ||150 ||150 |
|* FY2008 & 2009 amounts previously reported within Colombia country program budget|
|** 2010 $28,680 reported within Colombia country program budget, $20,750 within centrally-managed program budget|
|Centrally Managed Critical Flight Safety Program|
|FY 2008||FY 2008|
|FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Fixed Wing Attrition||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Fixed Wing Depot||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Fixed Wing Engines||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Rotary Wing Attrition||- ||- ||- ||3,500 |
|Rotary Wing Depot||- ||- ||- ||9,050 |
|Rotary Wing Engines||- ||- ||- ||3,000 |
|Rotary Wing Wiring Upgrades ||- ||- ||- ||1,500 |
|Aircraft/Aircrew Safety of Flight||- ||- ||- ||3,700 |
|Program Management ||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Total||- ||- ||- ||20,750|
|Colombia Critical Flight Safety Program|
|FY 2008||FY 2008|
|FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Fixed Wing Attrition||2,727 ||- ||- ||7,000 |
|Fixed Wing Depot||6,073 ||- ||6,011 ||6,950 |
|Fixed Wing Engines||- ||- ||- ||1,800 |
|Rotary Wing Attrition||7,300 ||- ||3,687 ||1,500 |
|Rotary Wing Depot||14,482 ||- ||21,991 ||2,730 |
|Rotary Wing Engines||- ||- ||4,490 ||5,900 |
|Rotary Wing Wiring Upgrades ||2,400 ||- ||4,141 ||- |
|Aircraft/Aircrew Safety of Flight||6,000 ||- ||2,530 ||2,650 |
|Program Management ||- ||- ||150 ||150 |
Global Peace Operations Initiative
Budget Summary ($000)
|FY 2008 Actual||FY 2009 Estimate||FY 2010 Request|
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators
These funds will be used to support training expenses at CoESPU, including costs related to lecturers, teachers, or trainers; the travel, per diem, and other related costs of third country students attending CoESPU; and equipment used by CoESPU students while attending CoESPU training. Funding will also be used to support ongoing efforts to develop internationally accepted doctrine and training standards for FPUs to enhance global capabilities to deploy well trained FPUs capable of a range of activities in support of critical peace support operations, such as the UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).
U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2010 and beyond. INL will support the increased capacity of governments that seek to participate in UN peacekeeping missions by deploying police contingents to post-conflict regions around the world.
Up until Fiscal Year 2009, U.S. State Department support to CoESPU was provided solely through $15M appropriated in Fiscal Year 2005 through the Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) account as part of the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). In FY 2005, those funds were appropriated with the proper authorities necessary to provide police training; in subsequent years, no PKO funds were appropriated with that authority. In FY 2009, $3M will be provided for CoESPU support through the INCLE account, which has the necessary authorities for police training. However, these funds are not yet available for obligation and programming.
FY 2010 Program
The FY 2010 GPOI program sustains USG development of Formed Police Units, which provide an important element of security for peacekeeping missions. FPU’s are an exciting and relatively new concept in the world of international peacekeeping, allowing the UN and other peacekeeping missions to control violence, conduct high-risk arrests, and in the case of Darfur, protect Internally Displaced Persons, without using military assets and risking an escalation of civilian conflict. In Darfur, the UN anticipates needing 19 such units since FPUs, as opposed to the introduction of a foreign military presence, which may incite nationalism and greater violence or unarmed police, which are unable to control militia violence, provide a specialized response to the security gap. In order to achieve this objective, FPU’s must be developed to a professional standard.
|Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative|
|FY 2008||FY 2008 Supp||FY 2009||FY 2010|
|Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative||-||-||3,000||5,000|
Program Development and Support
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Estimate
FY 2010 Request
Program JustificationINL is charged with developing strategies and programs to achieve international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign-policy objectives. INL maintains a cadre of both domestic and overseas program and technical experts to carry out a wide range of initiatives. Washington personnel functions include, but are not limited to: international narcotics control and law enforcement policy formulation and implementation; coordination of policies and programs with other USG agencies and with other governments and international organizations; budget and financial management activities; program administration and analysis including development, implementation, oversight and evaluation of overseas programs; contract, procurement and information systems support; field assistance visits to Embassy Narcotics Affairs Sections and Law Enforcement Sections to review, analyze and make recommendations on programs, funds control and procurement; sponsoring regional policy and program management conferences and seminars; and, developing and providing training programs both domestically and overseas for embassy and INL personnel.
The Program Development and Support (PD&S) account funds the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff. Over three-quarters of the PD&S budget request is programmed for salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire (USDH) employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel.
Field travel for the INL personnel based in Washington is funded from the PD&S account. This is an essential component of the bureau’s program, needed for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are utilized to maintain a reliable and secure information resource management system and operating infrastructure to enable bureau employees to pursue policy objectives and complete work requirements effectively and efficiently. In addition, funding for the following expenses ensure an adequate level of administrative support to allow the bureau to function effectively: office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services (Information Management non-personal services contractor personnel, INL office renovation expenses, etc.), materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings and equipment.
FY 2010 ProgramThe PD&S request will cover the annual, government-wide cost of living increase, in-grade step increases and promotions that occur during that fiscal year. It will also cover the annualized portion of wage increase for positions that INL plans to fill during FY 2010 to improve program oversight and expanded programs. In addition, funds will cover costs for field travel and transportation costs; equipment rentals, communications and utility expenses; printing and reproduction; miscellaneous contractual services; and furniture and furnishings.
|Washington Based Program Development |
|INL Budget |
|FY 2008 ||FY 2008 |
|FY 2009 ||FY 2010 |
|Personnel Compensation ||12,332 ||- ||13,068 ||14,484 |
|Personnel Benefits ||2,863 ||- ||3,593 ||4,330 |
|Field Travel and Transportation ||782 ||- ||818 ||899 |
|Equipment Rentals, Communication and Utilities ||286 ||- ||299 ||329 |
|Printing and Reproduction ||259 ||- ||271 ||298 |
|Miscellaneous Contractual Services ||2,674 ||- ||2,902 ||3,190 |
|Materials and Supplies ||105 ||- ||110 ||121 |
|Furniture, Furnishings, and Equipment ||41 ||- ||793 ||872 |
|Total ||19,342 ||- ||21,854 ||24,523 |