Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs


Argentina

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

198

305

310

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Enhance existing law enforcement and judicial capabilities to investigate and prosecute criminal cases, particularly those related to narcotics trafficking and including those involving intellectual property rights.

  • Improved interoperability among federal and key provincial law enforcement agencies and expanded capacity of law enforcement to focus on large trafficking operations or networks.

  • Enhanced Government of Argentina (GOA) analysis capabilities and deeper information exchanges with international partners.

  • Heightened GOA vigilance against traffic in precursor chemicals including ephedrine, as well as marijuana and Andean-origin cocaine.

  • Deployment of GOA law enforcement resources against changing threats, including new aerial trafficking routes into the country. Sustained GOA support for Northern and Eastern Border Task Forces.

  • Improved administrative procedures within the judiciary to address narcotics, intellectual property, and human trafficking cases, including progress toward transparent seized asset forfeiture procedures.

  • Training for law enforcement officials to make investigations of intellectual property violations more efficient and effective.

Program Justification

Argentina is not a major drug producing country, but it is a growing regional market for marijuana, cocaine, and synthetic drugs. In addition to being a major route for the trafficking of Andean-produced cocaine to Europe and other world markets, recent trends indicate cocaine production from basic cocaine paste is increasing and that synthetic drug production is also growing. Most analysts believe there has been an increase in aerial traffic of cocaine into Argentina from Bolivia and/or Paraguay. Because of its advanced chemical production facilities, it is one of South America's largest producers of precursor chemicals. In 2008, Argentina became a significant transit country for ephedrine bound for Mexico and the United States. Marijuana remains the most commonly smuggled and consumed drug, with cocaine and inhalants ranked second and third, respectively.

Focused analytical and technical training will enhance the institutional capabilities and interoperability of the Argentine law enforcement agencies to enable them to act more effectively against narcotics coming across their northern and eastern borders and transiting through major ports like Buenos Aires and Rosario. Attention to judicial efficiency and transparency will ensure that traffickers and seized assets are processed appropriately.

Argentina has been on the Office of United States Trade Representative’s (USTR) Special 301 Priority Watch List for 14 consecutive years. In the Special 301 report the Government of Argentina is encouraged to undertake “stronger intellectual property rights (IPR) enforcement actions to combat the widespread availability of pirated and counterfeit products.” Funds for IPR are intended to focus on strengthening IPR enforcement capabilities.

Program Accomplishments

National and provincial data through mid-November 2008 showed that security forces had seized nearly 7 metric tons of cocaine (HCl) and over 100 metric tons of marijuana. Federal authorities accounted for 80 percent of the recorded marijuana seizures and 55 percent of the cocaine. In the country's largest province, Buenos Aires, there was an increase in seizures and arrests during the first eight months of 2008 compared to 2007, including 1,400 kilograms (kg) of cocaine seized compared to 400 kg. in 2007 and 200,000 doses of MDMA (ecstasy) compared to 2,400 the year before. Following an August 2008 triple homicide reportedly linked to ephedrine trafficking, national police and prosecutors achieved a string of successes in uncovering illicit ephedrine supplies and small-scale synthetic drug production facilities. During 2008, the Ministry of Justice also established three new drug analysis laboratories around the country to help with investigations and analysis of seized products. The USG-funded Northern Border Task Force (NBTF) was responsible for a significant portion of overall 2008 seizures by the GOA. We continue to focus our attention on the NBTF due to concerns about trafficking from Bolivia, and we also continue to work with the GOA to fully establish the Eastern Border Task Force (EBTF) in Misiones Province.

FY 2010 Program

Interdiction

Northern Border Task Force: The 85 law enforcement personnel attached to the NBTF operate in Argentina’s Northeastern province of Salta along the sensitive Bolivian border, which is the primary focus of USG counternarcotics assistance. Funding will continue to support this interagency operation involving federal and provincial law enforcement through upgrading of equipment such as computers and the purchase of two or three vehicles; software and training in intelligence gathering; and training in law enforcement tactics, firearms, and investigative techniques. We are supporting a process of moving the NBTF from leased space to a permanent structure.

Eastern Border Task Force: USG support will help the GOA replicate the success of the inter-agency NBTF model in the Northeastern province of Misiones, which forms the Argentine portion of the sensitive Tri-border Area adjoining Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil. Working with the Gendarmaria (border patrol), Prefectura (coast guard), and Misiones Provincial police, funding will be used to purchase one vehicle and to provide office and other needed equipment. Training for the Task Force would include basic narcotics and contraband investigations and tactical training, e.g. arrest techniques and search warrants, for as many as 70 federal and provincial law enforcement officers.

Law Enforcement Support: With guidance from the Department of Homeland Security Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and other partners, support will include targeted training and equipment for new GOA efforts focused on international criminal networks trafficking in Argentina, including those trafficking in drugs, persons, contraband, and bulk cash. Continuing efforts will focus on providing intelligence-based training, equipment, and software to improve GOA law enforcement agencies’ capacity to conduct complex investigations and support successful prosecutions. This will include training on computer-based intelligence analysis and charting software that will allow law enforcement to track organizations, money flow, and communications. USG funding will provide training in the use of Real-Time Analytical Intelligence Database (RAID) software, a data-base that allows for the systematic study and exploitation of massive evidence data from large narcotics-related arrests.

Judicial Reform

Funding will be used to promote and guide judicial reforms associated with trafficking in precursor chemicals and to help the GOA establish seizures for the forfeiture and disposition of seized assets.

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

FY 2010 funds will support visits by U.S. or regional IPR experts to conduct seminars focused on improving key aspects of IPR protection.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S will support International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.


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Argentina

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Interdiction

Northern Border Task Force

42

-

35

70

Eastern Border Task Force

55

-

30

50

Law Enforcement Support

-

-

20

100

SubTotal

97

-

85

220

Judicial Reform

-

-

-

40

Intellectual Property Rights

-

-

15

15

Trafficking in Persons

97

-

190

-

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

5

Program Support

4

-

15

30

SubTotal

4

-

15

35

Total

198

-

305

310


The Bahamas

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

496

500

2,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) will support efforts to significantly disrupt the movement of illicit drugs through Bahamian territory to the U.S.

  • The number and amount of seizures of cocaine and marijuana will increase, along with the number of arrests of narcotics traffickers.

USG assistance will assist Bahamian law enforcement to conduct sophisticated criminal and financial investigations and effective maritime interdiction operations in order to reduce narcotics trafficking activity.

  • Cooperation and coordination with U.S. law enforcement will increase and several major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations will be dismantled.

  • The number of narcotics trafficking and money laundering cases successfully prosecuted will increase.

USG assistance will support modernization of Bahamian judicial institutions to enable successful and expeditious prosecution of drug traffickers and money launderers and the seizure and forfeiture of their assets.

  • The value of assets seized and forfeited will increase significantly and the government will respond expeditiously to U.S. extradition requests.

Program Justification

Cocaine from South America arrives in The Bahamas, which is a major drug transit country, via go-fast boats, small commercial freighters, or small aircraft from Jamaica, Hispaniola and Venezuela. During the 1980s, it was estimated that 70 percent of the drug flow from South America transited the islands, whereas in recent years, the estimated flow has declined to less than 10 percent. OPBAT is the largest, most effective, and longest-existing interdiction effort in the Caribbean. One of the dividends of this long history of cooperation is that the Bahamian police are among the best in the Caribbean. Because The Bahamas is a small country with limited assets, it depends upon U.S.-funded equipment and training to keep pace with increasingly sophisticated drug trafficking organizations. U.S. funds provide maintenance and communications for Bahamian fast-boats that provide OPBAT with its end-game capabilities.

Program Accomplishments

In 2008, the Royal Bahamas Police Force’s Drug Enforcement Unit (DEU) cooperated closely with U.S. and foreign law enforcement agencies on drug investigations. Including OPBAT seizures, Bahamian authorities seized 1,878 kilograms (kg) of cocaine and approximately 12 metric tons (MT) of marijuana. The DEU arrested 1,030 persons on drug-related offenses and seized $3.9 million in cash.

FY 2010 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement: FY 2010 funds will continue interdiction training and equipment to enhance the intelligence-gathering capabilities of Bahamian police/DEU investigators. To stem the resurging flow of trafficking through The Bahamas in particular, funds will enable the expansion of DEU’s wire intercept capabilities, establishment of a polygraph unit, and narcotics and technology training.

Training will expand the police force’s knowledge of current trafficking methods, capabilities, techniques, and technology to make them more effective and reliable partners for U.S. law enforcement.

Funds will also support maritime security initiatives especially in Freeport where additional boats are needed to assist in port protection and monitoring.

OPBAT: FY 2010 funds will provide maintenance support for three OPBAT helicopter bases and three fast-response boats. To maintain and expand upon end-game capabilities, funds will also support replacement of these boats which are near the end of their useful lives and expand night operations.

Demand Reduction

Funds will provide training and equipment to support Bahamian efforts to eliminate the demand for illegal narcotics, treat the addicted, and eliminate trafficking through The Bahamas.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

The PD&S account supports one American Narcotics Affairs Officer and one American EFM position. It funds their salaries, benefits, housing, education, travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, as well as general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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Bahamas

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement

75

-

50

650

OPBAT

25

-

100

850

SubTotal

100

-

150

1,500

Demand Reduction

-

-

-

100

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

296

-

232

270

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

100

-

118

130

Program Support

-

-

-

-

SubTotal

396

-

350

400

Total

496

-

500

2,000


Bolivia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

ACP

29,757

26,000

---

INCLE

397

---

26,000

Total

30,154

26,000

26,000


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Fortify law enforcement cooperation and strengthen law enforcement capability for interdiction operations, build local support for increased coca control, regulation and eradication, and highlight the damage to Bolivian society and Bolivia’s neighbors caused by increased coca cultivation, cocaine, and human trafficking.

  • Increased institutional capability to interdict narcotics and precursors produced within or transiting through Bolivia

  • Increased control of the marketing of legal coca and eradication of illicit coca.

  • Increased arrests/prosecutions of major criminals and major narcotics-traffickers and reduction in the amount of hectares of coca in the country commensurate with its responsibilities as a signatory to the UN Drug Convention.

  • Increased institutional capability to identify, prevent, and prosecute cases of trafficking in persons and increased public awareness of the threat of trafficking to vulnerable populations in Bolivia.

Strengthen the ministerial National Drug Prevention Coordinating Council (CONALTID) that coordinates the Government of Bolivia’s (GOB) anti-drug strategy; develop the coordination and policy development capacity of the Vice Ministries of Social Defense and Integrated Development and Coca.

  • GOB policies lead to a net reduction in coca cultivation.


Program Justification

Bolivia remains the poorest nation in South America and the third largest world producer of illicit coca and cocaine, with serious social and economic problems and regional fragmentation. The policies of President Evo Morales raise concern over the expansion of coca cultivation in Bolivia and the extent to which the GOB intends to cooperate bilaterally on counternarcotics. Nonetheless, Bolivia’s pivotal role in the illicit drug industry merits continued U.S. engagement.

The principal challenges facing Bolivia are the control of coca cultivation in the Yungas and Chapare; address increasing cocaine production and drug trafficking; the need to develop new laws and regulations to control precursor chemicals; and to pass new laws to reform the current Code of Criminal Procedures, which limits the effectiveness of drug case prosecutions. Bolivia has produced coca leaf for traditional uses for centuries, and current Bolivian law permits up to 12,000 hectares of legal coca cultivation (mostly in the Yungas) to supply this licit market. The GOB has proposed to increase this amount to 20,000 hectares, in violation of Law 1008 and the 1988 UN Convention. Significant quantities of cocaine from Peru traverse Bolivia to enter Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. An increasing proportion of the cocaine both transiting and produced within Bolivia is destined for Europe, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Mexico (in the case of the last, probably for eventual sale in the United States).

Program Accomplishments

The GOB eradicated 5,484 hectares of coca in 2008. The Special Counternarcotics Police Force’s (FELCN) interdiction results for 2008 improved over those of 2007, seizing 2,066 metric tons of coca leaf, and 28.8 metric tons of cocaine base and cocaine hydrochloride (HCl). The FELCN also destroyed 4,988 cocaine base labs.

In 2008, most USG-supported demand reduction efforts were coordinated with local municipalities and departmental governments. The GOB expanded the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program; continued implementation of a Drug Demand Reduction Decentralization Project in 20 municipalities that worked to coordinate demand reduction programs at a local level; and to foster a project on accreditation of rehabilitation centers. The D.A.R.E. program reached 22,000 students. In cooperation with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the USG concluded support for a master’s degree program in drug abuse prevention and rehabilitation for 32 students and implemented a community-based drug abuse prevention program, reaching 50,000 people.


FY 2010 Program

Interdiction

These funds will be used to support FELCN, a Bolivian National Police (BNP) entity with approximately 1,600 officers. FELCN consists of a command staff and rural patrol units (UMOPAR), in addition to specialized police groups: a canine drug detection unit (K-9), and the Special Operations Force (FOE). The FOE has close to 500 officers and includes an economic and financial investigations unit (GIAEF), a special intelligence and operations group (GIOE), and a precursor chemical investigations unit (GISUQ). The FOE provides coordination for counternarcotics operations.

The Garras del Valor School is an academy for training new counternarcotics personnel. Its curriculum includes basic criminal investigation procedures, introduction to the Bolivian criminal and legal system, human rights, and jungle survival skills. The Garras School also serves as a regional training center for counternarcotics police from other Latin American countries, thereby promoting regional integration.

The Counternarcotics Prosecutor program supports 127 counternarcotics prosecutors and legal assistants who direct investigation undertaken by FELCN elements. Funding will be used to expand the prosecutor program and to increase efficiencies in the prosecution of narcotics related cases. Funding will also assist Bolivia’s financial intelligence unit and resources and strengthen the relationships and cooperation among government entities involved in fighting money laundering and other financial crimes.

With FY 2010 funds, the USG will support interdiction personnel with field equipment and maintenance costs, food (MREs), medical supplies, and office rental and other costs. Funding will provide incentives for the prosecutor program and the anti-narcotics training center, stipends, travel and per diem, and ensure that all interdiction forces have required communications capabilities and transportation to be effective.

Eradication

The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) consists of approximately 1,600 military, police, and civilian personnel with separate units conducting eradication and providing force protection in two coca producing zones. The Directorate General for Integral Development of Coca Producing Regions (DIGPROCOCA) supervises the destruction and rationalization of illegal coca crops and verifies eradication by measuring and inventorying the fields before and after eradication takes place. The National Police provide perimeter security for the JTF, while the Ecological Police (ECOPOL) locate and prepare coca fields and coca seedbeds to eradicate. The JTF military does the actual eradication of the coca plants.

Budget allotments for FY 2010 reflect our concern over limited cooperation and political will from the GOB on eradication and on limiting new crops. Funding is primarily directed towards eradication support for operations the GOB is willing to undertake, such as in the national parks. FY 2010 assistance will continue to provide necessary infrastructure and logistical support, including gas, utilities, equipment, medical/hygienic supplies, medical care, vehicle support and maintenance, tents, cooking equipment, and aviation support.

Operational/Logistical Support

U.S. counternarcotics projects in Bolivia rely on a logistical network consisting of airplanes, boats, land vehicles, helicopters, and a decentralized warehousing and supply system. This support enables eradication and interdiction to operate effectively in the challenging conditions that exist throughout Bolivia. FY 2010 Operational/Logistical Support will provide the GOB with technical advice, equipment, and training for the Green Devil Task Force (GDTF), the Blue Devil Task Force (BDTF), and Field Support (INFRA).

GDTF is a unit of 125 Bolivian Army personnel with a fleet of 119 light, medium, and heavy-lift utility and other types of vehicles provided by the U.S. These vehicles furnish ground transportation in support of interdiction and eradication operations in two distinct regions. With FY 2010 monies, the U.S. will fund repairs for the aging fleet of vehicles (including motors and spare parts), fuel, and travel costs.

BDTF is a special unit of approximately 120 members of the Bolivian Navy that supports interdiction across the country’s extensive river system and collects actionable intelligence. With FY 2010 funds, the project will continue the maintenance and replacement of equipment, including boat motors, Zodiacs, Boston whaler type patrol boats, mother ships and support for a headquarters and Riverine Training School in Trinidad and six task groups located in Trinidad, Riberalta, Guayaramerin, La Horquilla, Cobija, and Puerto Villaroel.

INFRA provides operating expenses for counternarcotics facilities located in Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Trinidad, and Chimore (including field offices, procurement, accounting, and vehicle maintenance facilities, and warehouses). This infrastructure provides a common platform for U.S.-supported activities throughout the country. FY 2010 assistance will be applied to administrative and operating expenses not attributable to individual projects, such as personal services contract (PSC) and Foreign Service National (FSN) salaries and benefits, travel, transportation, property rentals, office supplies, phones/utilities, and other contracted services required by U.S. counternarcotics personnel.

Aviation

This project provides fixed and rotary wing aviation support to GOB eradication and interdiction activities. FY 2010 funding will provide the GOB with technical advice, equipment, and training for the Red Devils Task Force (RDTF) and Black Devils Task Force (BlkDTF). Air mobility is an absolute necessity for the execution of counternarcotics programs in Bolivia.

RDTF: The RDTF provides rotary and small fixed wing aviation support for the eradication and interdiction programs. American citizen and third-country national contractors advise and assist the RDTF in the areas of aircraft maintenance, quality control, logistics and training. They also provide day-to-day contract oversight. In FY 2010, the project will provide support for GOB eradication in National Parks and continued limited eradication operations in the Yungas and Chapare. The project operates and maintains ten UH-1H helicopters and two light fixed-wing aircraft through a qualified force of helicopter pilots, fixed-wing pilots, crew chiefs and support technicians.

BlkDTF: The BlkDTF consists of six pilots, co-pilots and navigators, and 35 enlisted personnel who provide maintenance support for three C-130 transport aircraft which transport eradication and interdiction personnel and supplies throughout Bolivia and move RDTF and BlkDTF spare aircraft parts, supplies and other project equipment to and from the continental U.S. Support includes maintenance, repairs, spare parts, and required major inspections at U.S. facilities, as well as per diem, uniforms, and other equipment. The incorporation of a refurbished King Air aircraft into BlkDTF air assets in FY 2008 enhanced the GOB's effectiveness in carrying out interdiction and eradication activities. FY 2010 funding will enable the GOB to maintain a trained, reliable medium-lift-capable aviation unit that provides aviation support to counternarcotics projects, with an operational rate of 90 percent of requested missions. Funds will also support an American PSC who provides technical assistance; four technicians who supervise maintenance; and a Foreign Service National (FSN) warehouseman who maintains control of the multi-million dollar spare parts inventory.

Demand Reduction

The ministerial-level National Drug Control Council (CONALTID) is the GOB’s central policy making body for counternarcotics. The Vice Ministry of Social Defense and the Vice Ministry of Coca and Integrated Development are the primary implementers of these policies. This project supports the operations of these entities, by providing technical advice, equipment, training, and other support as appropriate.

Drug prevention activities focus principally on enabling civil society through training and other interventions to provide demand reduction education, basic rehabilitation, diagnostic, and other services the public sector remains incapable of delivering. The project supports the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program (DARE), which will seek to reach 40,000 middle school students in a broad base of cities. FY 2010 assistance will support media outreach programs, demand education training in all teacher’s universities, innovative departmental demand reduction programs such as training in drug abuse prevention, and specific programs targeting marginalized sectors of Bolivian society.

This project also has a public affairs component that promotes U.S. interests on drug issues, provides accurate information on counternarcotics questions and policies to the media, enhances the professionalism of the media (especially on drug-related themes) and helps generate information useful to the U.S. FY 2010 assistance will support national awareness programs, journalists, workshops, and a toll-free telephone hotline.


Law Enforcement Development and Training (LETDP)

FY 2010 funding will support locally engaged staff, contractor salaries, and incentive payments for the Trafficking-in-Persons Unit. The assistance will sustain the continuation of training and developmental programs for the BNP in key areas, such as investigative skills, forensic sciences, human rights, and trafficking in persons. Other initiatives seek to combat corruption and include such activities as implementing a case tracking system in the Office of Professional Responsibility and supporting a trained cadre of Bolivian police officers who administer all polygraph examinations to counternarcotics project personnel, the investigators of the Office of Professional Responsibility, and other groups as directed by the BNP.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of U. S direct hire employees and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.


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Bolivia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2009

FY 2010

Interdiction

FELCN, UMOPAR, FOE, K9, Garras School,
Prosecutors

10,648

7,148

7,048

Operational/Logistical Support
(BDTF, GDTF, Field Support)

3,533

3,533

3,533

Aviation (RDTF, BlkDTF)

3,957

2,007

2,007

SubTotal

18,138

12,688

12,588

Eradication

JTF, Eco Police, DIRECO, DIGECO

4,175

5,386

5,286

Operational/Logistical Support
(BDTF, GDTF, Field Support)

1,467

1,467

1,467

Aviation (RDTF, BlkDTF)

1,643

1,643

1,643

SubTotal

7,285

8,496

8,396

Demand Reduction

534

316

316

Law Enforcement Development & Training

-

700

500

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

808

808

1,002

Non-U.S. Personnel

1,304

1,304

1,304

ICASS Costs

800

1,048

1,006

Program Support

888

640

888

SubTotal

3,800

3,800

4,200

Trafficking in Persons*

397

-

-

Total

30,154

26,000

26,000


* In FY 2008, $397k from the INCLE account was allocated for Trafficking in Persons.
Note: In FY 2010, all ACP funds were subsumed under INCLE.


Brazil

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

992

1,000

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Assistance to the Government of Brazil (GOB) is focused on strengthening Brazil’s interagency law enforcement and drug interdiction operations. Support will also enhance federal, state, civil, and military law enforcement capabilities by providing operational support, training, and equipment to conduct more effective investigations and interdiction operations against international narcotics organizations. Specifically, assistance will:

  • Enable the GOB to dismantle and/or disrupt major drug trafficking organizations that operate in and/or through Brazil and have criminal ties to the United States;

  • Increase the number of bilateral and multilateral drug investigations that Brazil participates in, leading to an increase in drugs and assets seized by the Brazilian Federal Police;

  • Provide training to enhance GOB port and airport security which will be reflected in an increase in the number of arrests and drug seizures;

  • Improve the ability of federal and state law enforcement authorities to combat gang activities such as drug and weapons trafficking, as well as prison violence.

Program Justification

Brazil is a major transit country for cocaine and other illicit drugs destined for Europe, and to a lesser extent, to the United States. It shares a common border with every country in South America except Chile and Ecuador, and is the only country that borders all three coca-producing countries in the Andes: Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. Despite excellent cooperation with its neighbors, Brazil’s expansive territory and borders make effective narcotics enforcement via border control nearly impossible. Increasing amounts of drugs are being diverted to Brazilian urban centers and Brazil has become the second largest consumer of cocaine in the world after the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) Brazil Office is now their largest international office in a non-production country. Additionally, with DEA’s departure from neighboring Bolivia, drug flow through Brazil has increased and will likely increase in the near future. Meanwhile, as Brazil continues to develop as a regional power and a player on the global scene, the amount of international airports and international flights to/from Brazil increases drastically. Brazil has a large and sophisticated financial sector and is increasingly becoming a regional center for money laundering and other financial crimes.

Brazil’s domestic drug trade is primarily controlled by powerful, heavily-armed and well-organized urban gangs that use part of their illicit profits to procure weapons and sophisticated communications devices, giving them an increasing advantage over already outnumbered and ill-equipped municipal and state police. These gangs have growing ties to known international traffickers and are involved in other international criminal activities.

USG/GOB counternarcotics and law enforcement programs consist of a broad effort to combat drug trafficking, organized crime, and money laundering and to reduce drug use in Brazil, particularly among the country’s youth and provide assistance in the form of professional expertise, training, and equipment for various projects. By assisting Brazil in improving its law enforcement capabilities, the USG will help reduce the flow of illegal drugs to the United States, disrupt the activities of known international narcotics traffickers, and deny these criminals their illicit profits. USG assistance can also help beleaguered municipalities reduce drug and weapons trafficking and related criminal activities and reduce drug consumption among urban youth.

Program Accomplishments

The Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) had a number of successes in 2008 and early 2009 against foreign narco-trafficking organizations operating within Brazilian territory, the most significant of which was the arrest in 2007 and extradition in 2008 to the U.S. of Colombian kingpin Juan Carlos Ramirez Abadia. Millions of dollars in assets were seized in this case by the Sensitive Investigative Units (SIUs) in Brazil.

In February, 2009, SIUs were responsible for investigations that resulted in the seizure of 90,000 dosage units of Ecstasy and 50,000 dosage units of LSD, along with 28 arrests, as well as a seizure of 3.78 tons of cocaine -- the second-largest seizure in Brazil’s history.

Also in February, 2009, the SIU in Sao Paulo arrested a significant DEA fugitive, Jorge Enrique Rincón Ordonez for cocaine trafficking, and extradition procedures are underway. The GOB also carried out successful operations against two major Mexican and Colombian groups involved in sending heroin to the U.S. and is now targeting groups that sell prescription drugs illegally via the Internet. The DPF is placing a higher priority on interdiction capabilities aimed at increased trafficking from Bolivia. Seizures of Bolivian-produced cocaine base increased significantly over last year’s levels.

FY 2010 Programs

Interdiction

SIU - The SIU program that DEA and INL implemented with the DPF is the most successful counternarcotics initiative in Brazil. The vastness of Brazil and its borders necessitates an intelligence-based approach to combating narcotics that focuses on seaports, international airports, and major transit points. Currently, 66 DEA-trained DPF agents are stationed throughout 20 locations in Brazil, but not all locations are fully operational. In FY 2010 we will support 56 more agents to attend the full SIU training course in Quantico. Upon graduation, they will enable the 20 SIUs to become fully staffed and operational. The original three SIUs (Rio, Sao Paulo, and Brasilia) continue to produce significant information and large seizures. However, increasingly, some of the best results are coming from other “satellite” SIU locations, particularly in the vast North, growing North East, and states along the porous Bolivian and Paraguayan borders. The FY 2010 funding will continue to support the SIU program with training and equipment commensurate with the large increase in DEA-trained and vetted DPF SIU officers and to potentially convert one or two “satellite SIUs” into formal SIUs in strategic locations.

Airport Interdiction - The Airport Interdiction program with the DPF is the strategic and necessary counterpart to the intelligence-based approach of the SIUs. International airline routes to Brazil now have 16 international airports with a significant number of daily flights to Europe and the U.S., and that number will continue to grow. Three new direct routes to the U.S. were announced in March 2009 alone. FY 2010 funding will maintain the existing AI Units and provide additional support to the Airport Mobile Team as they begin to cover additional international airports.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.


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Brazil

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Interdiction

SIUs

-

-

-

100

Airport Interdiction

-

-

-

100

Federal Police Enforcement & Training

285

-

300

-

SubTotal

285

-

300

200

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

121

-

126

130

Non-U.S. Personnel

309

-

267

297

ICASS Costs

155

-

185

207

Program Support

122

-

122

166

SubTotal

707

-

700

800

Total

992

-

1,000

1,000

Note: In FY 2010, all ACP funds were subsumed under INCLE.



Chile

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

99

---

100

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Deepen and expand cooperation among law enforcement entities within Chile and between Chile and its regional partners to reduce Chile’s role as a transshipment country for narcotics from the Andean region to the U.S.

  • Improved interdiction, investigative, and prosecutorial capabilities of Chilean law enforcement officials.

  • Improved ability to interdict illegal shipments of precursor chemicals, including ephedrine.

Strengthen Chile's ability to disrupt complex criminal organizations, including international drug traffickers and money launderers, through specialized training for police and prosecutors.

  • Chile has enhanced ability to monitor its well-developed financial system.

  • Money laundering convictions are increased.

Deepen judicial reform in Chile and encourage alternative resolution methods to support the new system.

  • Citizens’ understanding of their legal rights is expanded and prosecutorial and investigative capabilities of criminal justice officials are strengthened.

Program Justification

Chile is a transshipment point for illegal narcotics, including Andean cocaine and heroin destined for the United States and Europe. Chile is a source of essential chemicals used in cocaine processing in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia, and recent seizures show that it is a source for the chemical precursor ephedrine. The country has a growing internal cocaine and marijuana consumption problem. Chile has a well-developed but secretive banking system, two free trade zones, and long borders with Bolivia, Argentina, and Peru. This makes the country an attractive destination for money laundering, terrorist financing, and trade in contraband and pirated goods. DEA has recently increased its staffing in Chile to focus on chemical precursors and intelligence analysis. The judicial reform process that changed the country’s criminal justice system from inquisitorial to adversarial continues to pose significant challenges. Investigating and prosecuting complex crimes such as money laundering, terrorist finance, intellectual property right violations remains difficult.

Program Accomplishments

The USG enjoys a close relationship with Chilean law enforcement agencies, and our cooperation has produced tangible results. Drug seizures have increased significantly and Chile has established a plan to counter drug traffickers in the northern region of the country. In 2008, Chilean authorities seized more than 3.2 metric tons of cocaine base representing, a 32 percent increase from 2006. Chile launched "Plan Vigia" to respond to an increase in drug shipments near the border with Bolivia. Chile also assumed the Presidency of the Organization of American States Anti-Drug Commission (OAS/ICISD), a leadership position that underscores the country's active engagement in the effort to combat narcotics. Joint investigations with USG officials led to the 2009 arrest of Mexican nationals seeking to ship ephedrine from Chile to Mexico. USG support has trained the Carabineros (uniformed police) and PDI (investigative police) in undercover operations. Chilean authorities have also prosecuted their first money laundering case not tied to drug trafficking. This represents a significant accomplishment as Chile seeks to pursue more complex crimes. USG-funded experts, including judges and community organizers, have participated in seminars to train Chilean officials in the use of "drug courts." These and related programs have led to greater public trust in the new justice system, and cases are being resolved faster.

FY 2010 Program

Interdiction

Funding in FY 2010 will support Chilean efforts to combat drug trafficking in the northern region of the country, which includes the major free trade zone in Iquique and the strategically important cities of Calama and Arica near the borders with Peru and Bolivia. Funds will be used to provide equipment and training to law enforcement agencies such as the Carabineros, Investigative Police, Customs, and Public Prosecutor. The program will focus on disrupting major trafficking organizations, border enforcement, and port security.

Justice Sector Reform

Funding in FY 2010 will support Chilean efforts to investigate and prosecute transnational crimes, including terrorist financing and terrorist/anarchist activity, money laundering, cyber crimes, and intellectual property violations. Funds will be used to provide training by U.S. experts to police, prosecutors, and judges. The training will assist Chilean efforts to stop transnational crimes within the context of the new adversarial justice system and pending legislation that could significantly change intellectual property rights and bank secrecy regulations.


Program, Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will be used to pay for field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.


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Chile

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Interdiction

80

-

-

60

Justice Sector Reform

15

-

-

36

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

2

Program Support

4

-

-

2

SubTotal

4

-

-

4

Total

99

-

-

100


Colombia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

ACP

247,098

230,128

---

INCLE

41,907

45,000

237,760

CFSP

(38,982)

(43,000)

(28,600)

Total*

289,005

275,128

237,760

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Disrupt Illicit Drugs

In FY 2010, the United States will maintain support for aggressive interdiction operations that cover land, sea and air routes as well as Government of Colombia-led eradication programs that provide resources for targeted aerial and manual eradication. Maritime interdiction will continue to be expanded along Colombia’s Pacific coastline, and existing interdiction programs covering Colombia’s Caribbean coast will be strengthened. Aerial eradication of illegal drug crops will remain an important tool in a larger counternarcotics strategy, and is needed to reach areas where manual eradication is not possible because of terrain or safety concerns. Eradication will also help counter the replanting of coca, and ensure that cultivation in border areas, national parks and indigenous reserves is addressed.

  • Colombia’s capacity to fight against terrorists involved in the drug trade, drug cartels and illegally armed groups is enhanced.
  • Potential cocaine and heroin production is reduced and there is a decrease of coca and opium poppy cultivation to a non-commercial level.
  • Illegal drugs are interdicted at current high levels.
  • Drug producing laboratories are identified and destroyed to prevent the processing of cocaine and heroin, which helps deny funding for drug traffickers and terrorists.
  • Government of Colombia (GOC) control in the Pacific coastal zones is increased.
  • The GOC’s ability to investigate, arrest, prosecute, and convict drug traffickers is enhanced.
  • Drug traffickers are extradited to the United States.


Strengthen Institutions

Enhance police presence and rule of law throughout Colombia and increase access and transparency of the judicial system.

  • Police presence is strengthened in priority areas.
  • Former paramilitary members and terrorists are demobilized and reintegrated into society or prosecuted.
  • Additional judges, prosecutors and investigators are trained to operate within the oral accusatory system of justice.
  • Improved capability of Colombian Attorney General’s Human Rights Unit and Justice and Peace Unit, which includes developing forensic expertise within these units to process mass graves and other sensitive criminal cases.

Nationalization

Continue to transfer additional operational and financial responsibility to the GOC for counternarcotics and rule of law programs and continue to build local capacity to assume new tasks.

  • Ensured sustainability of programs that are nationalized.

Program Justification

Approximately ten years after the beginning of Plan Colombia, the GOC has achieved notable progress in disrupting the drug trade, providing security and social services to its citizens and increasing access to justice. While local capacity continues to grow, robust U.S. counternarcotics and rule of law assistance remains vital to solidifying the gains of recent years, reaching sustainable nationalization goals and ensuring USG counternarcotics priorities are addressed.

In Colombia, we have seen that social programs can best flourish in areas where rule of law and a state security presence exist. U.S. support for Colombian aviation assets and on the ground security forces have proven and will remain essential components for a successful implementation of social and economic programs in Colombia.

Program Accomplishments

Colombia continues to achieve record interdiction results. In 2008, approximately 224 metric tons of cocaine hydrochloride (HCl) and coca base was seized, which surpasses the 191 metric tons interdicted in 2007. Additionally, sustained actions against coca refining operations resulted in the destruction of 3,238 coca base labs and 301 major cocaine HCl labs in 2008. Colombia’s USG-supported eradication programs also produced record totals for a fifth consecutive year. In 2008, 229,228 hectares of coca were subject to aerial and manual eradication operations (133,496 aerial and 95,732 manual). The sustained eradication efforts have not only denied terrorists revenue from the drug trade, but kept illegal narcotics from reaching U.S. streets. Current estimates indicate that eradication has helped lower productivity of coca fields, and from 2001 to 2007, pure cocaine potential production decreased 24 percent from 700 metric tons to 535 metric tons. Colombia also eradicated about 381 hectares of opium poppy in 2008.

While U.S. assistance to the Air Bridge Denial (ABD) program is able to be reduced because of successful nationalization, ABD operations continue to provide the GOC the ability to maintain control of its airspace and reduce the number of illegal flights over Colombia. For example, in 2003, 637 suspected and known illegal flights over Colombia occurred while in 2008, there were only 57. In light of the program’s success, ABD aircraft are also being used to conduct maritime patrols. In coordination with maritime interdiction efforts, sixteen vessels were impounded and one scuttled by its crew with the support of ABD aircraft in 2008.

The GOC’s battle against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and other drug trafficking and terrorist organizations continues to produce significant results. Several high-level FARC leaders were killed or captured during 2008, including FARC commander Luis Edgar Devia-Silva aka, Raul Reyes, who was killed during a Colombian government operation. The development of the GOC’s military capabilities and skills were also evidenced by its rescue of fifteen hostages, including three American contractors in July 2008. Several other notorious former paramilitary leaders and drug traffickers were apprehended or killed in 2008, including former United Self-Defense Special Forces (AUC) commanders and brothers Miguel and Victor Munera. In April 2009, U.S.-trained and equipped Colombian special police (the Junglas) captured Daniel Rendon Herrera, aka “Don Mario”, who was one of Colombia’s most wanted drug traffickers. The GOC’s cooperation in extraditing drug traffickers and criminals to the United States increased in 2008. During this period, a record 208 individuals were extradited to the U.S., including fifteen former senior AUC leaders.

Colombia’s justice system officially converted to an oral accusatorial system similar to that of the U.S. in January 2008. Although many cases already initiated must be adjudicated under the old procedures, the new system has allowed criminal cases to be resolved in months instead of years, and conviction rates have risen from less than three percent to over sixty percent under the new system. This new judicial system is strengthening Colombia’s ability to bring to justice drug traffickers, terrorists, and other criminals, and is contributing to restoring Colombian citizens’ faith in the rule of law.

Since 2002, the GOC estimates that approximately 50,000 paramilitary and guerrilla members have demobilized either as part of a group process or through individual desertions. AUC members who chose not to demobilize, as well as those who do not qualify for the demobilization program, will continue to be investigated and prosecuted under Colombian law. In 2008, more than 3,100 guerrilla fighters deserted from the FARC.

FY 2010 Program

Support to the Colombia Military

Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade (COLAR): Assistance to the Colombian Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade supports both manual and aerial eradication as well as interdiction operations. In FY 2010, the U.S. intends to provide ammunition, communications equipment, training and transport for CD Brigade units. The COLAR CD Brigade directly supports aerial eradication in Colombia by increasing ground security in spray zones, which has greatly reduced ground fire targeting spray aircraft. In 2008, there were 115 ground fire hits against spray aircraft, down from 185 in 2007. The CD Brigade also conducts operations against high-value terrorist targets in the areas to be sprayed and destroys cocaine processing labs, storage facilities, and precursor chemicals.

Army Aviation Support: As part of U.S. and Colombian efforts to transfer greater financial and operational responsibility to local control, progress has been made in training Colombian COLAR mechanics and pilots as well as transferring title to several helicopters in this program. For example, the number of contractors within COLAR aviation has declined by approximately 50 percent, and the number of U.S.-supported helicopters within COLAR aviation has dropped from 76 to 34. A determination regarding the possible transfer of title for the remaining aircraft is being discussed with the Colombian Government.

In FY 2010, funding will provide maintenance and logistics support to COLAR aviation aircraft, continue training Colombian pilots and mechanics and ensure sufficient parts and equipment for the successful operation and nationalization of additional helicopters. COLAR aircraft provide necessary air mobility for the CD Brigade and continue to be the most reliable airlift capability for military units engaged in counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. COLAR’s responsibilities include aviation support for interdiction, eradication, high-value target and humanitarian operations.

Air Bridge Denial (ABD): The nationalization of the ABD program is moving forward, and a two-year withdrawal of USG maintenance support is expected to be completed by December 2009. Since the program’s inception, ABD has provided the GOC the logistical and technical support to monitor its airspace and interdict unauthorized flights. Because of its success, which has helped reduce suspect narcotic flights over Colombia by more than 90 percent, ABD aircraft are also being used to conduct maritime patrols. USG funding in FY 2010 will be required to successfully complete the nationalization of the ABD program and provide flight safety training.

Navy Maritime Interdiction Support: FY 2010 funds will allow the Colombian Navy and Coast Guard to continue its expansion of operations along Colombia’s Pacific coast. This area is increasingly being used by drug traffickers to ship illegal narcotics to the United States. Assistance will strengthen forward operating bases, enhance radar detection capabilities and provide basic equipment and ammunition to interdiction units. Clandestine coastal interdiction operations along Colombia’s Caribbean coastline will receive limited support in FY 2010 since operations in this theater have already been established.

Support to the Colombian National Police

Aviation Support (ARAVI): This program directly supports the counternarcotics and counterterrorism mission of the Aviation Wing of the Colombian Antinarcotics Police (DIRAN). The USG-supported ARAVI program is one of the most flexible and responsive aviation programs in Colombia, providing transport aircraft, aerial and manual eradication escorts, logistical support and intelligence platforms for interdiction and eradication operations. FY 2010 funds will support a fleet of approximately 47 rotary-wing and 11 fixed-wing ARAVI aircraft. Funding for this program will cover ongoing logistical expenses and the maintenance of aircraft, while also continuing to improve the capabilities of DIRAN in the areas of communications, intelligence and data processing. Other major expenses in addition to the operation and maintenance of the aircraft will be training for Colombia National Police (CNP) mechanics and the purchase of spare parts, tools, contract labor maintenance, and aviation-related infrastructure costs. Additional funds will supply ammunition and armament for these aircraft.

Support for Eradication: Eradication of illicit crops is an important counternarcotics tool. The Colombian-led aerial eradication program will focus on those priority areas where coca growing is prevalent, and where coordination with security and alternative development programs is available. Aerial operations will be closely coordinated with manual eradication by the GOC to deter replanting and ensure that coca in areas that is too dangerous for manual eradication is destroyed. Manual eradication will also cover areas where aerial eradication is not available, such as in locations near the Ecuador/Colombia border and national parks.

Funding in FY 2010 will primarily support the operations and maintenance of the eradication air fleet (12 AT-802 spray planes, 8 UH-1N helicopters, 3 C-27 cargo planes and 2 Cessna 208s), which includes contracting spray pilots, helicopter crews and maintenance personnel. Funds will also go toward the purchase of herbicide used for the spraying of coca, support contract costs, conduct environmental monitoring, purchase equipment for manual eradication, training of AT-802 mechanics and cover operational expenses for spray verification missions.

As with other INL-supported programs, nationalization of eradication operations is underway. Currently, 12 CNP AT-802 technicians have been trained and 30 are in training. A more complete AT-802 technician training program is under development with plans to have a comprehensive CNP AT-802 maintenance program in place by 2011. At that time, 90 technicians will be trained and capable of maintaining the AT-802 fleet. Eight CNP pilots and co-pilots are currently being trained in order to fully nationalize the pilots of the Cessna 208 by mid-2009.

Support for Interdiction: CNP capabilities to seize drugs have increased over the last several years with U.S. support. In FY 2010, the majority of expenditures under this line item will go directly to commodities and training that will continue to enhance the ability of the CNP to interdict illicit drugs before they leave Colombia. Support will upgrade existing DIRAN interdiction facilities and assist in establishing DIRAN in priority areas, particularly in northwest and northeast Colombia. USG assistance in FY 2010 will also continue to support in country and training at U.S. military and commercial institutions for DIRAN’s 20 operational companies and three airmobile interdiction companies (Junglas). Support is also provided to DIRAN’s Port Security Program, which interdicts drugs transiting through Colombia’s commercial air and sea ports.

Carabineros

Rural policing is vital to the GOC’s ability to retain control of remote or former conflict areas. Establishing a police presence in these regions helps disrupt the growth and distribution of illegal drugs, combat and capture FARC and other illegal armed groups and create an environment conducive to the return of the displaced and the provision of other social services.

U.S. support in FY 2010 will go towards the seventy 120-man Mobile Carabineros Squadrons that conduct rural patrols, provide protection for manual eradication, road interdiction and other missions. Funding will help equip these squadrons with the tools necessary to conduct policing operations in jungle and remote terrain. Communications equipment, specialized arms and ammunition and vehicles such as trucks and motorcycles will be provided. Funds will also be used to construct, renovate and harden CNP stations in rural areas and provide limited training and essential equipment to police.

Judicial Reforms Program

Training and technical assistance for investigators, judges, prosecutors, and forensic experts will continue to be provided to improve the effectiveness of the new criminal justice system. Training will work to ensure that institutions and officials throughout Colombia are capable of effective investigations, to improve the prosecution and conviction of criminal offenders, particularly criminal and terrorist organizations, and to address public corruption, as well as those involved in serious human rights offenses. To help the Colombian Government continue the investigation and prosecution of human rights cases, training for the Colombian Attorney General’s Office will continue.

Other Programs to Promote the Rule of Law

Since 2002, more than 50,000 persons have demobilized either under the GOC’s individual or collective demobilization programs. INL assistance is focused on the GOC Ministry of Defense’s Individual Deserter Program and provides support for a highly skilled team of Colombian legal, political and communications advisors. U.S. assistance in FY 2010 will also help coordinate a wide-ranging network of data collection activities and communication projects. Information shared by demobilized individuals helps support Colombian security operations as well as provides testimony for cases in both the Colombian and U.S. justice systems.

To increase the GOC’s ability to combat the illegal proceeds of drug traffickers and other financial crimes, the U.S. will continue its training and technical assistance to GOC investigative and prosecutorial units, focusing on combating money laundering and other financial crimes. In support of Colombia’s 2008 National Plan to Reduce Drug Consumption, the U.S. will provide assistance to help reduce drug consumption in Colombia through education programs. Recently, the Drug Demand Reduction (DDR) office has supported the release of four drug demand prevention commercials, successful roundtables for youth and journalists, inclusion of more than 44,000 children in a DDR drawing contest, and other activities. Over the next five years, the DDR office will work on continuing to complement other NAS initiatives in vulnerable areas, integrate existing resources, expand and institutionalize existing programs while ensuring their sustainability by Colombian entities, build coalitions of DDR actors, and educate the children and the public on drug use implications.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds are used for general administrative and operating expenses for the planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of INL programs in Colombia. Funds cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel; residential and warehouse leasing; field travel; International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs (overhead costs paid to the Embassy for occupying an Embassy facility and using basic Embassy services); and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. These funds also cover temporary duty (TDY) personnel and general administrative and indirect operating expenses that cannot be identified with a specific project.

Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP)

CFSP supports both eradication and interdiction missions by helping ensure the safety and flight worthiness of INL-titled aircraft operating in Colombia. In FY 2010, the Colombia CFSP will provide ongoing life cycle fleet management with the induction of the following aircraft for depot maintenance: 4 fixed wing aircraft (2 AT 802s, 1 C-208, and 1 C-27); 5 rotary wing aircraft (1 Huey-II helicopter and 4 UH-60 helicopters); and 5 Huey-II helicopters for wiring upgrades. We will also procure one attrition fixed wing spray aircraft, two attrition helicopters, and three Huey-II engines and continue the Aircraft/Aircrew Safety upgrade program.

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Colombia

INL Budget

($000)

Support to the Colombia Military

FY 2008

FY 2009

FY 2010

Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade

2,200

2,000

2,000

Army Aviation Support

51,898

32,628

36,000

Air Bridge Denial Program

10,048

8,000

1,000

Navy Maritime Interdiction Support

1,000

10,000

5,000

SubTotal

65,146

52,628

44,000

Support to the Colombian National Police

Aviation Support

52,520

50,000

55,186

Support for Eradication

63,980

55,000

60,000

Support for Interdiction

16,500

22,611

16,000

SubTotal

133,000

127,611

131,186

Carabineros

-

5,000

5,000

Judicial Reform Programs

Attorney General's Office

19,838

16,500

13,234

Justice Sector Reform

5,455

8,000

7,000

SubTotal

25,293

24,500

20,234

Other Programs to Promote the Rule of Law

Individual Deserter Program

496

500

500

Demand Reduction

-

500

500

Money Laundering

-

1,000

500

Culture of Lawfulness

-

250

-

SubTotal

496

2,250

1,500

Transfer to INCLE for CNP Manual Eradication Support

2,480

-

-

Transfer to FMF for CNP Manual Eradication Support

2,479

USAID

Human Rights

7,935

8,000

-

Inspector General

2,976

3,500

-

Public Defender

1,984

1,000

-

UNHCR

744

750

-

SubTotal

13,639

13,250

-

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

2,252

1,689

2,089

Non-U.S. Personnel

3,000

2,850

2,391

ICASS Costs

1,700

1,850

1,010

Program Support

538

500

1,750

SubTotal

7,490

6,889

7,240

Narcotics Affairs Section Total

250,023

232,128

209,160

Critical Flight Safety Program

38,982

43,000

28,600

Total

289,005

275,128

237,760

Note 1: In FY 2008 and 2009, Congress redirected ACP funds specifically for ROL programs to the INCLE account.
Note 2: In FY 2010, all ACP funds were subsumed under INCLE.
Note 3: In FY 2008-FY 2009, CFSP was subsumed under Colombia.
Note 4: In FY 2010, Colombia's portion of the CFSP remains under the bilateral program. The remaining $20.75M in CFSP is under the INCLE centrally managed account.

Costa Rica

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

---

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Police Professionalization and Anti-Corruption

Enhance the capabilities of Costa Rica’s national police and promote integrity initiatives to root out corrupt practices by police officers.

  • The Costa Rican police transition to a community-oriented police force responsive to the communities served.

  • Police professionalization training and provision of specialized law enforcement equipment enhances the accountability of mid-level police managers and ensures that they are able to effectively deploy their resources.

Counternarcotics Interdiction

Support interdiction at border and mobile checkpoints to interdict drugs flowing north and cash and weapons flowing south; provide information-sharing links to the border areas with Nicaragua.

  • Improved communications between Costa Rica and Nicaragua along their shared border and enhanced interdiction capabilities will stem the flow of drugs.

Provide technical assistance and equipment to enable the Costa Rica coast guard to patrol offshore.

  • The Costa Rican Coast Guard’s (SNGC) operability and navigation, safety and communications capabilities will be improved and enable them to conduct interdiction operations more effectively.

Program Justification

Costa Rica’s self-image has suffered in recent years from, among other issues, alarming crime rates that have been increasing by 15-20%. Significantly fueled by drug trafficking, deteriorating domestic security has become the top concern. Although Costa Rica has taken significant steps to reform its domestic security apparatus by passing important domestic security and anti-terrorism laws, more work will be needed in FY 2010. Costa Rican security forces remain among the least corrupt in Central America, and they have been somewhat effective in operations against major trafficking organizations, particularly in narcotics seizures. However, they remain significantly under staffed, underfunded, and under trained, relying on U.S.-supplied training and equipment as well as investigative, operational and technical support. Violent crime affecting all sectors of society, including senior government officials, has galvanized public opinion and the political class to act more vigorously. Police, prosecutors, judges and the Costa Rican coast guard will remain the primary beneficiaries of U.S. assistance. In addition, the government needs help to combat money laundering, to overhaul policing practices and to rebuild its police academy.

Program Accomplishments

In 2008, the Arias Administration named a new Minister of Public Security (MPS) who initiated a National Plan to combat crack cocaine consumption in Costa Rica, a problem growing at an alarming rate. The Ministry, with USG assistance, has also begun a container inspection program at the Caribbean port of Limon. Early in 2009, important domestic security and anti-terrorism laws were approved and the Executive branch has sent organized crime legislation to the Government of Costa Rica’s (GOCR) National Assembly for consideration. The GOCR is committed to the development of the SNCG. They have doubled their service budget within the last year, provided land to expand current construction of their Headquarters, Academy, and maintenance facilities in Punta Arenas. The SNGC, with USG assistance, made some progress in addressing communications and navigations gaps and made several key interdictions with USG assistance, such as a 4 metric ton (MT) cocaine seizure in July, 2008. Including this seizure, in 2008, Costa Rican authorities assisted in the seizure of 21.7 MT of cocaine in joint maritime interdiction operations with U.S. law enforcement. The GOCR also seized over 157,234 doses of crack cocaine, 21.26 kilograms (kg) of heroin, 4.8 MT of processed marijuana, and eradicated over 1.4 million marijuana plants. Additionally, Costa Rican authorities confiscated more than $4.4 million in U.S. and local currency. The more than 35,000 drug-related arrests made in 2008, represent a raw increase of 12,293 arrests (or 54 percent higher) over 2007.

FY 2010 Program

In FY 2010, bi-lateral program funds will complement Merida-related investments, maintain equipment, and support U.S. counternarcotics and law enforcement interests in a key area of the trafficking transit zone between North and South America.

Interdiction

FY 2010 funds will support interdiction operations at border and mobile checkpoints to seize drugs flowing north and cash and weapons flowing south; as well as improve communications between Costa Rica and Nicaragua along their shared border. Funds will also support technical maintenance requirements for the SNGC maritime vessels and radar systems and spare parts to ensure patrol boat readiness.

Police Professionalization

Training: INL will assist the GOCR's effort to disrupt international crime and narcotics trafficking, by improving its overall law enforcement infrastructure. Building on IMET-funded and themed police training in Fiscal Years 2007-2009 and working in conjunction with IMET in FY 2010, the program will train 150 middle managers in 2010. Funds will assist the Costa Rican police to transition to a community-oriented police force and contain key integrity initiatives to root out corrupt practices by police officers. The project will wrap up in 2011 with final training and, with matching GOCR funds, will provide computer databases and other essential information tools to hold the mid-level managers accountable and ensure that they are able to effectively deploy their human resources.

Equipment: Funds will support community-based policing with provision of modern police management tools such as a COMPSTAT-like database for mapping crime statistics. This will allow mid-level managers to respond effectively to problems in the communities as well as enable their superiors to hold them accountable for their results. This is a fundamental shift from the currently purely reactive model of policing to a proactive model that taps into community needs and takes advantage of a community’s intimate knowledge of its particular crime problems.

Police Academy: And essential part of the professionalization process will include reforms to the police academy which began in 2008. FY 2010 funds will provide computers and software, multimedia projectors, and specialized police training aids.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will support salaries, benefits and allowances for foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, and International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.


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Costa Rica

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Interdiction

-

-

-

185

Police Professionalization

-

-

-

150

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

85

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

68

Program Support

-

-

-

12

SubTotal

-

-

-

165

Total

-

-

-

500



Dominican Republic

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

3,492

3,650

1,950

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Enhance existing land and maritime law enforcement action against narco-traffickers.

  • Increased number of interdictions and quantity of drugs seized.

Improve the ability of the Dominican Government (GODR) law enforcement officials/agencies to successfully investigate and prosecute criminal cases.

  • Increased number of arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers.

Program Justification

The Dominican Republic is a major drug transit country in the Caribbean for illegal narcotics destined for the United States, and Dominicans operate major trafficking organizations in the U.S, particularly on the East Coast. Over the last four years, there has been a 222% increase in drugs being shipped – via air and sea - to Hispaniola, primarily the Dominican Republic. In 2008, there were 198 suspect narcotics flights alone departing Venezuela for the Dominican Republic containing an estimated 114 metric tons of cocaine.

Program Accomplishments

In 2008, Dominican law enforcement authorities seized approximately 2.4 metric tons (MT) of cocaine hydrochloride (HCl), 96 kilograms (kg) of heroin, 15,949 units of Ecstasy (MDMA), and 219 kg of marijuana. The National Directorate of Drug Control (DNCD) made 14,674 drug-related arrests in 2008, a 15 percent increase over 2007. Through joint operations targeting drug trafficking organizations transporting narcotic proceeds through the various ports of entry in the DR, the DNCD and Dominican Customs seized over $2 million in U.S. currency. In 2008, the DNCD and members of the Dominican Armed Forces targeted South American narcotics trafficking organizations that were transporting large amounts of narcotics to the DR via aircraft. When feasible, Customs and Border Control (CBP) Blackhawk helicopters based in Puerto Rico were dispatched to the Dominican Republic to pick-up a Dominican Tactical Response Team and then transported to interdict in-bound drug carrying aircraft as the drops were being made. As a result of these joint operations the DNCD seized over 1,463 kg of cocaine and several aircraft. This dependence on CBP assets from Puerto Rico is driven by the outdated Dominican helicopters and equipment which prevents robust interdiction efforts over open water. On November 13, 2008, DNCD seized over 1,400 kg of liquid cocaine that was contained inside shampoo bottles at the Port of Haina, Santo Domingo.

FY 2010 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

This project will focus on improving the ability of the DNCD to gather intelligence on, investigate, and prosecute drug smugglers through training and technical assistance. Support will be provided to the DNCD vetted unit and the canine unit. Funds will be used to improve data collection and analysis by the Port police and to provide surveillance equipment for port security. Funds will also be used to provide training and technical assistance to the Dominican National Police in capacity building. Police personnel will be trained to properly investigate complex criminal cases such as organized crime, money laundering, etc.

Money Laundering

Projects will focus on building the capacity of the Attorney General’s office to investigate and prosecute money laundering and enhance the Dominican government’s ability to seize assets, including provision of a multi-module money laundering course for investigators, prosecutors and judges. Assistance will be provided to an ongoing program to support the Dominican Financial Intelligence Unit and other efforts to enable the Dominican Republic to again achieve Egmont Certification as well as for training of money sniffing dogs and customs personnel dedicated to search and recovery of proceeds from narcotics trafficking.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.


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Dominican Republic

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Port Security

50

-

100

-

Domestic Violence

30

-

60

50

Police Reform

200

-

275

500

Illegal Migration

62

-

90

50

Vetted Unit

150

-

225

550

SubTotal

492

-

750

1,150

Counternarcotics*

Police Training*

-

-

900

-

Investigations*

-

-

1,200

-

Border Surveillance and Control*

-

-

200

-

Judicial Assistance*

-

-

200

-

SubTotal

-

-

2,500

-

Money Laundering

100

-

-

400

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

200

-

200

200

Non-U.S. Personnel

50

-

50

50

ICASS Costs

150

-

150

150

Program Support

-

-

-

-

SubTotal

400

-

400

400

Merida*

2,500

Total

3,492

-

3,650

1,950

*In FY 2009, every line item with an asterisk denotes a Merida Initiative program



Eastern Caribbean

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

496

500

900

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Augment ability of responsible agencies to investigate, prosecute, seize criminal assets, interdict illicit drug and chemical shipments, and control money laundering.

  • Increased number of interdictions and quantity of drugs and contraband seized.

  • Increased number of arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers and money launderers.

  • Increased amount and value of illicit assets seized and forfeited.

Program Justification

The principal U.S. interests in the seven countries of the Eastern Caribbean – Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines – are preventing and combating transnational criminal activity against the United States, including terrorism, narcotics trafficking, alien smuggling, and financial crimes. These Eastern Caribbean countries make up a significant portion of the “third border” of the United States which is a transit zone for drugs -- mostly cocaine and marijuana products, going from South America to U.S., Europe and other markets.

Program Accomplishments

In 2008, Government of Antigua and Barbuda forces seized 14 kilograms (kg) of cocaine, which was more than double the total seized in 2007, and 96 kg of marijuana. There were 125 drug-related arrests, and ten traffickers were prosecuted. Government of Barbados (GOB) agencies reported seizing 46 kg of cocaine - an eighty per cent reduction from 2007 and seized 4,662 kg of marijuana in 2008. Dominican law enforcement agencies reported seizing 11 kg of cocaine. This represents a downward trend from 2007 and 2006 – largely due to a diminishment in Dominica’s Drug Unit manpower and equipment, such as vehicles to conduct effective counternarcotics operations. In 2008 Dominica also seized 139,769 marijuana plants and 842 kg of marijuana – up from 181 kg in 2007. Dominica’s Police arrested 243 persons on drug-related charges and prosecuted one major drug trafficker. Grenadian authorities reported seizing approximately 48 kg of cocaine, 247 cocaine balls, 14,360 marijuana plants, 355 kg of marijuana, and 741 marijuana cigarettes in 2008. Approximately five acres of marijuana were eradicated in 23 separate eradication exercises during the period. The Government of St Kitts and Nevis (GOSKN) officials reported seizing 78 kg of cocaine, 155 kg of marijuana and 9 kg of cannabis seeds. The Government of St. Lucia (GOSL) Police reported seizing 21 kg of cocaine in 2008, down from 792.5 kg in 2007. The GOSL also seized 534 kg of marijuana in 2008. There were 318 arrests made for drug offences. The GOSL eradicated approximately 19,729 marijuana plants and 3,489 seedlings were also seized, down from 44,588 marijuana plants and 11,751 seedlings in 2007. Twenty-three drug eradications were conducted and 41 plantations destroyed. Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines (GOSVG) officials reported seizing only 5 kg of cocaine which is down from 524.4 kg in 2007. They also seized 316 cocaine rocks and 17,911 kg of marijuana. For the first time, a small quantity of heroin (5 grams) was seized. GOSVG authorities arrested 454 persons on drug-related charges and convicted 330.


FY 2010 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)-led “Operation Reef Shark” targets trafficking organizations using specially selected and vetted law enforcement personnel from the islands to conduct investigations aimed dismantling their operations. In FY 2010, funding will provide technical assistance and training to the police participating in Reef Shark. The provision of training and equipment, including replacement vehicles, computer equipment and law enforcement equipment for drug squads and anti-drug maritime units will enhance their ability to effect interdictions.

Funds for the Regional Security System (RSS) will support a basic training course for marijuana eradication exercises for police special services units. Basic accessory and safety equipment will be provided to the RSS to maintain the units. Barbados will host the Drug Commanders Conference that conference provides bilateral anti-narcotics officers their most important opportunity to establish contacts and consult with DEA and other U.S. anti-narcotics expertise on counternarcotics programs.

Money Laundering

A critical part of disrupting criminal organizations is enhancing the government’s capacity to disrupt and deter money laundering operations and other financial crimes. FY 2010 funds will increase training, technical assistance, mentoring and equipment for Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and bank regulatory bodies while providing investigative assistance to international financial crimes investigations. Additionally, FY 2010 funding will purchase computer equipment to establish a third cyber forensic laboratory in Barbados, which will complement the establishment of two other cyber forensics labs in the region that the Bureau of Diplomatic Security’s Anti-Terrorist Assistance (DS/ATA) is funding in Antigua and Trinidad. DS-ATA is proposing to incorporate Barbados police officers in the training courses slated for Antigua.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will be used to pay the salary, allowances, and benefits of one foreign national direct hire employee in the Bridgetown Narcotics Affairs Section. Funds for travel are required to maintain contacts and overseeing projects in the seven islands. In addition, funds pay for International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.


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Eastern Caribbean

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Narcotics Law Enforcement

200

-

230

450

Money Laundering

96

-

70

250

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

50

-

50

51

ICASS Costs

150

-

150

111

Program Support

-

-

-

38

SubTotal

200

-

200

200

Total

496

-

500

900


Ecuador

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

ACP

6,943

7,500

---

INCLE

99

---

7,638

Total

7,042

7,500

7,638

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Interdiction

Strengthen Ecuadorian National Police (ENP) and military forces’ capability to dismantle major drug trafficking organizations.

  • ENP maintains effective control of airports, seaports, and land routes otherwise used by traffickers to transport illegal narcotics and precursor chemicals.

  • Ecuadorian military is able to conduct enhanced interdiction operations along land and maritime borders with improved mobility, and communications.

Criminal Justice Development

Improve the capacity of the Ecuadorian justice sector to detect, investigate, and prosecute crimes, as well as implement comprehensive money laundering reforms as Ecuador transitions from an inquisitorial to an accusatorial justice system.

  • Justice sector reforms are implemented to more efficiently prosecute cases.

  • Enhanced government institutional capacity to combat drug and other organized crime groups by prosecutors, police, and judges who use permissible best-practice investigatory and evidence collection techniques in investigations and prosecutions for drug trafficking cases under the criminal code of procedures.

  • Money laundering and precursor chemical controls are implemented and prosecutions and convictions for violations increase.


Program Justification

Ecuador is a major transit country for illicit drugs trafficked to the United States and chemical precursors for drug production. While the Government of Ecuador (GOE) is actively combating illegal narcotics activities, drug traffickers from Colombia and Peru continue to take advantage of large, sparsely populated border regions and difficult-to-monitor maritime routes to move cocaine, heroin, and precursor chemicals through Ecuador. In 2008, the GOE continued to identify and destroy cocaine laboratories capable of refining multi-ton quantities of cocaine, and police and military units destroyed several multi-hectare plots of coca plants near the Colombian border. The GOE significantly increased military operations in this region during the year to counter persistent narcotics activity by Colombian armed insurgent groups that have rendered Ecuador’s northern border region particularly vulnerable and dangerous.

In 2008, while cocaine seizures on land continued at record levels, traffickers continued to diversify shipment methods such as, the use of go-fast and small fishing boats, capable of carrying smaller loads and hugging the coastline, or Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles capable of maintaining a low profile to avoid interdiction. Traffickers also appeared to be using containerized shipping to a greater extent than in the past. There was an increase in drug flows from Ecuador to Europe and Africa; a trend first noticed in 2007, and, in 2008, the first major seizure of cocaine departing Ecuador destined for Asia was made.

While Ecuador generally cooperates with the U.S. in the fight against narcotics trafficking and regional terrorism, drug trafficking has steadily increased in recent years. Ecuador’s law enforcement and border control programs are inadequate to deal with this growing trend, and weak institutions, along with widespread corruption further impede progress. The ENP and military forces are not sufficiently equipped and trained to deal with international criminal and narcotics trafficking pressures.

Program Accomplishments

Under President Rafael Correa’s administration, the GOE has taken a tougher stance on combating narcotics trafficking by implementing new policies and programs and by increasing police and military operations, particularly on the northern border. Total seizures by the GOE in 2008 were 22 metric tons (MT) of cocaine, 144 kilograms (kg) of heroin and 1,980 kg of cannabis. An additional 8.4 MT of cocaine was seized in international waters based on Ecuadorian intelligence. Strong enforcement efforts by the anti-narcotics police (DNA) produced record land-based seizures in 2008, including the largest single land seizure of 4.8 metric tons in the Esmeraldas province near Colombia. Also in 2008, the DNA discovered and destroyed a laboratory in the Southern Province of El Oro capable of producing one ton of cocaine per month. The DNA also played a critical role in multi-ton maritime seizures totaling nearly 16 MT.

Heroin seizures at the airports and post office were slightly lower in 2008 than 2007, with most shipments still destined for the United States. Anti-narcotics police also identified and destroyed a field of almost 50,000 poppy plants in the northern province of Tulcan.

FY 2010 Program

Interdiction

Police Operations: This project is responsible for nearly all of the land-based drug seizures in Ecuador. Ecuador has augmented its Counternarcotics (CN) Police force in recent years, and has increased the volume and range of police operations, which has increased the need for operational support, such as vehicles, communications, and detection equipment. FY 2010 funds will support the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA) port and canine operations; travel and investigative expenses of the anti-smuggling police unit; acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment; vehicle acquisition, maintenance, repair and operational costs; and the cost of providing a port advisor from U.S. Customs and Border Patrol (CBP/DHS).

Police Facilities Support: FY 2010 funds will strengthen existing police presence and counternarcotics operations in porous border regions in the north and south of Ecuador. Program funds will help maintain and upgrade DNA bases to ensure high standard inspection and living quarters for 30 to 40 member units at key interdiction points at strategic points along or near the northern, southern, and maritime borders and major roadways connecting the border with Ecuadorian ports.

Police and Judicial Training: FY 2010 funds will provide support basic and advanced training, emphasizing ground and airborne field operations, intelligence methods, cargo and personnel inspection techniques, with military and police co-trained, where appropriate. Funding will also extend and refine training to complement implementation of the new code of criminal procedures to emphasize practical application of the code in areas such as chain of evidence, forensic science, and oral trial practice. Strong emphasis will also be given to training in proper implementation of a comprehensive money laundering law and criminal procedures code.

Border and Coastal Control: The Ecuadorian Military is responsible for securing most land borders and coastal areas. In FY 2010, the provision of operational support to the military will further strengthen Ecuador’s ability to protect its national territory against narcotics-terrorist incursions and to seize illicit international shipments of drugs and precursor chemicals. It will also give these forces the ability to rapidly deploy to remote areas in response to reports of drug trafficking activity.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

This project will help to counter Ecuadorian public misunderstandings and disinformation regarding the true nature of illicit drug use, terrorism and other transnational challenges, along with a better understanding of U.S. policies and activities by increasing public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse and disseminating information about abuse prevention. The project will also directly support drug awareness projects operated by the GOE. This will include a series of workshops in six key cities throughout the country, and provide program development, training, manuals and brochures which are estimated to reach 1,250 professionals and community leaders.

Money Laundering

Ecuador is a dollar-based economy with weak government controls in place to monitor and discourage the flow of laundered funds. The country produces chemical precursors and is a transit corridor for diverted chemicals. This project will provide training and equipment to assist the GOE with recently formed financial investigative and chemical control units, as well as the requisite enforcement units.

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.


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Ecuador

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2009

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

Supp

FY 2010

Interdiction

Police Operations

2,693

-

2,693

-

2,852

Police Facilities Support

1,600

-

1,650

-

850

Police and Judicial Training

770

-

800

-

708

Border and Coastal Control

950

-

986

-

1,938

SubTotal

6,013

-

6,129

-

6,348

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

40

-

50

-

40

Money Laundering

90

-

180

-

100

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

200

-

270

-

270

Non-U.S. Personnel

200

-

170

-

170

ICASS Costs

200

-

455

-

501

Program Support

200

-

246

-

209

SubTotal

800

-

1,141

-

1,150

Trafficking in Persons*

99

-

-

-

-

Total

7,042

-

7,500

-

7,638

* In FY 2008, $99K was funded out of INCLE for Trafficking in Persons.

Note: In FY 2010, all ACP funds were subsumed under INCLE.


El Salvador

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

744

---

800


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Enhance the abilities of the Government of El Salvador (GOES) law enforcement agencies to detect and interdict trafficked drugs.

  • Increased interdiction of narcotics

  • Increased arrests and convictions for gang related crime.

Deter gang crime through improved investigations and improved prison management.

  • Decrease in gang-related prison violence.

  • Decrease in prison-based crime.

Program Justification

El Salvador is a transit point for cocaine and heroin from South America to the United States. USG estimates show that approximately 400 metric tons (MT) of cocaine flows through the Eastern Pacific, and the GOES continues to target maritime and increasing land trafficking of cocaine along its coastline and overland routes. Financial crimes, including cash smuggling, are a component of drug trafficking, as illicit profits are returned to trafficking organizations.

El Salvador’s public security is threatened by violent crime, including extortion, kidnapping and murder. Much of this is committed by criminal youth gangs, including crimes directed from within prisons. The Salvadoran police, prosecutors, and prevention agencies are beginning to more effectively address violent gang crime through improved investigation, community policing, and prevention, but need more technical assistance.

Program Accomplishments

In 2008, the National Civilian Police (PNC) seized 1.35 MT of cocaine, 430 kilograms (kg) of marijuana, and 8.4 kg of heroin. The government also seized $716,905 in suspicious bank accounts and cash transactions, as well as $859,621 in undeclared bulk cash taken from narcotics-linked smugglers. The Transnational Anti-Gang (TAG) Unit has become an information sharing hub for the entire region and has drawn distinct entities from the United States and the region into unprecedented levels of cooperation, information sharing, and investigative collaboration. INL financial and technical assistance supported the creation of a model facility at Izalco, which is the only correctional institution in the region which has incorporated many U.S. standards on prison security, inmate and visitor screening, and pro-active management of prison gang populations. The prison has also become a center for regional training, networking, and information sharing sessions on best practices for preventing prisons from serving as a nexus for transnational street gang activity. Furthermore, innovative exchange agreements developed with the correctional systems of New Mexico, Colorado, and California, provide numerous opportunities to bring U.S. expertise, mentoring, and material assistance to the aid of Salvadoran correctional officials. The INL-funded AFIS (fingerprint analysis) system, in operation since March 2009, is the first building block in the FBI’s ambitious CAFÉ (Central American Fingerprint Exchange) Initiative. The Salvadoran AFIS, which provides the PNC with a state-of-the-art biometric analysis tool, has already significantly enhanced the ability of the PNC to investigate transnational street gang activity. Coupled with the INL-funded software, as well as other USG-funded analytical tools employed by the TAG, U.S. and Salvadoran gang investigators have been able to identify and investigate numerous linkages between transnational criminal organizations. This, in turn, has enhanced the quantity and the quality of criminal intelligence and evidence compiled in support of street gang prosecutions.

FY 2010 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

The interdiction component of the program includes support to the anti-narcotics police, the rapid response force and inspections teams, including drug detection canines. FY 2010 funds will help increase detection capacity for land interdiction programs and support Salvadoran collaboration with USG maritime operations. Funds will also support the joint intelligence center, as well as port, airport, and border inspection operations. Additional training and supplemental equipment will increase GOES ability to intercept narcotics, bulk currency, and other contraband transiting Salvadoran territory. Equipment includes computers and software, inspection equipment and radios. Training includes investigations, inspections, and tactical response, as well as in-service training for drug detection dog/trainer dyads. The project will also sponsor key personnel to participate in technical conferences and exchanges.

Transnational Crime/Gangs

FY 2010 program funds will support projects that will enhance the GOES capability to investigate gang-related crime and improve its management of prison populations. The bilateral gang program provides El Salvador-specific equipment and officer training/exchanges that complement the Regional Gangs Program and Merida-funded TAG activities. The program also includes additional mobile equipment to capture fingerprints to input in the regional fingerprint system.


Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will support salaries, benefits and allowances of two foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.


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El Salvador

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Port and Airport Security

100

-

-

-

Border Security

178

-

-

200

Intelligence Fusion and Analysis

200

-

-

-

Interdiction

-

-

-

100

SubTotal

478

-

-

300

Transnational Crime/Gangs

-

-

-

200

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

61

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

60

-

-

140

ICASS Costs

145

-

-

160

Program Support

-

-

-

-

SubTotal

266

-

-

300

Total

744

-

-

800

Note: In FY 2009, funding was subsumed under Merida funding for Central America.


Guatemala

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

3,472

8,320

5,850

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Build the investigative and operational capacity of Guatemalan law enforcement agencies capacity to effectively disrupt drug trafficking, trans-border crime, and illicit crop production in Guatemala.

  • Increased drug seizures, and arrests, prosecution and conviction of drug traffickers.

  • Increased investigation and prosecution of money laundering cases.

  • Surveys show a declining rate of drug use in populations served by demand reduction programs.

  • Gang-related crime drops in areas served by the Government of Guatemala (GOG) integrated gang program.

  • Anti-gang program is expanded to additional areas.

  • Youth enrolled in gang-prevention programs remain uninvolved in gangs.

Program Justification

Guatemala is a major drug transit country for drugs flowing from South America to the United States. The USG estimates indicate that 90 percent of drugs reaching the United States are shipped through the Central America and Mexico to the United States. There is increasing land transit through Central America. Guatemala has large areas in the north and along the Mexican border that it does not adequately control. Within the past six months, there have been notable incursions by Mexican cartels, especially the Zeta wing of the Gulf Cartel, leading to increased trafficking and violence as they stake out territory and clash with established Sinaloa Cartel and local traffickers. Widespread poverty and economic inequality complicate the fight against drug transshipment, alien smuggling and other transnational crimes, and the concomitant corruption. Transnational youth gangs are a large component of the public security crisis that dominates public concern. Gang crime affects the region and the United States.

President Colom vowed to reduce poverty and crime, and has taken a public stand against corruption, including dismissal of top security personnel. However the impact on seizures and crime is yet to be seen. Youth gangs continue to spread beyond the capital to regional cities and rural areas, bringing extortion, crime and violence. There has been a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation in small plots in remote areas which the GOG eradicates regularly. GOG narcotics control police carry out manual eradication, interdiction, port control operations, narcotics investigations, and road interdiction and inspection functions. INL funds help support all of these activities.

Program Accomplishments

The GOG has replaced both high-level leadership and lower-level police in an attempt to stem corruption, which has been a pervasive problem in justice sector institutions. The GOG established a special joint task force to focus on anti-drug, law enforcement and counterterrorism operations. Guatemalan authorities eradicated record amounts of opium poppy (534 hectares) in western Guatemala in 2008; and seized 3.3 metric tons (MT) of cocaine. The Colom administration achieved some success in reforming the legal framework for attacking drug trafficking and use and violent crime, including establishing a drug incineration protocol with close technical support of the U.S. Embassy’s Narcotics Affairs Section’s Prosecutors program. In 2008, the Guatemalan Congress also passed an improved extradition law, which includes extradition of Guatemalan nationals.

In conjunction with a USG-provided air support program that delivered four helicopters to Guatemala in 2008, the GOG established “Joint Task Force Fuentes,” known as the “FIAAT,” a fully vetted, independent unit that will improve law enforcement response capability. The new force will also give the GOG central government a new, strategic ability to establish rule of law in areas where corruption or lack of resources has called into question the local government's ability to effectively enforce the law. The FIAAT has also been integrated into the international and interagency Central Skies operation.

The GOG also recently delegated more inspection authorities to the ports police (DIPA). DIPA seized over $4.5 million in suspected narcotics proceeds, for a total of over $6 million in cash seizures. DIPA seized 1.2 MT of cocaine and at least seven shipments of pseudoephedrine. The GOG Customs Service was also instrumental in stopping the entry of methamphetamine through careful checking of the registry of importing companies, many of which were not licit importers.

The Model Precinct Program has achieved reduction in gang crime and violence in Villa Nueva, and is scheduled for replication in another area near the capital and in Honduras. The associated tip line for citizens in fear of retaliation has been expanded to another area of Guatemala City and to the Peten, and authorities have used tips to successfully solve a number of crimes.


FY 2010 Program

Counternarcotics

The program provides training and equipment to enhance existing GOG capability and provides operational support for ongoing GOG interdiction and eradication operations. Equipment includes computers, software, intercept equipment, inspection tools, and non-lethal tactical equipment. GOG reconnaissance and eradication missions receive logistical support, including vehicle fuel, supplies, and transport.

FY 2010 funds will support GOG efforts to recruit and vet new SAIA (anti drug police) by providing polygraph examiners and investigative training, and training that incorporates an anticorruption component. INL provides equipment and logistical support for SAIA law enforcement and interdiction operations and also supports the airborne task force (FIATT). Interdiction training at the Regional Anti-Narcotics Training Center at Los Pinos offers at least 13 courses annually, plus one or more regional courses in drug detection canine handling. The canine unit will require approximately three dogs in 2010 to replace ageing dogs. INL is helping the GOG establish a Pacific interdiction center, which will require office equipment, radios and transmitters.

INL will also continue to support and collaborate with GOG port security initiatives in Puerto Quetzal, Puerto Barrios, Puerto Santo Tomas de Castilla, and La Aurora International Airport, primarily in the form of training, advice and technical assistance. USG support will primarily be in the form of cooperative training, technical assistance, equipment and vehicles.

INL will provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Health, Guatemalan Customs, and Public Ministry to continue detecting illegal importation and diversion of precursor chemicals (primarily for methamphetamine production). This is a growing problem in the region.

Administration of Justice

FY 2010 support will provide case management software and technical support to assist the GOG Attorney General (MP) to maintain accountability and monitoring procedures designed to track cases, promote timely interventions, and review strategies used in investigations and prosecutions. The program will also enhance investigative methods, complex case development and processing, through specialized inter-agency training. This includes technical assistance in applying best practices to ensure effective and transparent procedures for special investigators and their assistants, and technical assistance to special anti-corruption prosecutors. FY 2010 funds will also enable INL to provide technical assistance in drafting procedures, regulations and laws.


Organized/Gang-Related Crime

The Police Training/Anti-Gang Model Precinct in Villa Nueva is the centerpiece of the police training program. Technical assistance and training is provided to the program, which will have been replicated in at least one additional area (Mixco) by 2010. Expansion of this successful program will include provision of office, computer, investigative and protective equipment, and motorbikes. Extensive training in investigations (cross trained with prosecutors), prevention and community policing will also be provided.

FY 2010 funds will also support provision of additional IBIS (Ballistics Analysis) equipment and licenses and training for the “I-2” relational database; and for maintenance and upgrades for equipment, computer hardware and software and training for the “CRADIC” criminal information computer system. “CRADIC” provides the necessary information to improve patrol coverage, improve the quality of investigations, and provides more reliable statistical data for deployment of police personnel and strategic planning. “CRADIC” is also the platform from which information will be disseminated nationally and internationally and is the key to coordinating the investigation of transnational crimes.

Demand Reduction

As trafficking intensifies in Guatemala, traffickers supply drugs as payment for services, increasing domestic supply, and gangs have become involved in retail drug sales. FY 2010 funds will support the SECCATID (the GOG demand reduction agency) in-school demand reduction programs, and education programs that promote closer cooperation with the police. This will be complemented by OAS-CICAD regional demand reduction training requested under the Merida Initiative. The newly-formed Police Athletic League program will be fully implemented by 2010, and INL support will enable the GOG to replicate the program in at least three additional areas by year-end. This program targets youth at risk for drug use and gang membership.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will support salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.


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Guatemala

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Counternarcotics

Interdiction

1,150

-

1,800

1,850

Eradication

250

-

250

260

SubTotal

1,400

-

2,050

2,110

Administration of Justice

250

250

400

Organized/Gang-Related Crime

1,072

1,880

2,140

Demand Reduction

100

100

150

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

250

-

-

275

Non-U.S. Personnel

113

-

-

360

ICASS Costs

187

-

-

280

Program Support

100

-

-

135

SubTotal

650

-

1,040

1,050

CICIG

-

-

3,000

-

Total

3,472

-

8,320

5,850

Note: All FY 2009 monies, except for CICIG, are Merida Initiative funds.


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