Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs


Afghanistan

Budget Summary ($000)

If a scroll bar appears below the following table, swipe the table to move left/right of the dashed line.

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2008 Supp

FY 2009 Bridge Supp

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2009 Supp

FY 2010 Request

272,574

35,000

101,000

250,000

133,000

450,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Administration’s objectives are to work with the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities, reform the Afghan criminal justice system to enhance public security, strengthen the rule of law, and reduce the supply, production and trafficking illegal drugs. INL program objectives in Afghanistan are consistent with the Administration’s core USG goals to develop and increasingly self-reliant Afghan civilian police force, promote a more capable, accountable and effective government and judicial and rule of law system in Afghanistan, and disrupt and dismantle trafficking networks that fund the insurgency. The following programs are based upon an integrated approach. All of these objectives will be pursued simultaneously on a holistic basis to achieve success.

Counternarcotics

INL programs will seek to implement opium supply reduction activities through an integrated program of province-based dissuasion, strengthening of counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, continuing public information and demand reduction programs, and interdiction efforts where necessary, in conjunction with alternative development programs. Included in our counternarcotics efforts:

Counternarcotics Advisory Teams (CNATs) comprised of Afghans and international advisors will support governors’ counternarcotics efforts in the provinces -- serving a public information and crop control function.

A public information campaign that is a multi-dimensional effort that engages public officials at national and provincial levels to inform citizens of the harm and shame that illegal drugs brings to Afghanistan; persuade farmers not to cultivate poppy; introduce risk by highlighting the increasing effectiveness of CN law enforcement; and engaging provincial CN working groups to carry anti-drug messages to a wider population.

The Good Performers Initiative (GPI) will allow local communities to initiate development projects designed to have a relatively quick impact on the local economy and infrastructure, influence farmers’ planting decisions, and bolster governor-led counternarcotics efforts.

Governor Led Eradication (GLE) teams, which implement the provincial governors’ will in conducting counternarcotics and supply reduction activities in more permissible areas, will be supported on a limited basis to reduce the poppy harvest and deter planting next year.

Drug intelligence, investigation, interdiction and provincial units of the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) will operate nationwide to disrupt processing operations and trafficking networks.

Demand Reduction efforts will focus on preventing, reducing, and treating drug abuse in Afghanistan and will provide a special focus on enhancing outreach and treatment services for vulnerable populations including women and children.

Administration of Justice

Rule of law programs in Afghanistan will continue to work with the GIRoA and our international allies to strengthen the criminal justice system throughout the country, as well as to continue providing support for the development of the corrections system. In doing so, our justice programs also support police and counternarcotics initiatives by improving police-prosecutor coordination and helping to arrest, try, and punish narcotics offenders. Our administration of justice programs:

Provide advisory and technical support to Afghan justice administrators to improve management, operation, and coordination in the Ministry of Justice (MOJ), Ministry of Interior (MOI), Attorney General’s Office, the Anti-Corruption Unit and the Supreme Court.

Conduct standardized training for justice personnel (including prosecutors, defense counsel, and judges) focusing on Afghan and international law, human rights, and criminal justice procedures.

Mentor the Afghan justice personnel on improving investigations, police-prosecutor coordination, case management, trial advocacy, and the adjudication of criminal cases.

Provide advisory services and technical support to the MOJ’s Afghan Central Prisons Directorate (CPD) to improve the capacity and security of the nationwide corrections system.

Conduct standardized corrections training in Kabul and key provinces with an emphasis on security and corrections management and operations, and emphasize humane treatment for all prisoners, including women and children living in prisons across Afghanistan.

Provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice and corrections facilities and courts in provincial locations and in major poppy growing and drug trafficking regions.

Support the development of legal professional organizations and institutions, including the bar association (and licensing regime) as well as legal training and aid centers.

Reintegrating women into the legal sector through training and education will remain a focus during FY 2010 along with women-focused access to justice, legal information, and domestic violence initiatives.

Support specialized training and mentoring for judges, prosecutors, and investigators on issues such as counternarcotics, corruption, trafficking, and prosecutorial investigations.

Support a specialized, secure facility to contain offices and secure courtrooms for counternarcotics prosecutors and investigators, and Central Narcotics Tribunal judges, and a secure detention capacity for narcotics defendants.

Provide for the renovation and reconstruction of the Pol-i-Charkhi Prison, including equipping, staffing and providing training at the facility. In addition, INL plans to provide for additional prison construction based on hybrid prison model developed in conjunction with the Afghan Central Prisons Directorate (CPD).

Civilian Law Enforcement

Under the direction of, and with funding from, the Defense Department, INL provides training, mentoring, equipment and infrastructure needed to bring the Afghan National Police (ANP) of the Ministry of Interior (MOI) to full operational capacity in providing Afghanistan’s law enforcement. Our goal is to help Afghanistan develop a competent, professional, democratic police force with the necessary training, equipment, infrastructure, institutional capacity and organizational structure to enforce the rule of law in Afghanistan. To reach that goal, we continue to provide basic and specialized training to the uniformed police, the border police and the civil order police. We have also increased our efforts to mentor the police at all levels, including at the MOI where institutional capacity-building remains a critical challenge. The FY 2010 program will:

Continue to provide senior-level mentors to assist in Ministry of Interior reform efforts to build institutional capacity.

Continue to support maintenance and operation costs for eight INL Regional Training Centers, as well as 600 - 900 civilian police advisors to enhance and expand our training and mentoring program. Implementation of the Focused District Development training program (at the district and regional level) is expected to remain a priority, along with an increased focus on developing the skills and capacities of the border police.

Implement additional specialized training courses to professionalize the ranks of the ANP and increase the participation of women in the ANP. This could receive increased emphasis as the mandate for 82,000 ANP is filled and basic training is transitioned further into a sustainment phase.

Increase provision of civilian police advisors to participate in field-based police mentor teams throughout Afghanistan. Field-based mentoring by civilian police provides critical on the job training reinforcement of skills acquired during training, and continues to be a priority element of the ANP development program.

Aviation Support

Aviation support is presented as a separate request in FY 2010 due to its broader use in supporting all INL programs including the counternarcotics programs, the rule of law programs, including justice and corrections, and the civilian law enforcement programs. Provided with a mix of USG-owned and leased rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft, aviation support will continue to increase the effectiveness of INL-supported programs, allow their extension into areas currently inaccessible for security reasons, provide transportation and logistics support in terrains without roads, and continue to provide reconnaissance, medical evacuation, search and rescue, armed escort and surveillance. These air assets will also continue toprovide interdiction support to missions conducted by the DEA-mentored Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA).

Program Justification

INL programs in Afghanistan reflect that country’s centrality in the U.S.’s overseas contingency operations. INL programs in Afghanistan support U.S. counterterrorism, counter drug and anti-crime goals. The FY 2010 INL program will continue to enhance the three main components that began with FY 2002 supplemental funding and continued with FY 2004, FY 2005, FY 2006, FY 2007, FY 2008, and FY 2009 foreign assistance and supplemental appropriations: counternarcotics activities, criminal justice sector (including corrections) reform, and police training and reform. INL programs are coordinated closely with U.S. coalition partners to complement the respective former lead nation roles played by the United Kingdom on counternarcotics, Germany on police, and Italy on justice reform.

Opium poppy cultivation and trafficking, still account for roughly one-fourth of Afghanistan’s total GDP, licit and illicit. The drug trade undermines economic reconstruction, weakens democratic governance based on the rule of law, and threatens regional stability. Dangerous security conditions and corruption constrain efforts to combat the drug trade and provide alternative incomes.

Programs in 2009 also provided mixed news: the total cultivation of opium poppy dropped by 22 percent from 157,000 hectares to 123,000 hectares according to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). UNODC attributed the dramatic reduction in one of Afghanistan’s most unstable provinces, Helmand, to aggressive action by the governor, and the successful introduction of food zones to promote licit farming. While the number of poppy-free provinces increased by 2 to 20, the net opium yield increased by 15 percent because farmers were extracting more opium per bulb. The reduction in planting is credited to a number of factors, including: lower opium prices coupled with higher wheat and food grain prices, public information campaigns against poppy cultivation, increased alternative development assistance, and fear of arrest. The dramatic cultivation reductions in Nangarhar province were due primarily to relative security and the Governor’s political will.

The narco-insurgency continues to be a major threat to the stability of Afghanistan. A major blow to the narco-insurgency was dealt with the removal of Taliban-linked Afghan heroin trafficker Haji Juma Khan to the U.S., where he is under indictment for narco-terrorism, making him the second Afghan charged and arrested with this offense within the past two years. In December of 2008, the Counternarcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) Technical Investigations Unit (TIU) became functional and initialized its first judicially-authorized electronic intercept case. Capacity building for a sustained presence of the CNPA at the provincial and district levels is also needed to present a deterrent to drug production and trafficking at the local level and related insurgent activity that may arise from such activity.

Restoration of the rule of law is vital to increasing security, ensuring stability, promoting economic growth, and protecting human rights. The GIRoA has drafted a National Justice Sector Strategy and a National Justice Program and has requested implementation assistance from the U.S. A transparent and fair justice system is critical to ensuring that the people of Afghanistan respect the authority and decision-making of the central government. In particular, a criminal defense system that affords due process and respects international human rights standards is a cornerstone of a society functioning under the rule of law. U.S. law enforcement must have the ability to work with Afghanistan in the future on crucial law enforcement issues. Despite Afghan progress on a Constitution and the development of governmental mechanisms and agencies that support justice reform, much work is still needed. Critical tasks include establishment of a functioning judiciary, improved system-wide transparency, a well-trained and honest Attorney General’s Office, a competent Afghan Bar Association, reintegration of women legal professionals, and a reliable penal system.

Given Afghanistan’s struggle against narcotics, specialized prosecution is mandatory to not only bolster the rule of law in this critical area, but to provide legal consequences to punish and deter traffickers. Assisting the Afghan government in accelerating legal mechanisms to effectively prosecute narcotics offenders is a major focus of international counternarcotics efforts.

In terms of support to Demand Reduction, INL is now the largest donor for drug treatment in Afghanistan and funds a total number of 16 centers that provide residential, outpatient, and home-based treatment for an estimated 5,500 addicts per year.

From October 2008 to April 2009, the Counternarcotics Justice Task Force (CJTF) registered 1,483 kg of seized heroin and 8,763 kg of seized opium, 55,995 kg of hashish, and 48,534 kg of solid precursor chemicals and 8,495 liters of liquid precursor chemicals. During this same period, the Central Narcotics Tribunal convicted a total of 113 offenders in primary court and 189 in the appellate court.

FY 2010 funding will enable INL to continue to work with the GIRoA and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities by strengthening the rule of law and enhancing public security throughout the country. Professionalization of the MOI and development of advanced policing skills are critical to ensuring the long-term capability of the Afghan MOI to address such critical law enforcement issues as narcotics, corruption and organized crime. While basic training of the police force is important, it is imperative that such training is reinforced in the field, and enhanced with additional instruction in operational policing skills.

Program Accomplishments

Counternarcotics

The United States, in concert with the GIRoA, has worked to ensure that counternarcotics issues are at the forefront of Afghan policy initiatives. With U.S. and UK support, the GIRoA established the Counternarcotics Advisory Team (CNAT) program, a year-round program that aims to spread the message of alternative development, agricultural growth and improvements, and non-cultivation, production and abuse at the provincial level. Primarily Afghan-run, teams work closely with the Ministry of Counter Narcotics (MCN) to support Governor-led counternarcotics efforts in seven key provinces, including the four provinces (Helmand, Farah, Kandahar and Uruzgan) that together cultivate over 90 percent of all poppy in Afghanistan. CNAT relies on Afghan officers to expand outreach, provide cultural and language knowledge, identify local leaders, convene farmers and other stakeholders, and help work within traditional leadership structures. Building Afghan ownership and investment in the fight against drugs, from the bottom up, is at the heart of the CNAT model and represents the way forward for the greater U.S. counternarcotics strategy in Afghanistan.

The Good Performers Initiative (GPI) is an incentive program that provides development assistance to provinces and communities that demonstrate counternarcotics and supply reduction activities. This GIRoA program is funded by the U.S. and UK but is administered by the Ministry of Counter Narcotics (MCN). Since the Initiative began in 2006, an increasing number of Afghan provinces have qualified for assistance under the program and this trend is expected to continue in future years. This Initiative awarded over $39 million in development assistance to 29 of Afghanistan’s 34 provinces for progress against poppy cultivation in 2008. GPI is the only program directly incentivizing governors to reduce the supply of illicit crops.

Although eradication is still necessary in a limited number of insecure areas as a last resort, INL is shifting its focus to alternative development, agricultural assistance, interdiction of drugs, precursor chemicals, and traffickers, and governor-led counternarcotics efforts.

In concert with the GIRoA in a comprehensive counternarcotics public information campaign, INL works with Voice of America’s (VOA) Afghan Service to broadcast weekly radio and TV programs reinforcing anti-drug messages in both Pashto and Dari. Two Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSA) have been assigned to provide technical advisory assistance to the GIRoA on counternarcotics matters, including support for a counternarcotics Vertical Prosecution Task Force (VPTF) comprised of specifically selected and trained judges, prosecutors and criminal investigators. An expansion of the VPTF program is underway.

For counternarcotics-related judicial progress, the adoption of the comprehensive Counternarcotics Law to amplify the prohibition of cultivation and trafficking of narcotic drugs, as contained in Amendment 7 of the Constitution will substantially enhance the GIRoA’s ability to arrest, prosecute and convict drug traffickers.

USG capacity building and support for the expansion of the Counternarcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) continues through training, vetting of the specialized units to minimize corruption, and life support to allow them to conduct their policing, investigations and operations. The specialized units - Sensitive Investigations Unit (SIU), Technical Investigations Unit (TIU) and the National Interdiction Unit (NIU) were begun and continue to be supported by INL, DEA, and DOD. In October 2008, Taliban-linked Afghan heroin trafficker Haji Juma Khan was removed to the U.S., where he is under indictment for narco-terrorism (Title 21 USC 960a), representing the second Afghan charged with this offense within 2 years, dealing a major blow to his narco-insurgency network. In December 2008, the TIU began its first judicially authorized intercept case in Afghanistan and is expected to become fully functional on all cellular providers in 2009. Also in 2008, the SIU developed the capability to operate small scale cases, running its own informants and acquire its own warrants. The NIU base, open since fall of 2007, allows the approximately 200 member force to forward deploy in teams into the various regions to conduct interdiction operations, accompanied by DEA Foreign Advisory Support Teams (FAST), who mentor the NIU officers. The CNPA has been authorized an expansion to increase the force to 3,756 from the 2,900 currently authorized officers. Capacity building and life support will be required for other forward operating bases to support a sustained CNPA presence in order to enforce counternarcotics law and be a deterrent to drug production and trafficking at the provincial level. In 2008, CNPA also reported seizures of: 37,530 KG of opium, 4,936 KG of heroine, and 3,232 KG of morphine base; destruction of 94 drug labs; and total arrests of 703 offenders for narcotics-related crimes.

Our demand reduction efforts in Afghanistan have resulted in the issuance of major fatwas and resolutions (by leading Islamic clerics and organizations) that lend strong support to U.S. policies/programs designed to reduce drug production, trafficking and abuse. Additionally, our collaboration with the Afghan Religious Affairs Ministry (3,000 mullahs) has provided us with rare access to mosques, allowing us to establish prevention and outreach centers in these institutions. In 2008, INL took over four drug treatment centers (in Helmand, Herat, Kandahar and Paktia provinces), bringing the total number of INL-supported centers to 16. These centers provide treatment for about 5,500 addicts.

The INL section at Embassy Kabul is now fully staffed with 11 U.S. personnel, covering the counternarcotics, police, justice, and aviation sectors. In contrast with a single American Director's position in 2004, the program has expanded to include personnel responsible for various projects, including a Director, Deputy Director, Administrative Officer, Counternarcotics Program Officer, Public Information Coordinator, Aviation Advisor, Rule of Law and Law enforcement Advisors, and an Office Management Specialist to manage this growing program. In addition, INL supports the Counternarcotics Task Force Coordinator’s Office.

Administration of Justice

The Afghan government adopted a Constitution that respects human rights, the rights of women, and adheres to due process standards, and has enacted critical judicial legislation including the Interim Criminal Procedure Code, the Court Administration Law, and Law of Prisons and Detention Centers. Afghanistan has also released the National Justice Sector Strategy (NJSS) and the National Justice Program (NJP), the portion of national development strategy designed specifically for the justice sector. INL’s justice program has directly supported the Afghan government for provincial justice assessments and conferences, conducted basic and specialized criminal justice and corrections training in Kabul and five regional provinces, provided basic equipment and supplies to justice institutions, and mentored Afghan defense counsels. INL is helping to reorganize and reform the Attorney General’s Office, support the development of the Anti-Corruption Unit, and is identifying key areas to improve police-prosecutor coordination in preparation for coordinated training and mentoring. INL has also established mentoring offices in five regional areas to provide mentoring to provincial level prosecutors and prison officials to ensure they have the ability and resources to complete their mission. INL has also established a comprehensive corrections program providing basic and in-service corrections training; capacity-building through development of standard operating procedures and policies; and equipment and infrastructure support to improve conditions, management and operation of prison and detention facilities nationwide. In FY 2009, INL began the process of renovating and rebuilding Pol-i-Charkhi prison, the largest prison in Afghanistan.

Since September 2008, the Justice Sector Support program (JSSP) and the Corrections Sector Support program (CSSP) have reviewed over 4,000 prisoner files for prisoners at the Kabul Women’s Prison and Pol-i-Charkhi prison, and have successfully obtained the release of 92 prisoners who had completed their prison term but had not been released.

In 2009, INL’s CSSP has trained 1,059 Afghan Central Prisons Directorate (CPD) officers and staff through their INL-funded training program. Since October 2008, CSSP has completed renovation projects at the Herat and Nangarhar provincial prisons, begun mentoring full time at Pol-i-Charkhi through the addition of a Senior Warden Advisor, and purchased more than 30 vehicles on behalf of the U.S. Government for the Ministry of Justice-Central Prisons Directorate to meet prisoner transport and security needs.

INL’s JSSP program conducted a provincial justice conference in Parwan province and a provincial justice training in Kapisa. They have conducted five training sessions in Kabul for Legal Aid and private defense lawyers. In addition to their regular programs, JSSP has established specialized training on Gender justice, Police-Prosecutor Cooperation, and a Focused District Development (FDD) Law supplemental program to connect local prosecutors to Police participating in INL’s FDD program. In total these efforts have trained 524 Afghan legal professionals since January 2009.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Since the inception of the police training program, INL has established police training centers in Kabul, Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez, Bamiyan, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif; opened a Forward Operating Base (FOB) at Islam Qala; and trained over 104,000 police officers on basic police skills. Expansion of the field training program through Focused District Development is currently underway, and nearly 600 mentors and trainers have been deployed to over 24 provinces. Approximately 100 - 200 mentors are deployed on Police Mentor Teams (PMTs) at the district level and are engaging with local Afghan police officials. Advanced training courses such as defensive driving, firearms, crowd control, literacy, computer skills, anti-corruption, and domestic violence courses are being developed and implemented at all of the Regional Training Centers (RTCs) and in the field.

Ministry of Interior (MOI) Reform is also proceeding with the final stages of pay and rank reform. Increased focus is placed on the professional development of senior-level officials in the ministry and their capacity to manage a national program (e.g., through greater use of inspectors, greater capacity for intelligence gathering, and strengthened processes for logistics and force management

FY 2010 Program

Rising levels of drug-related violence and corruption continue to challenge the future of a stable, democratic Afghanistan, and require the acceleration and substantial expansion of INL’s three core programs: counternarcotics, civilian law enforcement, and administration of justice. FY 2010 INCLE funding will increase support for programs that will: strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security by increasing counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities to disrupt drug trafficking and associated criminal activity; and build-on and maintain significant illicit crop reduction efforts through alternative development, public information, and agricultural assistance campaigns.

Counternarcotics

Funding for counternarcotics in FY 2010 will continue to support international counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan. Consistent with the shift in strategy to increase the focus on alternative development programs and incentivized supply reduction efforts, in FY 2010 INL will increase focus on the Good Performers Initiative, which rewards communities that remain poppy free, to solidify gains in poppy-free or poppy-reduced provinces; use intensive, province-based dissuasion efforts with the aim to proactively discourage illicit cultivation through pre-planting campaigns and assistance; and increase assistance to Governor-led counternarcotics efforts supported by Afghan-staffed advisory teams that promote engagement on counternarcotics issues with all sectors of Afghan society, including federal, provincial, local, tribal and religious leaders, as well as farmers and the general public. FY 2010 funding will also provide additional support for the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan towards the expansion of counter-narcotics law enforcement into the provinces, as well as for the operation and maintenance of existing and new facilities to support the Afghan Ministry of Interior’s interdiction forces. Funding will also strengthen Demand Reduction efforts through a nation-wide treatment delivery system in which the number of residential, outpatient, and mobile treatment centers will be increased to provide counseling and rehabilitation services to Afghans with drug addictions.

Supply Reduction: FY 2010 funding aims to reduce large-scale poppy cultivation through: (a) an intensive province-based effort in key poppy-producing regions that proactively discourages poppy cultivation through public information and crop control efforts, with the support of seven Counternarcotics Advisory Teams (CNAT); and (b) continued support to provincial Governor-Led Eradication (GLE) efforts.

Sustainable Alternative Development: Consistent with the shift in strategic emphasis to provincial based initiatives emphasizing grassroots outreach and alternative development assistance, the FY 2010 strategy increases funding to (a) promote the Good Performers Initiative (GPI), which provides development assistance for provinces that have demonstrated significant efforts to reducing or eliminating illicit crop cultivation; (b) fund Quick Impact Program (QIP) awards as emergency sustainment, which will provide immediate stop-gap assistance such as wheat seed, cooking oil, and generators to communities considering whether to plant poppy or licit crops. The QIP program will work directly with PRTs and community leaders to determine immediate needs and offer assistance, in exchange for no-poppy pledges; and (c) support the UN Office of Drugs and Crime’s cultivation assessment and projects which serve as a basis for GPI awards and our general understanding of poppy cultivation and opium production trends, in addition to verifying GLE efforts.

Drug Enforcement - Interdiction: This program is aimed at disrupting drug trafficking, lab processing, trafficking networks, and associated narcotics criminal activity within Afghanistan to improve enforcement of drug laws by increasing the number of seizures of drugs and precursor chemical, arrests of drug offenders, dismantling drug processing sites, and extending the reach of the counternarcotics law into the provinces. FY 2010 funds will continue U.S. support to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA), to include expansion and training of the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), the specialized vetted units of the Sensitive Investigation Unit (SIU) and the Technical Investigations Unit (TIU), and the CNPA at large. Operation and maintenance of central and provincial facilities will also be an integral part of funding provided to support the Afghan Ministry of Interior’s interdiction forces, including providing specialized and basic counternarcotics training such as case management, investigations, and police/prosecutor coordination, which will build CNPA capacity to be able to develop evidence-based cases prosecutable by the justice system.

Aviation Support: Aviation support services will continue to increase the effectiveness of all of INL’s programs, including the counternarcotics, administration of justice, and civilian law enforcement efforts. INL’s air assets allow deployment, administration and oversight into areas inaccessible for security and logistical reasons. FY 2010 funds will be used to continue providing safe and professional aviation support using the mix of INL-owned and leased rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft to provide passenger/cargo transport, re-supply, reconnaissance, surveillance, search and rescue, medical evacuation, and close air support. These air assets will also continue toprovide support to interdiction missions conducted by the DEA-mentored Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA). As aviation imagery, has become an important component to frequent distribution of data for monitoring and analysis, in FY 2010 INL proposes to complement the current efforts by procuring and operating air assets fitted with appropriate imaging technologies and apparatus to provide targeted, real-time image collection for monitoring and surveillance.

Public Information: FY 2010 funds will continue to support the public awareness pillar of the Afghan Government’s National Drug Control Strategy (NDCS) through the Counter-Narcotics Public Information (CNPI) campaign, which will be led by the Ministry of Counter-Narcotics (MCN). The CNPI campaign will be a multi-dimensional effort that engages public officials at national and provincial levels to: inform citizens of the harm and shame that illegal drugs bring to Afghanistan; persuade farmers not to cultivate opium poppy; highlight the increasing effectiveness and commitment of law enforcement to punish narcotics producers and traffickers; and identify “message multipliers,” such as tribal leaders, religious leaders, elders, police chiefs and teachers, to disseminate anti-drug messages to the wider population. These local message multipliers will continue to be vital in reaching-out to Afghan citizens in rural and isolated areas. Media communication channels will include traditional print, radio and television broadcasts, in addition to new media such as SMS text messaging in a country that is increasingly using cellular phones in both urban and rural areas, and Internet sites.

Demand Reduction: FY 2010 funding will fund community-based drug treatment programs aimed at rehabilitation, including specialized programs for women, children, and rural communities through program development, training and technical assistance, and other community outreach activities (especially those that highlight the severe damage of deliberately addicting children to drugs). Funds will also be used to expand the number of treatment centers that provide counseling and rehabilitation services to Afghans with drug addictions. In an effort to increase treatment capacity and develop a nationwide treatment delivery system, INL established 16 community-based drug treatment facilities. In order to more effectively address the addiction problem in Afghanistan and provide critically-needed services to underserved women and children, INL proposes to create an additional 11 treatment facilities, including specialized programs for adolescents (ages 7 – 18) and toddlers (ages infancy to 6). An outcome evaluation process will also be instituted to assess the long-term impact of INL-funded drug treatment training, and the ongoing creation of substance abuse treatment clinics in Afghanistan. This program will measure long-term, sustained impact (outcome measures) relating to behavior (i.e., reduction in drug use/relapse rates, reduction in criminal activity and recidivism rates, and reduction of injecting drug use).

Administration of Justice

The Afghanistan INCLE Criminal Justice Sector account supports programs that are critical to the establishment of a functioning justice system and to support U.S. Government programs in security, governance, economic development, and counter-narcotics sectors. To succeed in all these areas, and in order to extend governance and federal authority across the nation, Afghanistan needs a functioning justice system. While progress is being made in Kabul and several provincial centers, the overall needs remain enormous, given a population of around 30 million citizens. Without competent prosecutors, functioning courts, and humane prisons, the Afghan public’s confidence in the central Government will remain limited, undermining our overall efforts.

The U.S. will increase funding for Rule of Law at this critical juncture in support of the National Justice Sector Strategy (part of the overall Afghanistan National Development Strategy, approved 21 April 2008), the National Justice Program (a five-year, six-component, plan to help Afghan justice institutions achieve NJSS priorities, finalized May 2008), and the Provincial Justice Coordination Mechanism (developed by USG to coordinate and expand provincial assistance that will be operational in July 2008). There will also be a particular emphasis to target cross-cutting issues that affect the Justice sector, including corruption, lack of human and physical capital and the absence of Federal power in the provinces.

To systematically advance the sector, together with the international community, the Afghan Government is implementing a National Justice Program, which provides a detailed plan to meet goals set forth in the Afghanistan National Development Strategy. This detailed plan, finalized in 2008, outlines six goals that must be met for the administration of justice and establishment of rule of law: (1) functioning and transparent institutions; (2) adequate infrastructure, transportation and equipment; (3) educated and trained justice administrators including judges, prosecutors and correctional personnel; (4) an effective legal framework; (5) justice institutions that are integrated and work together; and (6) a public that understands its rights and has access to the justice system.

FY 2010 funds will also continue to be used to cover operational costs to maintain the justice and corrections programs, including program support and security as well as direct assistance to the Afghan government. These resources will:

Improve institutional capacity of the justice institutions, including the Ministry of Justice and the Attorney General’s Office, by providing technical support and standardized training for justice administrators, assisting in organizational reform and transparent hiring, removal, and promotion practices, and supporting development and nationwide implementation of standardized policies and procedures.

Enhance leadership, managerial, and administrative skills of police, prosecutors, defense counsels, corrections personnel, and judges through criminal justice training and mentoring, including courses on investigation, criminal procedure, human rights, and fair trials.

Improve the operational capacity of the Afghan corrections system through a comprehensive program in Kabul and key provinces consisting of corrections training and mentoring, capacity building, renovation of existing detention centers, construction of new prisons, and equipment support.

Support and mentor the development of key corrections initiatives, such as data management, prisoner transportation, prison industries, and vocational and rehabilitation programs.

Support the professionalization of justice personnel through legal education and training, and assist in the establishment of legal professional organizations and associated facilities.

Help identify, draft, and implement key legislation and procedures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. Assist in the translation of key international treaties and standards ratified by Afghanistan; focusing on those laws related to human rights, anti-corruption, rule of law, and due process in criminal cases.

Identify and provide training, equipment, and infrastructure support to justice institutions and facilities, including the newly formed Anti-Corruption Unit and the Major Crimes Task Force.

Expand rule-of-law assistance programs in the provinces, including training and mentoring prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys, and corrections personnel as well as raising public awareness of legal rights, particularly with respect to women, children and minorities.

Improve the ability of Afghan security personnel to protect judges, prosecutors, and senior justice officials handling or overseeing narcotics, corruption, and other sensitive cases.

Assist the Afghan Government in developing a national policy on the informal justice sector, forming linkages between the informal and formal justice sectors, and ensuring the protection of human rights in informal adjudications.

Develop measures of effectiveness for the criminal justice system as a whole.

Funding for counternarcotics prosecution will also be used to deploy and support advisors to mentor the Afghan-led Criminal Justice Task Force, consisting of specially vetted prosecutors and investigators dedicated to narcotics and narcotics-related corruption cases. Funds will also support the Central Narcotics Tribunal, consisting of 14 specially vetted Afghan judges. Funds will also be used to expand the reach of the Task Force in the provinces and to support operations and maintenance of the Counternarcotics Justice Center, a secure facility that will contain secure office space, courtrooms, barracks, a dining facility, and a pre-trial detention center.

Trafficking In Persons

The trafficking in persons (TIP) program proposes to focus on building capacity to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases, and provide training to improve victim identification, referral mechanisms, data collection, management and reporting of TIP cases. Training of government officials would target police officers, judges, and prosecutors in an effort to increase the number of trafficking cases that are investigated and prosecuted.

Civilian Law Enforcement

USG funds will continue to support the Afghan Ministry of Interior’s (MOI) development of a competent, professional, and democratic police force capable of enforcing rule of law in Afghanistan. USG support for the Afghan National Police (ANP) includes training, equipping, and reform efforts that address both short-term security and capacity-building needs and long-term institutional development. These efforts are implemented through INL and the U.S. Department of Defense, which has oversight for the development of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and currently funds INL’s police program. Funds will be used to:

Support maintenance and operation costs of the Central Training Center (CTC) in Kabul, the seven Regional Training Centers (RTC) located across Afghanistan, and forward operating bases (FOB) including the one in Islam Qala. Basic, advanced and specialized law enforcement training will be provided at these facilities as well as the Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP) facility in Adraskan.

Continue to deploy civilian police advisors to Afghan districts in order to expand the reach of our field-based mentoring efforts. Field-based mentoring provided by police advisors at district and provincial police stations will reinforce training given at USG facilities and assist ANP with administrative and operational duties.

Complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts that focus on organizational development, including Pay and Rank Reform, a comprehensive initiative that will restructure and reform the MOI organizational and payroll systems to account for all official ANP personnel and ensure that they are paid in full and on time; continue support for community policing initiatives, and of the specialized police units such as the Family Response Unit, and specialized training for female ANP personnel.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for program administration and oversight, and for salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics, rule of law and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

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Afghanistan

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2009

FY 2009

FY 2009

FY 2008

Supp

Bridge

Request

Supp

FY 2010

Counternarcotics Support

Supply Reduction (1)

178,339

5,000

45,000

152,000

17,000

45,000

Sustainable Alternative Development (2)

-

-

-

-

23,000

65,000

Aviation Support (3)

-

-

-

-

-

95,000

Drug Enforcement - Interdiction

14,242

3,000

-

21,000

-

58,596

Demand Reduction & Public Information

3,976

-

-

22,000

6,000

15,000

SubTotal

196,557

8,000

45,000

195,000

46,000

278,596

Administration of Justice

Justice Sector Training Program

51,587

8,000

23,400

25,000

82,000

Corrections System Development

16,862

15,000

31,600

46,000

65,000

Counter-Narcotics Justice & Anti-Corruption

-

3,000

-

-

8,000

Protect Women and Girls

-

-

-

11,000

-

SubTotal

68,449

26,000

55,000

45,000

82,000

155,000

Trafficking in Persons and Migrant

496

-

-

-

-

1,404

Smuggling

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

4,243

-

500

6,000

1,500

8,000

Non-U.S. Personnel

849

-

500

1,200

-

3,200

ICASS Costs

1,273

-

-

1,800

-

2,300

Program Support

707

1,000

-

1,000

3,500

1,500

SubTotal

7,072

1,000

1,000

10,000

5,000

15,000

Total INCLE Programs

272,574

35,000

101,000

250,000

133,000

450,000

Civlian Law Enforcement (4)

Train, Equip and Mentor Afghan Police

391,000

-

-

-

-

-

Total Law Enforcement Programs

391,000

-

-

-

-

-

Total INCLE Control and Law

663,574

35,000

101,000

250,000

133,000

450,000

Enforcement Programs

.

(1) In FY 2008 and FY 2009 Supply Reduction encompassed PEF, GLE, CNAT, GPI, Aviation and Verification programs.
FY 2010 Supply Reduction encompasses only PEF, GLE and CNAT. Funding for GPI, Verification and Aviation are reflected in separate lines
(2) Sustainable Alternative Development in FY 2010 includes GPI & Quick Impact programs and Verification activities which were included under Crop Control/Eradication in FY 2009 and prior years.
(3) Aviation Support provides aviation services to all INL programs in Afghanistan including Counternarcotics,Administration of Justice including both Justice and Corrections, and Civilian Law Enforcement (Police), and was included under Supply Reduction in FY 2009 and prior years.

(4) It is anticipated that the FY 2009 Civilian Law Enforcement program will continue to be funded through a transfer of funds from DOD.


Bangladesh

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

198

200

850

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Support the criminal justice system to strengthen the role of legislative reform, facilitate the prosecution of transnational crimes, and assist with judicial reform efforts.

Some possible performance indicators include: the provision of training and technical assistance to Bangladeshi prosecutors, police, judges, and other government officials; the number of laws drafted and passed to bring Bangladesh in compliance with UN anti-crime conventions; the establishment and development of career prosecution units; and the successful production of mutual legal assistance requests.

Program Justification

As Bangladesh returns to democracy after two years of an Army-supported caretaker government, INL assistance can help support judicial reform and effective civilian law enforcement. Bangladesh faces significant threats from the domestic and international criminals who take advantage of porous borders to conduct illicit activities, such as trafficking in persons, narcotics, and arms. An effective criminal justice system is required to address these transnational threats and to support a democratic government that respects human rights. There is also a need to train and develop a career prosecutor corps and depoliticize the appointment of prosecutors and judges. The INL program will complement other USG assistance projects to develop the capacity of law enforcement agencies and the criminal justice system.

Program Accomplishments

Past INL funding in Bangladesh assisted the government’s efforts to strengthen the capacity of law enforcement and the rule of law institutions to interrupt national and transnational human trafficking crime networks. Funding was used to provide training and technical assistance for law enforcement on how to identify and rescue victims, investigate cases, coordinate and prepare prosecutions, and collaborate with nongovernmental organizations. Assistance was also used to improve the legal framework for addressing human trafficking and strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims.

FY 2009 will be the first year of an INL law enforcement development project in Bangladesh. Funds will support training, technical assistance and equipment to develop and sustain the capacity of law enforcement agencies to combat criminal threats. This limited program will complement a larger community policing program funded by DOD through the 1207 mechanism.

An intermittent legal advisor (ILA) who has been assigned to the U.S. Embassy Dhaka since March 2009 has worked with Bangladeshi law enforcement authorities to establish best practices for mutual legal assistance requests (MLARs) to the U.S. and other countries. As the ILA’s assignment will end in June 2009, the Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) will need to continue to promote MLAR development in Bangladesh.

FY 2010 Program

The FY 2010 program will increase the support to develop Bangladesh’s criminal justice system. Through the provision of appropriate legal experts, including but not limited to a Resident Legal Advisor, INL will develop training programs, symposia and conferences on the role of legislative reform in supporting the rule of law and other issues related to judicial reform. Possible topics for training courses include: improving police-prosecutor cooperation; investigating and prosecuting extrajudicial killings; establishing and developing a career prosecutorial service; and fostering international mutual legal assistance. The INL program may also assist the Parliament to develop the research and drafting capacity required to generate laws that will bring Bangladesh into compliance with UN anti-crime conventions and facilitate the prosecution of transnational crimes.

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Bangladesh

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008 Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Law Enforcement Development

-

-

200

-

Trafficking in Persons

198

-

-

-

Justice Reform

-

-

-

850

Total

198

-

200

850

Nepal

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

30

330

3,700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Continue supporting the development of effective, democratic civilian-led police forces.

Indicators will include elements of organizational management reform, curriculum reform and implementation, and improved management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Nepal Police (NP) and the Armed Police Force of Nepal (AFP).

Enhance the judicial system into a modern system.

Indicators will include improved use of evidence, chain of custody of evidence, admissibility of evidence, admission of expert testimony, police-prosecutor cooperation and feedback, and incorporation of continuing education requirements for legal professionals. A key indicator will be the enhancement of cooperation and coordination between prosecutors and law enforcement agencies.

Program Justification

Nepal has undergone tremendous changes in the past couple of years. A 2006 peace agreement ended a decade of fighting between government forces and the ex-rebels, formally known as the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists), and the country's king had all power removed by the new elected government in April 2008. Plans were set in motion once the new elected Constituent Assembly took office, which would determine the country's future by writing a new constitution. The fragile peace has held, but the challenges facing Nepal’s security forces are significant. Against an already difficult political backdrop, Nepal’s security sector lacks the resources for basic training and organizational development. The INL program addresses this urgent need through a law enforcement program working with Nepal Police and the Armed Police Force (APF) in developing basic technical and investigative skills along with improving the police department’s organizational framework.

Program Accomplishments

After almost two years of negotiating, the Government of Nepal (GON) signed an INL Letter of Agreement (LOA) in January 2009. With an LOA in place, INL is now able to begin its law enforcement development program in Nepal. The program will consist of basic law enforcement assistance focused on the development and training of regional Nepal police, the APF, and border security agencies. The program will focus assistance in the eastern region of Morang with the following priorities: a) Infrastructure - including new construction of police training centers, district police facilities, and police stations; b) Community Policing; c) Police Equipment; and d) Basic Police Training. In addition, INL will continue to fund a long-term Senior Law Enforcement Advisor (SLEA) based in Kathmandu to work with various counterparts within Nepal’s law enforcement community. We anticipate this program will last approximately two years.

The INL program has been successful in developing and equipping the new Joint Election Operations Center (JEOC), the national command post for Nepal’s 2008 election and the country’s first operations center in almost a decade. The JEOC connected security personnel, government officials, and district and regional election officers to help the government effectively manage the response to protests and other election-day events. The Election Commission was able to manage the volume of information traffic required for the election, and began paving the way for democracy and the rule of law in Nepal.

FY 2010 Program

Law Enforcement Reform

FY 2010 funds will continue to provide support to the current law enforcement reform program. Funds will focus on the improvement of civilian rule of law through assisting the Nepal Police and Armed Police Force with strategic planning within its organization. Specific technical assistance and training will be given to senior ranks of the Nepal Police and Armed Police Force to help improve their criminal investigative skills and promote integrity. The Senior Law Enforcement Advisor based in Kathmandu will continue to implement, train, and mentor the Nepal Police and Armed Police Force and coordinate with various stakeholders and interagency partners to build the capacity of fully functioning and effective professional law enforcement institutions.

Improving the Justice System

FY 2010 funds will provide assistance in building up the Government of Nepal’s Justice System. Technical assistance will be provided to assist the Government of Nepal in a number of areas, which may include but are not limited to the use of evidence, chains of custody of evidence, admissibility of evidence, admission of expert testimony, police-prosecutor cooperation and feedback, and incorporation of continuing education requirements for legal professionals within the Ministry of Law Attorney General’s Office. INL program assistance may also facilitate the development and implementation of a new criminal procedure code and reformed offense codes for Nepal.

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Nepal

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Law Enforcement

330

2,000

Justice Sector

Rule of Law and Human Rights

-

-

-

1,400

Good Governance

-

-

-

300

SubTotal

-

-

-

1,700

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

30

-

-

-

SubTotal

30

-

-

-

Total

30

-

330

3,700

Pakistan

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2009 Spring Supp

FY 2010 Request

21,822

22,000

65,500

155,200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Pakistan’s control over its western border and territory has deteriorated. U.S. efforts are aimed at strengthening Pakistani law enforcement presence and capacity in these frontier areas in order to recover and hold areas that have fallen under Taliban control and to protect the local population from further militant incursions. Improvement of security will also allow development efforts to proceed.

Taliban groups are highly mobile and have more firepower than the lightly armed police. Because of this, the Government of Pakistan’s (GOP) policing, surveillance, and interdiction capabilities will be strengthened through an expanded aviation program, increased intelligence sharing, provision of vehicles, communication and surveillance equipment, and protective gear, as well as an increased training program, including command and control, and the hardening of law enforcement outposts and construction of training facilities. By utilizing a $15 million transfer of Economic Support Funds (ESF) from the FY 2009 Bridge Supplemental from USAID, the increased police training and equipment program will begin with the Northwest Frontier Police (NWFP) Elite Force. Beginning with FY 2010 INCLE funds, the beneficiaries of this program assistance include the NWFP Police Elite Force, the rest of the NWFP police force, and other law enforcement agencies in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Baluchistan. These efforts will assist the GOP law enforcement agencies to master the “hold” mission of the clear-hold-build counterinsurgency (COIN) strategy, as well as increase the capability to monitor the 2,500 km border with Afghanistan and Iran and interdict narcotics traffickers, militants, and other criminals. Access to previously inaccessible territory for law enforcement agencies will be supported through continued road construction. In addition to INCLE funds, a $10 million ESF transfer of FY 2007 Supplemental funds and a $5 million ESF transfer of FY 2009 Bridge funds will supplement the existing road construction program, which is run through the Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) in Islamabad and Peshawar, by supporting construction of bypasses around highly congested areas through which supplies for the ISAF mission in Afghanistan traverse.

GOP law enforcement must modernize and reform in order to meet the dire need of the populace. Law enforcement entities need equipment but also are in need of specialized counterinsurgency training to enable them to hold areas cleared of Taliban groups, develop intelligence capabilities, and win the support of the local population. INL will continue to develop the capability of the GOP to investigate and prevent criminal and militant activity.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment will augment the capacity of Pakistani law enforcement country-wide as needed, as well as those with border security functions. With FY 2010 INCLE funding, the program to provide training and equipment assistance to the NWFP Police Elite Force will expand to the rest of the NWFP police force, as well as to expand our assistance programs with law enforcement agencies in the FATA and Baluchistan. In addition, nationwide, institutional police reform programs will expand, emphasizing investigations, leadership and management skills, and academy development. Programs to be continued from FY 2009 include training modules in explosive response and civil disturbance management, which were quickly developed in response to the dramatic rise in suicide bombings and a decline in effective governance. Police reform programs will also include model policing projects and efforts to build national dialogue among law enforcement agencies.

The Government of Pakistan must continue to deter opium poppy cultivation, promote alternative development, and interdict narcotics trafficking. While eradication efforts in the past were effective, the ability to muster sufficient forces has been difficult for the last three years due to forces being engaged in security operations. Alternative development with the provision of farm to market roads and village level agricultural projects has proven effective in extending the writ of the GOP and creating employment opportunities. We will continue to cooperate with demand reduction partners that get people off drugs, rebuild local communities, and help people return to productive lives.

Poppy crop surveys will result in the detection of poppy sown in remote areas. Cultivators will be subject to fines, arrest, and the loss of essential services such as electricity. The Narcotics Control Cell, established by the government of the FATA with USG support, will work together with the Frontier Corps and tribal law enforcement forces to warn cultivators to self-eradicate or face forced eradication campaigns as the security environment permits. Poppy cultivation will decline as alternative crop programs take hold and farmer-to-market roads are finished. Demand reduction programs and narcotics awareness public education efforts will be used to prevent the spread of drug abuse and give communities with an addict population tools to rebuild families and communities.

Program Justification

Providing support to the Government of Pakistan in the areas of border security, law enforcement and counternarcotics is vital to meeting the core U.S. goal in the region of disrupting, dismantling, and defeating al-Qaeda and its safe havens in Pakistan and preventing their return to Pakistan or Afghanistan. In addition, the United States, Afghanistan, and Pakistan have reinforced existing agreements such as the Tripartite Commission with a new effort to institutionalize bilateral and trilateral coordination in facing a common threat.

Border Security

Pakistan’s 1,600 km border with Afghanistan and 900 km border with Iran runs through rugged, remote mountainous and desert terrain which provides abundant safe havens for militants, drug traffickers, and other criminals. Control over this border has long posed a challenge for the Pakistani security agencies. Pakistani law enforcement is under-equipped and under-trained to combat both drug traffickers and insurgent groups financed by massive opium cultivation in Afghanistan and a regional illicit arms/narcotics trade that has flourished since 1996. Commodities, infrastructure support, and training, already provided by the USG, have improved the capabilities and will of agencies operating on the border to fight back, but still do not come close to meeting the operational requirements of law enforcement agencies under the Ministry of Interior (MOI) which have border responsibilities. Ongoing assistance over a period of years, at a rate the GOP can absorb, will be necessary.

Pakistan is a major non-NATO Ally that has demonstrated over time strong commitment to combat transnational threats such as terrorism, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking. However, large areas along the FATA border with Afghanistan are virtually inaccessible, including to law enforcement agencies. This renders frontier areas attractive to militants, drug traffickers, and other criminals who seek refuge. INL-funded rural road construction programs not only provide law enforcement access, but also open remote areas for legitimate commerce, counter-drug education efforts, economic development projects, vital health and education facilities, and the development of civil society. Road projects can be accompanied by small infrastructure projects, such as hydroelectric schemes, which while improving the lives of the people, help in negotiations with the tribes to gain access and permission for continued construction, which will allow the entry of law enforcement into these areas. Road construction brings many benefits to community members, including law enforcement, so in addition to counternarcotics road construction, additional roads and bridges are being constructed as part of the Border Security program. An extensive road network is planned for the entire FATA region, although construction can only take place where security conditions permit access to road crews and engineering teams. Road construction, a very real need in this region, will need USG support in FY 2010 and in years to come. We will continue rural road construction programs and will build the program with additional financial support from USAID, including a $10 million ESF transfer of FY 2007 Supplemental funds and a $5 million ESF transfer of FY 2009 Bridge funds.

Counternarcotics

In 1990, Pakistan was a major cultivator of opium poppy with 39,000 hectares. With USG assistance, Pakistan embarked on a 10-year plan to become poppy free. It essentially achieved that goal by 2001 with less than 1,000 hectares, but experienced a resurgence of cultivation in 2004-2005, mainly in areas where INL assistance had never reached, deep in the Khyber agency and adjacent to Nangahar, formerly one of Afghanistan’s major poppy-producing provinces, as well as in non-traditional areas along the western border of Balochistan. Crop control efforts, including enhanced poppy monitoring and increased economic alternatives and infrastructure projects will decrease opium production and prevent its economic impact from becoming deeply rooted. The GOP is committed to this effort, but lacks the necessary resources, and INL programs will continue to assist the GOP in reaching its goal of regaining poppy-free status.

GOP seizures of narcotics – primarily heroin, opium and hashish – are significant, but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what actually is transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the remote border areas are difficult, as traffickers can generally out-gun the small patrols of law enforcement agencies. However, the continued provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of the Border Security Program is expanding the capacity of law enforcement agencies to monitor and interdict narcotics and precursor trafficking.

Pakistan is combating its own growing drug addiction problem that threatens the welfare and economic stability of its society. A 2007 GOP-UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) survey indicated that Pakistan has approximately two to three million drug addicts, with around 628,000 opiate abusers. The number of injecting drug users almost doubled from the last survey, to an estimated 125,000. With the growing number of intravenous drug users, an increase in the numbers of HIV positive, hepatitis, and/or tuberculosis cases are expected. The GOP needs continued resources in demand reduction to complement its supply-side efforts.

Law Enforcement Reform

Law enforcement institutions in Pakistan have been neglected for decades, predominantly in favor of intelligence agencies with collection capabilities, and the Pakistan military. This has resulted in a very weak capacity to investigate even basic crimes, such as stolen vehicles; much less the far more serious threats posed by militants and narcotics traffickers. GOP capacity to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully requires not just an infusion of resources, but also comprehensive reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions countrywide. These reforms include better cooperation and coordination among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and overall enhancement of technical skills.

In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, were established to oversee reform efforts and facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan needs expert assistance and resources to implement these reforms fully. In support of this effort, INL assistance is providing leadership and management training at senior law enforcement levels in addition to furnishing training in basic and advanced criminal investigation techniques. Emphasis is placed on professionalization, curriculum development, promotion of organizational change, and development of high accountability, and public awareness standards. The relationships developed through this training have led to increased bilateral law enforcement cooperation and new training initiatives involving more fundamental reform.

Program Accomplishments

The Ministry of Interior’s Air Wing (50th Squadron), based in Quetta, Balochistan, was established with INL funding in 2002. It currently has fourteen Huey-II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft, two of which are equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) enhancement systems. INL is creating a forward deployment capability in the NWFP, enhancing support for the security/”hold” mission of the Frontier Corps (FC) in the NWFP and FATA by providing air lift, medevac, re-supply, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities. The program has provided training to FC platoons from the Rapid Interdiction Force (RIF) and ANF units. Air crews are trained on night vision equipment, while ground crews receive maintenance training. The 50th Squadron maintains a much higher operational rate than military aviation squadrons.

In 2008, the Huey-IIs of the Air Wing completed poppy surveys and border reconnaissance and provided support for law enforcement agencies along the border with Afghanistan, including resupply, interdiction, casualty evacuations (casevacs), medevac, and command and control for FC and ANF operations. The three fixed-wing Cessna Caravans completed multiple surveillance, casualty evacuation, and command and control missions. The Huey IIs and Cessna Caravans were also used for training agencies under the MOI, including the Frontier Corps in NWFP and Balochistan and Coast Guards.

To date, more than 2,500 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment have been delivered to the Frontier Corps Balochistan, the Frontier Corps NWFP, the Pakistan Coast Guards, the Anti-Narcotics Force, and other border security agencies. Under the Border Security Program, the USG has funded construction or refurbishment of 80 Frontier Corps outposts in Balochistan and NWFP, 62 Levy outposts in FATA, as well as 23 outposts for the Frontier Constabulary. The outposts give these personnel shelter in and access to remote areas, and improve coordination and communication among outposts.

In 2008, GOP security forces reported seizing 1.5 metric tons of heroin, 8.7 metric tons of morphine, 125 metric tons of hashish, and 18 metric tons of opium. The increase in seizures over 2007 reflects both the increase in the Afghan crop and success against traffickers in Baluchistan. The Frontier Corps attributes its record seizures to assistance received under INL’s Border Security Program, particularly through roads and vehicle support that allowed access to remote areas. Arrests of narcotics traffickers, although many are low-level couriers, increase annually. DEA works with appropriate law enforcement interlocutors to assist with disruption and dismantling of trafficking organizations.

To date, over 983 kilometers of counternarcotics roads have been completed in FATA (Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies) and the Kala Dhaka and Kohistan districts of the NWFP. In addition, construction of 336 kilometers of border security roads in FATA is complete. Some 955 accompanying agricultural schemes and alternative crops projects in the same agencies and districts have been completed with 54 more under way.

Pakistan has been touted as a model by the UN in promoting counter-drug efforts around the world. The GOP remains committed to combating opium poppy cultivation and regaining “poppy-free” status and INL’s crop substitution programs remain an important enabler of this goal. The government of the NWFP, with INL support, monitors the crop and mounts eradication campaigns as the security environment permits. While opium poppy cultivation increased in recent years, concerted counternarcotics efforts in trouble areas brought total cultivation down to 1,909 hectares in 2008.

Pakistan has increased its regional engagement on counternarcotics and law enforcement cooperation in recent years. With assistance from UNODC, Pakistan is part of the Triangular Initiative with Iran and Afghanistan to block the flow of drugs across borders. In addition to joint planning and operations, the Triangular Initiative focuses on counternarcotics confidence-building and information and intelligence sharing. The United States encourages continued Pakistani participation in these initiatives in the future. The GOP, along with senior diplomatic and military representatives from Afghanistan and the United States, is also part of the Counternarcotics Working Group (CNWG) in order to increase regional cooperation and offer a forum for the in-depth exchange of views on topics of mutual concern, including security problems and development of mechanisms for information sharing.

INL programs trained over 2,800 personnel in 2008 and over 8,000 law enforcement officers since 2002. Police training focuses on crime scene investigations, leadership, management issues, and curriculum development, with a train-the-trainer approach. The training schedule expanded again in 2008 and includes all provinces. In 2008, an INL-funded effort trained over 50 trainers from all five police training colleges in civil disturbance management, which included a strong emphasis on human rights. Also in 2008, INL funding allowed 21 teams from each province and the Capital Territory of Islamabad to be trained in post-blast investigations, in addition to IED recognition courses throughout the country for officers of all ranks, and Explosives Incidents Command and Control classes for mid to senior level police officers. Other training courses involving personnel from fourteen different law enforcement agencies have begun to improve skills in basic criminal investigations, small unit tactics, case management, officer safety and survival, port of entry operations, first response at crime scenes, use of force, building organizational capacity, instructor development, and executive management.

In order to institutionalize change and reach a larger audience of police personnel, in 2008 emphasis was placed on working with provincial and national training institutions to adopt a standard training curriculum. The National Police Academy and all five provincial Police Colleges, Sihala (Punjab), Hangu (NWFP), Quetta (Balochistan), Saeedabad and Shadadpur (Sindh), which train over 10,000 personnel per year, have integrated several USG courses into their basic course curriculum.

Hardware and software installation of the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), a computerized fingerprint system, is complete, with 52 remote terminals throughout Pakistan. Complete handover of the system to the GOP is scheduled to take place in mid-2009. With the help of the U.S., Pakistan converted to the 10-print card in 2003 and began using the AFIS system in 2005 at the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) headquarters and the Islamabad Capital Police. To date, the GOP has entered 140,000 out of 440,000 criminal fingerprint records, and data entry is still ongoing

FY 2010 Program

The FY 2010 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11. The program also includes program development and support (PD&S) funds.

Border Security Program

FY 2010 funds will build on the successful implementation of commodity support (vehicles, communications equipment, and surveillance equipment), training, and technical assistance that were started with FY 2001 Emergency Relief Fund (ERF) Supplemental funding. The Border Security Program (BSP) expands law enforcement capacity to secure frontier areas against militants, narcotics traffickers, and other criminal elements. BSP beneficiaries include the Ministry of Interior, Anti-Narcotics Force, Frontier Corps – Balochistan and NWFP, the Frontier Constabulary, the Federal Investigation Agency, Pakistan Coast Guards, Customs, and Home Departments. INL support is coordinated with DoD and other USG entities through an Embassy Border Coordinator, a Law Enforcement Working Group, as well as other coordinating mechanisms in Washington and in Pakistan.

Funds will provide ongoing maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, as well as the planned addition of six Huey-IIs to the program and the pre-positioning of aircraft at a to-be-determined location in the north in order to more efficiently launch operations into the NWFP and FATA to support the “hold” mission of law enforcement in these areas. These aircraft remain a powerful tool for Pakistani law enforcement by performing a critical surveillance function; supporting operations against traffickers, criminals, and militants; and playing a key role in interdictions of illegal drug and weapons shipments. The operational tempo in 2008 was the highest in the history of the program and will continue to increase as law enforcement capabilities improve. Increased operational tempo will likely create a need for an operations and safety advisor to be added to the aviation staff. In 2009, plans to support the ground lines of communication (GLOC, or the supply routes through Pakistan for NATO forces in Afghanistan) support mission of the Frontier Corps should be realized. Support is planned to continue as needed, throughout FY 2010. In addition, INCLE funds, in combination with ESF transfers, will continue the existing road construction program.

Law Enforcement Program

Funds will be used to strengthen law enforcement institutions and capacities. Rule of Law funds will strengthen the capabilities of Pakistani prosecutors, judicial reform, judicial security, and anti-money laundering efforts, and will be coordinated with USAID efforts. Law Enforcement Reform funds will be used to continue training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Funds will continue successful initiatives in civil disturbance management and explosives recognition training in response to a changing security threat, while also supporting courses on human rights, proper use of force and professional standards pilot projects through training, technical assistance, and equipment. Funds will be used to continue the police leadership institute program at the National Police Academy for superintendent-level personnel, the police supervision academy curriculum at the police college level for inspector training, and training facility upgrades at police academies and training centers throughout the country.

Funds will also support the expansion of the police program to provide enhanced assistance to the NWFP Police Elite Force, including training, commodity provision, and infrastructure, as well as to expand assistance to other law enforcement agencies in FATA, NWFP, and Baluchistan, including provincial police, levies, and Frontier Constabulary. These funds will support infrastructure improvements to police stations and training facilities in the NWFP and the contract costs for additional police advisors and/or trainers for program development, oversight, and training.

Counternarcotics Program

INL’s success in curbing poppy cultivation in Pakistan demonstrates that rural development must accompany law enforcement efforts against the drug trade, from cultivation to trafficking. As Pakistan confronts the dual growing threat of narcotics and militancy, funds will be used to support the construction of roads and bridges in current and former opium poppy cultivation areas, accompanied by small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value, legitimate crops. On a limited scale, INL will continue to fund the introduction of alternative crops.

In an effort to build upon recent narcotics interdiction successes in recent years, INL will provide operational support and in-service training opportunities to law enforcement agencies willing to address performance issues. In addition, INL will provide resources to improve ground and air mobility and communication capabilities for agencies engaged in interdiction operations. INL will continue its support for aerial poppy verification surveys. Support of demand reduction activities, including drug awareness and treatment and rehabilitation of addicts, is an important component of the program. These programs have a tangible, positive impact on communities and families and more obviously convey the compassionate side of U.S. policy.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

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Pakistan

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2009
Supp

FY 2010

Border Security Program

Aviation

15,022

-

11,000

26,000

62,000

Infrastructure/Commodities

500

-

1,000

-

3,500

Training/Training Materials

-

-

200

-

-

SubTotal

15,522

-

12,200

26,000

65,500

Law Enforcement/Judicial Systems

Law Enforcement Reform

1,000

-

3,000

37,500

74,300

Rule of Law

1,000

-

1,500

-

2,000

SubTotal

2,000

-

4,500

37,500

76,300

Counternarcotics Program

Crop Control

1,000

-

1,000

-

3,000

Interdiction

-

-

750

-

4,000

Demand Reduction

500

-

500

-

500

Ops Support to LE Agencies

1,000

-

1,250

-

1,500

SubTotal

2,500

-

3,500

-

9,000

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

637

-

700

2,000

Non-U.S. Personnel

320

-

320

600

ICASS Costs

485

-

380

1,000

Program Support

358

-

400

800

SubTotal

1,800

-

1,800

2,000

4,400

Total

21,822

-

22,000

65,500

155,200

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