TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS SERIES 13141

CULTURAL PROPERTY


Memorandum of Understanding
Between the
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
and ITALY


Signed at Washington January 19, 2001


and


Agreement Extending and Amending the
Memorandum of Understanding

Effected by Exchange of Notes at
Washington January 13, 2006


NOTE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Pursuant to Public Law 89—497, approved July 8, 1966
(80 Stat. 271; 1 U.S.C. 113)—

“. . .the Treaties and Other International Acts Series issued
under the authority of the Secretary of State shall be competent
evidence . . . of the treaties, international agreements other than
treaties, and proclamations by the President of such treaties and
international agreements other than treaties, as the case may be,
therein contained, in all the courts of law and equity and of maritime
jurisdiction, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the
United States, and of the several States, without any further proof
or authentication thereof.”

ITALY

Cultural Property

Memorandum of understanding signed at
Washington January 19, 2001;
Entered into force January 19, 2001.
And agreement extending and amending the
Memorandum of understanding.
Effected by exchange of notes at
Washington January 13, 2006;
Entered into force January 19, 2006.

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE
GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AND
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ITALY
CONCERNING THE IMPOSITION OF IMPORT RESTRICTIONS
ON CATEGORIES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIAL
REPRESENTING
THE PRE-CLASSICAL, CLASSICAL AND IMPERIAL ROMAN
PERIODS OF ITALY
The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the
Republic of Italy;
Acting pursuant to the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of
Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
Ownership of Cultural Property, to which both countries are States Party; and
Desiring to reduce the incentive for pillage of irreplaceable
archaeological material representing the Pre-Classical, Classical and Imperial
Roman periods of Italy's rich cultural heritage;
Have agreed as follows:
2
ARTICLE I
A. The Government of the United States of America, in accordance with its
legislation entitled the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, shall
restrict the importation into the United States of the archaeological material ranging in
date from approximately the 9th century B.C. to approximately the 4th century A.D.,
including categories of stone, metal, ceramic and glass artifacts, and wall paintings
identified on a list to be promulgated by the United States Government (hereinafter
known as the "Designated List"), unless the Government of the Republic of Italy
issues a license or other documentation which certifies that such exportation was not in
violation of its laws.
B. The Government of the United States of America shall offer for return to the
Government of the Republic of Italy any material on the Designated List forfeited to
the Government of the United States of America.
C. Such import restrictions shall become effective on the date the Designated List
is published by the U.S. Customs Service in the U.S. Federal Register, the official
United States Government publication providing fair public notice.
ARTICLE II
A. Representatives of the Government of the United States of America and
representatives of the Government of the Republic of Italy shall take appropriate steps
to publicize this Memorandum of Understanding.
B. Both Governments agree that in order for United States import restrictions to
be fully successful in deterring pillage, the Government of the Republic of Italy shall
use its best efforts to increase scientific research and protection of archaeological
patrimony and protective measures for archaeological excavations at known sites,
particularly in areas at greatest risk from looters. The Government of the United
3
States of America acknowledges the efforts of the Government of the Republic of Italy
in recent years to devote more public funds to guard archaeological sites and museums
and to develop Italian tax incentives for private support of legitimate excavation. The
Government of the Republic of Italy agrees to continue to pursue these efforts.
C. The Government of the Republic of Italy shall reinforce, with respect to the
1970 UNESCO Convention, the protection of its cultural patrimony. In particular, the
Government of the Republic of Italy shall provide for:
1. instituting more severe penalties and prompt prosecution of looters,
2. regulating the use of metal detectors,
3. providing additional training for the Carabinieri Special Unit for the
Protection of Artistic Patrimony, and
4. intensifying the investigations by the Carabinieri Special Unit for the
Protection of Artistic Patrimony on the looting of archaeological sites and
on the routes of the smugglers of these artifacts.
D. Both Governments agree that, in order for United States import restrictions to
be most successful in thwarting pillage, the Government of the Republic of Italy shall
endeavor to strengthen cooperation among nations within the Mediterranean Region
for the protection of the cultural patrimony of the region, recognizing that political
boundaries and cultural boundaries do not coincide; and will seek increased
cooperation from other art-importing nations to restrict illicit imports, in the effort to
deter further pillage.
E. The Government of the United States of America recognizes that the
Government of the Republic of Italy permits the interchange of archaeological
materials for cultural, exhibition, educational and scientific purposes to enable
widespread public appreciation of and legal access to Italy's rich cultural heritage.
The Government of the Republic of Italy agrees to use its best efforts to encourage
further interchange through:
4
1. promoting agreements for long-term loans of objects
of archaeological or artistic interest, for as long as necessary, for research
and education, agreed upon, on a case by case basis, by American and
Italian museums or similar institutions, to include: scientific and
technological analysis of materials and their conservation; comparison for
study purposes in the field of art history and other humanistic and
academic disciplines with material already held in American museums or
institutions; or educational presentations of special themes between
various museums or academic institutions;
2. encouraging American museums and universities jointly to propose and
participate in excavation projects authorized by the Ministry of Culture,
with the understanding that certain of the scientifically excavated objects
from such projects could be given as a loan to the American participants
through specific agreements with the Ministry of Culture; and
3. promoting agreements for academic exchanges and specific study programs
agreed upon by Italian and American institutions.
F. The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the efforts by
the Government of the Republic of Italy in recent years to review the laws concerning
the export of archaeological artifacts and to improve the efficiency of the system to
release certificates of exportation. The Government of the Republic of Italy will
continue to examine new ways to facilitate the export of archaeological items
legitimately sold within Italy.
G. The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the
Republic of Italy shall use their best efforts to facilitate appropriate contacts between
U.S. and Italian museums and institutions for the development of increased and
extended loans of Italy's archaeological cultural patrimony to U.S. museums.
5
ARTICLE III
The obligations of both Governments and the activities carried out under this
Memorandum of Understanding shall be subject to the laws and regulations of each
Government, as applicable, including the availability of funds.
ARTICLE IV
A. This Memorandum of Understanding shall enter into force upon signature. It
shall remain in force for a period of five years, unless extended.
B. This Memorandum of Understanding may be amended through an exchange of
diplomatic notes.
C. The effectiveness of this Memorandum of Understanding shall be subject to
review in order to determine, before the expiration of the five year period of this
Memorandum of Understanding, whether it should be extended.
6
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized by their
respective Governments, have signed the present Memorandum of Understanding.
DONE at Washington, this 19th day of January, 2001, in the English and Italian
languages, both texts being equally authentic.
FOR THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
THE REPUBLIC OF ITALY:

The Department of State refers the Embassy of the Republic of Italy to the
Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of
America and the Government of the Republic of Italy Concerning the Imposition
of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological Material Representing the
Pre-Classical, Classical and Imperial Roman Periods of Italy done at Washington
January 19, 2001 (hereinafter referred to as "the MOU").
The Department of State proposes that, pursuant to Article IV. A of the MOU,
the MOU be extended for an additional five-year period.
The Department of State further proposes that, pursuant to Article IV. B of the
MOU, the MOU be amended by replacing Article II with the enclosed revised Article II.
If the foregoing proposals are acceptable to the Embassy of the Republic of Italy,
the Department of State proposes that this note, including the enclosed revised Article II,
and the Government of the Republic of Italy's note in reply, shall constitute an agreement
to extend and amend the MOU which shall enter into force on January 19, 2006.
Enclosure: As stated.
Department of State,
Washington, January 13, 2006.
DIPLOMATIC NOTE
Article II
A. Representatives of the Government of the United States of America and
representatives of the Government of the Republic of Italy shall take appropriate steps to
publicize this Memorandum of Understanding.
B. Both Governments agree that in order for United States import restrictions to be
fully successful in deterring pillage, the Government of the Republic of Italy shall use its
best efforts to increase scientific research and protection of archaeological patrimony
and protective measures for archaeological excavations at known sites, particularly in
areas at greatest risk from looters. The Government of the United States of America
acknowledges the efforts of the Government of the Republic of Italy in recent years to
devote more public funds to guard archaeological sites and museums and to develop
Italian tax incentives for private support of legitimate excavation. The Government of
the Republic of Italy agrees to continue to pursue these efforts.
C. The Government of the Republic of Italy shall reinforce, with respect to the 1970
UNESCO Convention, the protection of its cultural patrimony. In particular, the
Government of the Republic of Italy shall continue its efforts to:
1. ensure the prompt prosecution of looters,
2. stop the illicit use of metal detectors in archaeological areas
3. enhance training for the Carabinieri Special Unit for the Protection of Artistic
Patrimony, and
4. create and pursue innovative and effective ways to detect and stop the looting of
archaeological sites.
D. Both Governments agree that, in order for United States import restrictions to be
most successful in thwarting pillage, the Government of the Republic of Italy shall
endeavor to strengthen cooperation among nations within the Mediterranean Region for
the protection of the cultural patrimony of the region, recognizing that political
boundaries and cultural boundaries do not coincide; and shall seek increased
cooperation from other art-importing nations to restrict illicit imports, in the effort to
deter further pillage.
E. The Government of the United States of America recognizes that the
Government of the Republic of Italy permits the interchange of archaeological materials
for cultural, exhibition, educational and scientific purposes to enable widespread public
appreciation of and legal access to Italy's rich cultural heritage. The Government of the
Republic of Italy agrees to use its best efforts to encourage further interchange through:
1. promoting agreements for long-term loans of objects of archaeological or artistic
interest, for as long as necessary, for research and education, agreed upon, on a case
by case basis, by American and Italian museums or similar institutions, to include:
scientific and technological analysis of materials and their conservation; comparison
for study purposes in the field of art history and other humanistic and academic
disciplines with material already held in American museums or institutions; or
educational presentations of special themes between various museums or academic
institutions;
2. encouraging American museums and universities jointly to propose and
participate in excavation projects authorized by the Ministry of Culture, with the
understanding that certain of the scientifically excavated objects from such projects
could be given as a loan to the American participants through specific agreements
with the Ministry of Culture; and
3. promoting agreements for academic exchanges and specific study programs
agreed upon by Italian and American institutions.
F. The Government of the United States of America acknowledges the efforts by the
Government of the Republic of Italy in recent years to revise and strengthen the laws
concerning the export of archaeological artifacts, and to improve the efficiency of the
system to release certificates of exportation. The Government of the Republic of Italy
shall continue to examine new ways to, facilitate the export of archaeological items
legitimately sold within Italy.
G. The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the
Republic of Italy shall use their best efforts to facilitate appropriate contacts among U.S.
and Italian museums and institutions for the development of increased and extended
loans of Italy's archaeological cultural patrimony to U.S. museums.
Embassy of Italy
3000 Whitehaven St., NW
Washington, D.C. 20008-3612
Prot. 183
NOTE VERBALE
The Embassy of Italy presents its compliments to the U.S. Department of State
and wishes to refer to the Department of State's note dated January 13, 2006, regarding
the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of
America and the Government of the Republic of Italy Concerning the Imposition of
Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological Material Representing the Pre-
Classical, Classical and Imperial Roman Periods of Italy, done at Washington January 19,
2001 (hereinafter referred to as "the MOU").
On behalf of the Government of the Republic of Italy, the Embassy of Italy
hereby states its acceptance of the extension of the MOU for an additional five-year
period, as well as the replacement of Article II of the MOU with a new Article II as
attached hereto.
Therefore, this Note and the Department of State's note of January 13, 2006,
extend and amend the MOU, which shall enter into force on January 19, 2006.
On behalf of the Government of the Republic of Italy, the Embassy of Italy avails
itself of this opportunity to renew to the US Department of State, the assurances of its
highest consideration.
Embassy of Italy,
Washington, January 13, 2006.