FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Request
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsDenying funds to terrorist organizations is a national security priority. Thwarting terrorist financing requires the development of robust anti-money laundering regimes that contain the legislative, enforcement, and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. INL will continue to promote and develop activities and programs that will strengthen global cooperation against financial crime and terrorist financing. We will work with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing (AML/CTF) standards. INL will continue to support the Financial Action Task Force and many of the FATF-style regional bodies, which set the international AML/CTF standards, as well as international and regional organizations with programs devoted to combating money laundering and terrorist financing, such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States. INL will encourage and assist with the formation of financial intelligence units (FIUs), and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place, and by encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs. INL plans to continue funding the Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program (PALP), a regional technical assistance and training program, and develop a similar program for West Africa, using intermittent rather than resident advisors. We will continue to work jointly with partner countries that have complementary objectives, such as the anti-corruption and border security programs.
Indicators of our work include the following:
1) increased numbers of successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important terrorist financing and money laundering cases;
2) an increase in the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including the FATF Forty Recommendations and Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing, determined by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies;
3) an increase in the number of countries that have criminalized terrorist financing, and an increase in the number of effective FIUs;
4) increase the number of intermittent term mentors provided to the regional PALP initiated in FY 2005, and identify intermittent mentors for the West Africa Anti-Money Laundering Program.
Program JustificationFinancial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug and arms trafficking, corruption, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes, that until very recently has frequently eluded law enforcement. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds 3 to 5 percent of Global Domestic Product, or $2.17 -$3.61 trillion per year, and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes, such as the use of the internet and “e-money” only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists appear to rely less on the formal financial sector than on alternative remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers. The Internet and “e-money” also poses significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.
Program AccomplishmentsIn the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. Between FY 2002 and FY 2007, INL provided approximately $19 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial and judicial personnel, and financial intelligence unit personnel from 120 governments. INL-funded training and technical assistance played a key role in FATF’s removing 21 of the 23 jurisdictions on its Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories list. We draw upon a multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors to deliver the training and technical assistance to most of these countries. INL’s contributions to Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD), the Pacific Islands Forum, and the UN Global Programme Against Money Laundering also played a significant role in providing assistance to many of these countries. INL also provided $2 million to support the President’s East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs): the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), the Council of Europe (MONEYVAL), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), the South American Financial Action Task Force (GAFISUD), to support anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing efforts. The members of these FSRBs have made a commitment to meet international AML/CTF standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions support the ongoing operations of these bodies and fund special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.
INL and the Department of State’s Office of the Coordinator of Counterterrorism (S/CT) co-chair the interagency Terrorist Finance Working Group (TFWG), which has cooperatively developed a process to identify and assist the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. INL is a central contributor to assessing the counter-terrorist financing needs of these countries, developing implementation plans for them, and funding counter-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so countries can combat this threat. INL also participates in some of the training programs.
FY 2005 INL funding enabled DHS/ICE to establish Trade Transparency Units in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In 2006, as a result of this initiative, DHS/ICE agents teamed with Brazilian authorities to target a scheme involving the under valuation of U.S. exports to Brazil to evade more than $200 million in Brazilian customs duties over the past five years. The scheme involved tax evasion, document fraud, public corruption and other illegal activities in Brazil and the United States. In an excellent example of the long-reach of law enforcement, more than 128 arrest warrants and numerous search warrants were simultaneously served in 238 locations in Brazil. In 2007, Argentina’s TTU was also able to initiate cases based on trade-related data. Additionally, in 2007, INL funding enabled DHS/ICE to establish a nascent TTU in Mexico.
FY 2009 Program
In 2009, INL will fund the fourth year of the Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program. This program, modeled on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP), is an economical way to provide comprehensive training and technical assistance to fourteen countries in a region that share similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. The program has installed resident advisors and support staff to work in key areas needed to bring the anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing regimes in the region up to international standards by assisting in drafting laws and regulations, and by training regulators and law enforcement officials, including prosecutors and judges. INL will also initiate a regional program in West Africa in 2009.
INL is committed to assisting countries that want to establish new financial intelligence units (FIUs), particularly countries that have the requisite legal framework but lack the funds to purchase the necessary but expensive software and hardware. In FY 2009, INL will, through UNODC, continue to fund the innovative “GoAML” project- expandable software that can be used by FIUs of any size and eliminates the need for new FIUs to purchase several different software programs to accomplish their mission of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. ”GoAML” will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a reasonable. INL’s goal in FY 2009 is to establish at least two financial intelligence units that will meet the qualifications for membership in the Egmont Group within two years of being established.
INL will also provide funding for the placement of intermittent and long-term mentors in countries to assist in the development of legislative frameworks, regulatory schemes, and FIUs. INL will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Justice, Treasury, FinCEN, DHS/ICE, Internal Revenue Service, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and the OCC. INL will continue to provide funding to the UNODC’s Global Programme against Money Laundering and OAS/CICAD -- organizations that are able to attract experts from a global pool of applicants. INL will also continue to jointly fund mentors with World Bank. It is expected that training will focus on lesser developed countries considered to be most vulnerable to money laundering and terrorist financing. Efforts will also be directed at other strategic jurisdictions that need resources and assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.
INL will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing organizations. In addition to supporting multilateral organizations such as OAS/CICAD, and the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering as well as the FATF and the FATF-style regional bodies, such as the APG, MONEYVAL, CFATF, GAFISUD, and ESAAMLG, Resources permitting, INL also would support the Intergovernmental Action Group Against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA) and the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (EAG). INL wants to ensure that the FSRBs incorporate counter-terrorist financing training into their anti-money laundering criteria, conduct a steady stream of accurate and factual mutual evaluations of their members, and train assessors to conduct these evaluations.
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
INL advances these objectives through a four-pillar approach. These four pillars, articulated in various Department reports to Congress over the past few years pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act (IAGGA), include the following:
Governments Increasingly United under Common Anticorruption Commitments
The USG opens the door to enhanced cooperation through the promotion of shared global anticorruption goals and standards. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of U.S. government and other aid programs that assist these efforts.
Increase number of States Parties of the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC).
Promote the design and acceptance of a mechanism for review of implementation for the UNCAC.
Increase number of countries participating in a pilot review mechanism for the UNCAC and in other efforts to help governments implement the Convention’s commitments.
Increase and strengthen regional frameworks for collaboration in setting and meeting anticorruption standards.
The fight against corruption begins at the national and local levels. Where pockets of political and/or popular will exist, the USG can assist governments in taking effective action against corruption. This includes, inter alia, helping governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures within the public administration. The U.S. is also beginning through the USAID Anticorruption Strategy, the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), and other multilateral initiatives to reward those countries that are committed to effectively rooting out corruption.
Increase the number of countries that publicly adhere to and enforce the “No Safe Haven” policy and make efforts to combat kleptocracy.
Enhance implementation of the Convention and other multilateral commitments through technical assistance and cooperating country actions resulting from mutual evaluations.
Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector ActionPopular will is the best expediter of political will against corruption. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries by encouraging civil society, the media, and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption, increase transparency in governments, and increase integrity in the private sector.
Civil society/media access to results of multilateral anticorruption reviews, eg, CoE GRECO; UNCAC; OAS.
USG participation in civil society/private sector fora related to corruption.
Increased focus on the private sector to include targeting the “supply side” of corruption and by fostering public-private partnerships.
The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our examples, particularly regarding efforts to deny safe haven in the U.S. to corrupt officials, prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption.
Implementation and balanced use of the new presidential proclamation to deny entry into the United States by corrupt officials, those who corrupt them, and their dependents.
Participating as an evaluated party in four (OAS, OECD, COE, and UNCAC pilot review) multilateral anticorruption monitoring mechanisms.
Increased use of public diplomacy tools to share the U.S. story, to share good practices in combating corruption domestically, and sanctioning kleptocracy internationally
Fighting corruption helps to strengthen the goals of Transformational Diplomacy as good governance, transparency and accountability measures are a critical component of government’s efforts to govern justly and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system. FY 2009 funds will promote efforts that promote international cooperation to prosecute high-level corruption, deny safe haven to corrupt officials, and, through the UN Convention Against Corruption, enhance commitment to recover and return assets that can be used to promote development and accountability.
The Administration has made the international fight against corruption one of its top foreign policy priorities. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests continually hamper global economic activity of American firms, interfere with the objectives of USG foreign assistance development and democracy/rule of law goals and programs, facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations, and threaten stability and democracy. Corruption facilitates a wide range of transborder crime such as trafficking in persons and narcotics. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and the illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons; obtain sensitive information from government sources; and move money and themselves across borders to find safe havens.
Program AccomplishmentsOver the past several years, INL has helped negotiate and develop several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC), the Council of Europe conventions, the Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for South Eastern Europe, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Initiative to Fight Corruption and Ensure Transparency, and, most recently, the OECD/UNDP Middle East and North Africa (MENA) “Good Governance for Development for Arab States” Initiative. INL continues to make it a top priority to encourage other governments to accede to and ratify the UNCAC. In just over two years since its entry into force in December, 2005, the UNCAC now has 107 States Parties (a number that constitutes over 75% of the signatory states). The United States became a party to the UNCAC in November 2006. INL will continue to promote the National Strategy to Internationalize Efforts Against Kleptocracy and international cooperation related to the UNCAC including recovery of stolen assets.
As a result of INL leadership, the Conference of States Parties of the UNCAC agreed to design a mechanism to review implementation of the Convention, with recommendations to be considered for 2009. INL has provided or led USG experts and assistance to help over 60 countries implement anticorruption commitments through mechanisms within the Organization of American States (OAS), Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for South East Europe, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation’s (APEC) Anticorruption Initiative, OECD Eurasia Anticorruption Network for Economies in Transition, and OECD/UNDP “Good Governance for Development for Arab States” Initiative. INL has also targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses and continues to provide U.S. law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance to help countries build capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases.
INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Department of the Treasury, Department of Commerce, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral mechanisms to observe U.S. anticorruption institutions and activities, and has helped effectively showcase our efforts as a model for other countries. INL works closely with USDOJ Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section to foster the return of stolen assets, reinforcing the framework of the UNCAC asset recovery chapter. INL also leads efforts to advance the “No Safe Haven” policy through implementation of a Presidential Proclamation to deny entry to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their dependents, signed in early 2004. The G-8 member countries, in the 2003 Evian Declaration and reinforced in the 2004 Sea Island Declarations, committed to the “No Safe Haven” policy. World leaders at the Special Summit of the Americas and APEC made a similar commitment in January and November 2004, respectively. With INL’s leadership, the U.S. worked with other G8 countries to make high-level corruption a top priority at the 2007 G8 Leaders’ St. Petersburg Summit.
FY 2009 Program
FY 2009 funds will be used to sustain the Middle East Governance for Development (GfD) Network, an Arab-led effort which was launched in the Dead Sea, Jordan in February 2005, with the G-8, UNDP, OECD and World Bank, to create an intergovernmental anticorruption forum. The forum will work towards developing capacity, tools, and systems – such as national action plans, stronger laws, codes of conduct, and better trained investigators, prosecutors, and judges – to detect, prosecute and enforce corruption cases. The Network will also promote implementation of the UNCAC in the MENA region. As part of the GfD Initiative, President Bush pledged to help Arab nations that embrace clear standards of economic, political, and social reform.
FY 2009 funds will also be used to help APEC developing economies implement their commitments related to the APEC Leaders’ Santiago Commitment and Anticorruption Course of Action. The "Santiago Commitment and APEC Course of Action" requires member countries to: deny safe haven to officials and individuals guilty of public corruption, those who corrupt them, and their assets; implement anticorruption policies and practices consistent with the UN Convention Against Corruption; implement the APEC Transparency Standards, with particular emphasis on government procurement and customs procedures; encourage collaboration to fight corruption and ensure transparency, including through cooperation with other multilateral and regional intergovernmental institutions; and develop innovative training and technical assistance programs to fight corruption and ensure transparency. Funding will be provided to maintain a regional anticorruption advisor program and targeted workshops.
With FY 2009 funds, INL will also continue to support implementation of the President’s Strategy to Internationalize Efforts against Kleptocracy, through projects to help countries bring focused attention to high-level, large-scale corruption by public officials, increase public-private partnerships, and facilitate targeting of the proceeds of grand corruption through international cooperation in law enforcement and asset recovery.
FY 2009 funds will additionally be used to pay contributions/dues to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms – the Council of Europe’s Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) and the Follow-up Mechanism of the Inter-American Convention against Corruption – that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in over 70 countries. The U.S. will promote that the results of the reviews are publicized and that civil society views are taken into consideration.
FY 2009 funds will also help sustain new initiatives launched 2008. INL is developing a pilot project for select African countries to build investigative and prosecutorial capabilities for pursuing corruption cases, laying the predicate for seeking recovery of stolen assets, and broaden regional cooperation. Also, INL plans to strengthen initiatives in Eurasia, starting with Central Asia in FY 2008, to foster good governance, encourage regional cooperation, and promote strong preventive and criminal justice regimes against corruption.
Cyber Crime and Intellectual Property Rights
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
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Program Objectives and Performance Indicators
INL training and technical assistance programs facilitate USG assistance to and cooperation with key foreign nations on matters involving cybercrime and intellectual property rights (IP) crime. INL’s training and technical assistance programs assist foreign nations to draft effective laws and build strong enforcement capacity. INL also continues to participate in a range of USG diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening international standards and cooperation in combating transnational high tech and IP crime.
In the area of cybercrime, INL continues to build the capacity of foreign law enforcement partners through training and technical assistance programs targeted at identifying, investigating, prosecuting, and preventing crimes committed through the criminal misuse of information technology (IT). Improved cooperation between the USG and foreign law enforcement officials and increased successful domestic and foreign prosecutions of criminals misusing IT demonstrate the program’s success. In the area of IP enforcement, INL training and technical assistance programs combat IP violations by building capacity among foreign border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges to detect, investigate, prosecute and prevent these crimes.
Program JustificationIntellectual Property (IP) Crime
IP crime presents a growing threat to the most innovative sectors of the U.S. economy. Losses to the U.S. copyright, patent, and trademark industries in areas such as hard goods, optical media, and pharmaceuticals have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups in IP crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IP criminals. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IP, the explosion in IP crime and the growing sophistication of IP criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. The rise of the IP organized crime threat prompted the President to order the development of the new Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP) initiative. Under the overall policy guidance of STOP, as co-chair with EB of the inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where IP violations are most severe. INL’s assistance includes seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, training police officers, investigators, prosecutors, and judges to combat IP crime, and providing direct technical assistance, such as forensic equipment to allow foreign law enforcement to successfully identify counterfeit items. Since much of the growth of violations of IP rights is fueled by the criminal misuse of IT (e.g., online piracy) there is a significant overlap with INL’s mission to fight cybercrime. More recently, INL and EB have begun to coordinate their training activities with the G8 and EU, whose Member States have indicated an interest in closer coordination with the USG.
The criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cybercrimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, through which IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks, in which information networks are themselves targeted. As one of the first nations to sign and ratify (in September 2006) the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime - the first multilateral treaty dedicated to cybercrime - the USG is one of the international leaders in promoting mutual cooperation, effective laws, and strong enforcement institutions. INL provides training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement personnel to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cybercrime in many developing nations, INL’s assistance includes enabling USG subject matter experts to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing USG policy positions on cybercrime in organizations such as the G-8, the Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the United Nations, where INL is working alongside DOJ on issues related to Identity Theft. INL has also provided assistance to help stand up a new G8-Interpol Child Sexual Exploitation Database, which will help international law enforcement investigate and prosecute those who use information technology to prey on children.
Program AccomplishmentsAs the State Department’s designated coordinator for federal law enforcement overseas assistance, INL is the funding source for almost all USG “cop-to-cop” law enforcement training and maintains the State Department lead on law enforcement with respect to IP rights. With respect to intellectual property rights, INL funds training and technical assistance programs to investigators, law enforcement personnel, prosecutors, judges, and other foreign officials and policy makers who investigate, prosecute, punish, and prevent violations of intellectual property rights.
INL works closely with State’s Economic and Business Affairs Bureau (EB) to select the training and technical assistance programs through the consideration of criteria and metrics designed to identify gaps in countries/regions where inadequate laws or weak enforcement fail to protect intellectual property rights. More particularly, INL determines the needs necessary to reduce intellectual property violations and identifies a strategy to fill in the gaps through training and technical assistance programs. In making funding decisions, INL considers input from STOP, the TCG, USTR’s Special 301 Report, U.S. industry, U.S. missions and Congress to ensure the assistance is targeted to fit long-range planning goals.
Similarly, in the field of cybercrime, INL was able to support stepped-up activities by the Department of Justice in advising key nations in the APEC and OAS regions in designing effective laws, in training foreign police and prosecutors in cyber investigations. INL has also continued to help advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, and with multilateral organizations like the OAS, the Council of Europe, APEC, the G-8, and the United Nations. INL also stepped up to provide USG support for creation of a new G8-Interpol International Child Sexual Exploitation Database.
FY 2009 ProgramAs co-chair of the State Department Training Coordination Group (TCG), along with our partner the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau (EB), INL will continue to fight IP crime through funding for foreign law enforcement training and technical assistance. INL will be consulting closely with the USG interagency community, U.S. Missions and industry groups to ensure that INL’s assistance does not duplicate or overshadow industry efforts. In particular, we note that the industry groups have urged INL to provide additional law enforcement training to fill critical gaps in their own efforts to assist foreign countries in fighting IP crime. As such, INL will seek not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IP assistance plans. The countries INL is particularly likely to work with to build institutions to address IPR challenges include the Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia and India, as well as programs in cooperation with regional bodies like APEC and ASEAN. IP should continue to have a high profile among multilateral organizations such as the G8, which is in the process of implementing a new initiative on IP enforcement, and in discussions between the U.S. and EU Justice and Home Affairs Ministers
On cybercrime, INL will assist by providing training to fight either cybercrime itself or substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. In particular, INL expects demands for assistance from developing nations to increase in response to the success of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime as a global model. The USG is now in a stronger position to urge nations to accede to the COE Convention now that we ourselves have ratified the instrument. INL will also work to meet the demand from APEC and OAS member states as they advance their regional strategy to fight criminal misuse of information technology. INL expects to work closely with DOJ in assessing existing cybercrime training offerings for their effectiveness, and with State Department Diplomatic Security (DS/ATA) in determining how our crime fighting and anti-terrorist cyber training can complement each other. Finally, INL expects to continue our close coordination with DOJ on the UN Crime Commission as it considers further actions in the area of identity theft.
INL believes that its efforts, as outlined above, are making a significant contribution to the United States' fight against cybercrime and IP violations. In each of the areas cited, INL is maintaining its efforts in recognition of the growing importance of these issues to U.S. interests.
Border Security and Alien Smuggling
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
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FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsINL will continue to assist selected countries to strengthen their border control regimes and make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will also work with our international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible.
INL border security programs help priority countries improve their port and airport security practices, through education initiatives, training, and technical assistance. The strengthening of security at ports and airports will help to prevent criminal and terrorist acts that could have an adverse impact on trade and transportation with the United States. INL has set goals for border security to include: conducting training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials; installing entry/exit systems at selected airports and seaports; assisting in the development of passport issuance systems with biometric capabilities; purchasing computers and software for immigration authorities at the international airports; providing funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for capacity building programs; and providing funding to the Organization of American States (OAS) counter-terrorism subcommittee to improve port security practices through a program of technical assistance. INL helps improve integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders. Border security improvements will enhance law enforcement cooperation, reduce corruption, increase revenue collections, and strengthen rule of law in developing countries.
Performance measures will include better law enforcement controls and intelligence; increased identification and apprehension of criminals; and less illegal movement of aliens destined for the United States. INL’s attention to alien smuggling will focus on helping coordinate the activities of the interagency anti-smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings which operate both domestically and overseas.Transformational Diplomacy
INL’s programs on border security and to counter alien smuggling directly facilitate the Transformational Diplomacy goal of strengthening peace and security through building capacity to address transnational crime. Strong border controls help deter transnational crime such as migrant smuggling, and make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists to operate on a transnational scope.
Program JustificationPorous borders are a threat to developing countries, as well as to the United States. Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.
As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other criminals. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that help dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement at the border is also a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.
The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal networks, especially those that can be used by extremist groups, has become a high priority for U.S. authorities. An important aspect of the U.S. government’s approach to deterring and preventing the flow of illegal aliens into the United States involves disrupting alien smuggling organizations as far from our shores as possible. This means that the fight against alien smuggling must begin in foreign lands where our influence and law enforcement authorities are more limited. Weak foreign law enforcement institutions, corrupt public officials, and inadequately trained police make it imperative that guidance and technical assistance be provided to illegal alien source and transit countries. Without adequate technical assistance many of these countries will continue to contribute to the stream of illegal aliens entering the United States. This stream, if uncontrolled, will allow foreign nationals with terrorist links to slip into the United States undetected.
Program AccomplishmentsOur goal is to strategically utilize funding to ensure the most impact in this critical area. INL’s critical border security program accomplishments include:
St. Kitts and Nevis: Customs classroom and practical training provided to customs officials on both islands.
Antigua, Grenada and Barbuda: Port security assessment and training for the above Customs Service and Port authorities.
Belize: Port security assessment and training
Airport security training in Guyana, Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Panama.
Ecuador: Funded an International Civil Aviation Security Training (ICAO) Program
Funding provided to the OAS counter terrorism subcommittee to improve security practices in the Caribbean tourism and recreation industries, in preparation for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. The training was conducted in Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia.
Funding provided to the Department of Justice for the purchase of additional APHIS fingerprinting equipment for the Government of El Salvador (GOES). The FBI and the Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are actively working with the GOES on the White House gang initiative dealing with the MS-13. The utilization of the equipment will help US and GOES law enforcement better identify gang members and share vital identifying data and intelligence.
The INL funded OAS Fraudulent Document Training, conducted by ICE Fraudulent Document Lab (FDL) in Argentina was met with extremely positive results.
FY 2009 ProgramINL will continue to support the OAS counterterrorism committee in its efforts to improve law enforcement training and border controls in the Western Hemisphere. This will be done through a series of initiatives including airport and seaport security training, law enforcement workshops, border and port security vulnerability assessments, and document security programs. Strengthening entry-exit controls at selected foreign airports, land border points, and seaports will also be a priority. Programs designed to improve document security will also receive attention. These programs may focus on identity documents and passport issuance systems. The ICE/ FDL will be working in conjunction with OAS on Fraudulent Document training in Brazil in FY 2008. In addition, ICE/FDL training has tentatively been scheduled for Honduras, Southern Mexico border and El Salvador.
OAS is currently planning a Port Assessment of the Jamaican Government Ports. The Jamaican Government has been cooperating with US law enforcement and is making major strides in working with the USG on Port Security as well as Narcotics, Human Trafficking and Human smuggling investigations.
Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems and customs controls. Funds will also support conferences and organizations working to improve and enhance border security in the Pacific Rim. INL will also continue to build a regional network in the Pacific Rim to discuss issues related to Human Trafficking, Human Smuggling, Counterfeit Travel Documents, Money Laundering, Narcotics and Corruption. The network will deal with capacity building and synergizing a multi-government law enforcement working environment.
INL plans to fund additional ICE/FDL training in the Western Hemisphere to support USG priorities and interests.
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Border Security/Alien Smuggling||1,250||-||992||1,500|
|Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights||3,750||-||3,472||4,000|
|Financial Crimes and Money Laundering ||4,000||-||3,472||4,000|
|Total||13,500 ||-||11,903 ||14,000 |
Civilian Police (CIVPOL) and Justice Program
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FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe overall program objectives are to sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police, justice sector and corrections components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations involving U.S. and international coalitions; and to assist in strengthening the capabilities of the USG, United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), African Union (AU), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and other international regional organizations to address police, justice, and prison development issues in countries emerging from conflict.
The FY 2009 program will sustain INL’s capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police, trainers and advisors overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also support training and equipping of Formed Police Units who provide crowd/riot control and other capabilities which fill the existing security gap between Civilian Police and the military.
Activities will include:
Maintain a capacity to deploy U.S. police and other law enforcement specialists; justice and corrections experts.
Facilitate high quality, standardized civilian police, justice sector and corrections pre-deployment selection and training.
Improve INL management and oversight capabilities by further developing in-house law enforcement and other criminal justice expertise and options to address peacekeeping and complex security operations.
These funds support the objective of peace and security, program area of stabilization operations and security sector reform, law enforcement reform, restructuring and operations. The funds ensure that there are qualified and available individuals to serve in peacekeeping and complex security missions anytime there is a need; and standardized, comprehensive pre-deployment training to prepare those individuals for the challenging tasks and environments to which they will be assigned. It also supports senior-level in-house expertise in law enforcement, corrections and criminal justice systems to assist with program development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. These efforts raise the quality and effectiveness of all INL programs as this in-house expertise will be available bureau-wide.
U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2009 and beyond. INL will sustain a capacity to deploy and support experienced U.S. police, justice and corrections personnel assigned to countries and areas of operation as determined by policy makers, and to support foreign Formed Police Units. The world-wide support contracts awarded in 2004 provide a mechanism to conduct rapid competition and deployment of experienced law enforcement and corrections officers and criminal justice experts to support U.S. foreign policy interests in post-conflict regions around the world.
Deployment of U.S. police, other law enforcement and criminal justice advisors can range from short-term assessments, training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks, to long-term secondments of a year or more, to operational missions in dangerous and volatile environments that may include authority to carry weapons and perform the full range of law enforcement functions. To prepare for such operations, U.S. law enforcement personnel are given a standard course of training applicable to all missions with special equipment and materials, briefings, training and medical precautions needed to accommodate a particular operating environment provided immediately prior to actual deployment.
The FY 2009 program sustains logistical capabilities to ensure a rapid and timely U.S. response and requests from the UN or other international organizations to contribute American police and/or other criminal justice advisors to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. It would help create and sustain greater international capabilities in the area of Formed Police Units, which help fill a security gap between the police and the military in post-conflict environments. Support would take the form of training and provision of non-lethal equipment, as well as certain deployment costs.
FY 2009 funds will also sustain ongoing outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement and criminal justice agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging more interest and participation in international police and criminal justice missions. In-house senior-level expertise will increase our ability to train U.S. participants in complex security operations and international peacekeeping missions, and assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate such participation.
Program AccomplishmentsINL manages three contractors to support program implementation and funds, police training advisors, and senior corrections and police advisors.
CIVPOL have become a vital tool of U.S. foreign policy. Today, more than 1,600 U.S. police are deployed along with their international counterparts, from a start of only 50 American police officers participating (in the Haiti CIVPOL mission) in 1994. During this period, more than 7,000 experienced U.S. law enforcement officers and experts have participated in CIVPOL missions in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1996-2002); the Eastern Slavonia region of Croatia (1996-2003); Jericho (2002); the Palestinian Authority (2003); Sierra Leone (2003-2004); East Timor (1999-2007); OSCE Headquarters in Vienna (2002-2004); Haiti (1996-2000; 2004-present); Kosovo (1999-present); Serbia & Montenegro (2001-present); Macedonia (2002-2004); Afghanistan (2002-present); Iraq (2003-present); Sudan (2005-present); and Liberia (2003-present).
INL provides 690 International Police Liaison Officers (IPLOs) and 191 police trainers to support the Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq (MNSTC-I) and international efforts to re-establish, re-organize and train Iraqi police. INL also supports approximately 80 prison advisors and 13 justice advisors in Baghdad and on the Provincial Reconstruction Teams to assist with reform and reconstruction efforts and help implement specific criminal justice and anti-corruption projects. INL also is expanding jail/prison capacity through construction projects with the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers.
In Afghanistan, INL supports maintenance and operation costs for seven INL Regional Training Centers (RTCs) in Kandahar, Konduz, Nangarhar, Paktya, Bamiyan, Herat and Balkh; a Central Training Center in Kabul for police; and a Forward Operating Base in Islam Qala. Support includes salary and all logistical support for more than 500 police training advisors and mentors deployed throughout Afghanistan and at the Ministry of Interior. The Bureau provides continued support for community policing initiatives, law enforcement, revenue-generation initiatives and the establishment of specialized police units such as the Family Response Unit and the Afghan National Civil Order Police.
Mentors are deployed to more than 24 provinces and engage with local Afghan police officials to develop skills and capacity to extend the rule of law throughout Afghanistan. Training advisors work with Afghan police instructors to provide basic, advanced and specialized training at the RTCs. The basic eight-week course addresses core skills and knowledge required for general policing functions. Advanced and specialized training courses including firearms, crowd control, literacy, computer skills, anti-corruption, and domestic violence are also implemented at the Regional Training Centers.
This dramatic climb in U.S. participation in CIVPOL missions reflects the U.S. Government's recognition of the importance of criminal justice development to restoring stability in post-conflict situations. While international military forces often are necessary to restore a secure environment following a major conflict, they generally are not, in themselves, sufficient for the long-term reestablishment of civil order where local institutions have broken down. CIVPOL not only assist international military forces in the short term by addressing and resolving civilian law enforcement issues, but also help develop the local democratic policing institutions that ultimately will be responsible for integrating with the host country's criminal justice system (prosecutor, courts and correctional services) and providing law and order functions once the military and CIVPOL depart.FY 2009 Program
The FY 2009 budget sustains INL’s capacity to identify, train, equip, pre-position, deploy and support law enforcement and other criminal justice personnel who participate in an overseas mission. Three companies provide the capabilities to support INL worldwide police, justice, and corrections programs as a result of full and open competition. The FY 2009 program will sustain standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, code of conduct, ethics standards, and systems needed to effectively manage this complex program. Through these efforts, U.S. police will receive basic and advanced pre-deployment instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. The FY 2009 program funds sustain an INL training coordinator, and senior police and corrections advisors. The FY 2009 program maintains personnel and resources dedicated to supporting INL capabilities to address peacekeeping and complex security matters and provide management and oversight of police, justice and prison programs.
Two new initiatives account for the increase from previous years to the funding request. The first initiative actively helps to meet the need for the increased demands for Formed Police Units (FPU) in peacekeeping missions. This need already exists, as UN peacekeeping planners for missions such as Darfur envision as many as 19 of those units per mission. INL funds will be used primarily to train and equip a 120-person foreign FPU. Working with a cooperating host nation, we would create a unit that is able to immediately deploy in service to U.S. or UN-led operations. The Deputies Committee tasked the State Department last year to lead reconstruction/stabilization efforts and specifically requested that the U.S. explore ways to create a stability policing capability, a crucial element of maintaining order during the post-military phase of operations when neither a military response, nor unarmed civilian police, are appropriate.
The second initiative would be to create an independent, consolidated training process for American Civilian Police participants in U.S. or UN-led stability operations. While we already pay for training, consolidation would give us direct oversight and control and make the training more U.S. Government mission-focused, versus the multiple contractor overlay that currently exists. Managing a training program that is on one contract, in one place and that is standardized to the extent possible allowing for mission differences is also administratively easier, and permits greater oversight. The consolidated training process would be supported by a core staff of police and criminal justice experts. These experts also would be trained, equipped and available to deploy in a surge capacity basis, to support planning and assessments for new and existing INL civilian policing/stabilization and reconstruction missions.
|Civilian Police Program|
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Civilian Police Program||2,000||-||1,984|
|Oversight and Outreach||-||-||-||1,200|
|Foreign Stability Police Unit||-||-||-||3,000|
Criminal Youth Gangs
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Enhance the capacity of governments in the Central American Region to combat youth gang crime and prevent youth from being drawn into gangs by integrating law enforcement and prevention.
Program activities extended to Belize, Panama, and Nicaragua.
Reduced gang-related crime in areas served by the program.
Stable or declining rates of gang membership in areas served by the program.
Increased regional collaboration and information sharing on gang prevention and law enforcement.
This program addresses Peace and Security-Transnational Crime, with program element “Organized and Gang-Related Crime.” The countries included represent three stages in the framework. Panama and Belize are Sustaining Partners, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua are Transforming (low to middle income, meeting the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) performance criteria) and Guatemala is developing (low to middle income, not meeting MCC criteria). A regional approach to gang crime is needed because it not confined by country borders, and because the justice sector and communities can benefit from common procedures and shared knowledge. This problem is also closely tied to “Investing in People” program elements, as improved education and employment are related to gang prevention.
Criminal gangs, such as the notorious 18th Street and Mara Salvatrucha/MS-13, pose significant public safety and security threats to the countries in which they operate, including the United States. The threat is most severe in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, but gang violence is a threat in other countries of Central America as well, including Belize, Panama and Nicaragua. These gangs engage in organized criminal activities (such as extortion, drug trafficking, robbery and kidnapping) and resort to extreme acts of violence to both protect their business and as retribution. They move easily between countries of the region and the United States.
This program was designed based on field experience and international studies of gangs. It provides a multi-disciplinary approach to identify and detain criminals, prevent vulnerable youth from becoming members, and prevent prisons from becoming gang strongholds. The FY 2009 program complements funding requested for anti-youth gang activities under the proposed Merida Initiative, the Villa Nueva Model Precinct in Guatemala, and training provided by the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in El Salvador.
The program was initiated in late 2007. Computer equipment, software and surveillance vehicles were provided to the Salvadoran Anti-gang unit (TAG) and a Regional Gangs Advisor was hired and posted to El Salvador to serve the three country region (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras). A prisons management training program began in El Salvador in 2007 and will be extended to Honduras and Guatemala in 2008.
FY 2009 Program
In FY 2009 the program will focus on institutionalizing the pilot programs in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, continuing regional collaboration, and expanding programs to Belize, Panama and Nicaragua. These programs will focus on prevention of gang crime by providing better knowledge of gang members and operations, structured patrolling to deter crime in at-risk areas, and alternative activities such as stay-in-school, employment and activities for youth. Bilateral programs will provide additional technical assistance in areas that are specific to the individual countries’ crime patterns and abilities of the police, and will provide some equipment for each country’s forces, such as communications and protective gear.
Members of anti-gang police units will be brought together for regional training, including refresher training and advanced techniques.
Coordinated Country Programs
FY 2009 funding will continue support to coordinated in-country programs in six countries. This includes the landmark Villa Nueva Model piloted in Guatemala which involves work with anti-gang police units, improved preventative policing, and work with community organizations targeting at risk populations. The program will share lessons learned and best practices among the countries.
Maintenance contracts and, if needed additional remote units, will be purchased for the fingerprint database systems in Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador to continue tracking gang criminals.
Monitoring and support will be provided to the prevention activities established in FY 2008 such as youth activities, school retention, employment and public education.
Personnel, travel and support costs are covered by program funds as a regional program for the Regional Gangs Advisor and an assistant in El Salvador and one locally contracted assistant each in Honduras and Guatemala.
FY 2009 funds will support International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala for program personnel.
|Criminal Youth Gangs|
|FY 2007||FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Organized/Gang Related Crime|
|Sub Total ||-||7,635||4,700|
Demand Reduction/Drug AwarenessBudget Summary
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Actual
FY 2009 Request
Select foreign countries will be able to apply “best practices” and evidence-based drug prevention and treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at the national, community, and regional levels.
Bilateral/regional training and technical assistance delivered and effectively utilized by public/private sector demand reduction organizations in Central/South America, Africa and Southeast Asia, resulting in new or enhanced programs that significantly reduce drug use, related crime and violence, and delay onset of first use in target populations.Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America’s image overseas.
Drug-free community coalitions among public/private sector organizations in Latin America and Africa and outreach/aftercare centers in Southwest/Southeast Asia that reduce drug use and delayed onset of first use.Transformational Diplomacy
The International Demand Reduction Program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health and welfare of all countries, in addition to undermining economic development, social and political stability, and security in emerging democracies and developing countries that are strategic U.S. allies. As such, drug abuse hinders successful transformation from rebuilding or developing countries to transforming or sustained partnership countries. In reducing the demand for illicit drugs, these funds enable recipient countries to create a secure and stable environment for development to flourish. These funds also empower marginalized and vulnerable populations such as women, children, minorities, and victims of violence to take part in the development of their communities.
The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, stability, security, and economy of all countries. At the same time, the role of demand reduction in addressing global drug consumption has become more readily apparent as a relatively small percentage of chronic drug users consume the majority of drugs in many foreign countries. The President’s National Drug Control Strategy highlights this fact and the benefits of drug treatment by noting that getting drug users into treatment not only reduces drug consumption, but also helps to undermine local drug markets and reduce the profitability of drug dealing. The Strategy further notes that changing the behavior of chronic drug users can have enormously beneficial consequences for society, not the least of which is to deprive illegal drug traffickers of their largest source of revenue – the addicted, frequent, high-volume drug user. Removing chronic users’ demand for drugs has the potential to cripple drug profits. As such, healing drug users through effective treatment programs can lead to long-term reductions in drug profits which can shrink local drug markets to levels that can be more easily managed by local authorities.
Finally, foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. As part of their cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in that country and thereby cutting-off a potential source of terrorist financing.
Independent, science-based evaluations on the long-range impact of INL-funded training for drug treatment programs revealed that overall hard-core drug use in the target population in Peru was reduced from 90% to 34% in the target treatment population, while overall drug use in Thailand was reduced from 90% to 8% in the target population. Coca paste and cocaine use in Peru was reduced from 62% to 22% and 30% to 8%, respectively. Methamphetamine abuse in Thailand was reduced from 82% to 7% in the target treatment population and arrests for other crimes were reduced from 40% to 6%. A similar evaluation of drug prevention training in Colombia revealed drug use declined from 54% to 10% in eight target cities. “Best Practice” studies of INL-funded drug treatment initiatives in Southeast Asia reported success rates (percent of clients remaining drug-free after treatment) of over 70 % compared to 15 % in other developing countries.
FY 2009 Program
INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, the gang problem in Central America, the shortage of treatment facilities for pregnant and addicted women, and address the heroin threat from Southwest Asia and Afghanistan. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.
The FY 2009 program is divided into three general categories. A training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, imposes a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration program initiative that began in 2000 has a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect “best practices” that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome). The coalition and network building program has a three-year time limit per region.
Training and Technical Assistance
Regional Training: INL funding will provide support for sub-regional demand reduction training that disseminates the latest science-based information and “best practices” on effective methods to prevent and reduce drug use and related violence. Training will specifically target methamphetamine abuse and intravenous drug use that leads to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS, methamphetamine abuse, and unique addiction problems affecting women. Target sub-regions include Africa, Latin America, and Southeast/Southwest Asia. Success will be measured by reductions in overall drug use, including high-risk behavior (e.g., intravenous drug use) that contributes to HIV/AIDS. These centers (co-funded by other international organizations and donor countries) are an economical way to provide comprehensive assistance to several countries in a region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.
Research and Demonstration Programs
Women’s Drug Treatment Initiative: This initiative supports research-based prevention and treatment programs in key drug producing/using countries and disseminates the most promising results within the U.S. and overseas to improve demand reduction service delivery worldwide. INL will continue support for model residential drug treatment programs for high-risk female youth in Brazil and Peru whose technology is now being disseminated worldwide.
Muslim-based Anti-Drug Demonstration Programs: INL will continue to fund model outreach and aftercare centers in volatile Muslim regions where the U.S. needs to increase access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Indonesia. These centers (co-located in mosques and madrassahs) serve as a prevention component to the “War on Terror” and are designed to reduce drug consumption whose proceeds are a potential source of terrorist financing; cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations; enhance America’s image in Muslim countries; provide youth in at-risk areas with alternatives to radical or terrorist indoctrination centers; and reduce the high rates of drug use, relapse, and drug-related violence in their target populations. Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.
Coalition and Network Building
Drug-Free Community Coalitions: Funds will support the enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs (in Mexico, Central America, the Andean sub-region of South America, and Africa) that assist civil society/grassroots organizations in fighting illegal drugs. These public/private sector coalitions work towards reducing substance abuse among youth, enhancing intergovernmental collaboration, and strengthening collaboration among organizations and agencies in both the private and public sectors across countries. Funds will provide four training/technical assistance sessions each in the four target regions. The planned life of this initiative is three years, after which the coalitions will be effective vehicles for reducing drug consumption and related violence in the respective countries of each region.
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Coalitions and Networks||1,000||-||1,500||1,000|
|Research & Demonstration Programs||500||-||1,000||500|
|Training and Technical Assistance||6,500||-||9,403||2,000|
|Total||8,000 ||-||11,903 ||3,500 |
International Law Enforcement Academies
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsNational law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established through training at the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs): Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador (includes the Regional Training Center in Lima, Peru) and Roswell, New Mexico. This will result in greater cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement authorities, and more effective investigations and successful prosecutions of cases abroad.
ILEA curricula will encourage graduates to interact regionally and internationally to address law enforcement issues.
ILEA graduates will apply methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigations.
ILEA alumni will be encouraged to actively engage in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.
ILEA curricula will continue to include topics of growing international interest, including counterterrorism, anti-corruption, trafficking in persons, financial crimes, cyber crime and intellectual property rights, and transnational organized crime.
The total number of students’ trained at all five academies will be approximately 3,000.
The ILEA program helps advance transformational diplomacy by supporting emerging democracies through strengthening criminal justice institutions and further developing relationships with new decision makers to work with U.S. and regional counterparts in the fight against transnational crime while promoting social, political, and economic stability. The network of ILEA alumni will become tomorrow’s leaders and agents of change in their respective countries and will be instrumental in the pursuit of peace and security through the rule of law and respect for human rights.
The ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support law enforcement institution building, strengthening enforcement capabilities, and foster relationships between U.S. law enforcement agencies, other regional counterpart agencies and organizations. FY 2009 funds will be utilized to support the administration, academy infrastructure and U.S. trainer costs for the existing academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador (includes the RTC in Peru) and Roswell. Training will target international criminal activities such as terrorism, financial crimes, organized crime, corruption, cyber crime, illegal drug use and trafficking, and human trafficking.
Program JustificationILEAs help advance U.S. interests by developing international cooperation and promoting social, political, and economic stability. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide training and technical assistance, support institution building and developing law enforcement capabilities, and foster U.S. law enforcement relationships with counterpart agencies. ILEAs encourage strong regional partnerships to address common problems resulting from criminal activities. The ILEAs also encourage and strengthen extensive networks of alumni – many of whom will become law enforcement leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries – that can be used to in cooperation with U.S. and other counterpart agencies to assist in transnational criminal investigations.
The Department of State works with the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Treasury, and many cooperating governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the Core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level police and other criminal justice personnel in over 75 countries. State’s primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, seek funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight to ensure that ILEAs continue to support and complement U.S. foreign policy objectives.
The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing relevant, timely, and quality training within broader contexts involving diverse regional economic, social and political environments and circumstances that may be subject to rapid change. The ILEA program will seek to anticipate such constantly changing international crime-related challenges, including terrorism, financial crimes, organized crime, corruption, cybercrime, illegal narcotics and trafficking in persons.
Program AccomplishmentsINL has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, El Salvador (includes RTC) and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 23,500 officials from over 75 countries.
The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 11,000 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 6,000 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in 2001 and has since trained over 3,200 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and other Sub-Saharan countries. INL opened a graduate-style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico in 2001 and has trained over 2,500 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies. The newest ILEA in San Salvador, El Salvador, opened in 2005 at a temporary location and is now progressing to construct a permanent facility, has trained over 850 students from Central and South America and the Caribbean.
FY 2009 ProgramINL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, and San Salvador (includes the Lima RTC). INL will also continue to encourage ILEA alumni to engage in training other instructors and mentors in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job. This in turn will open and strengthen lines of communications to conduct joint investigations, and to share information with U.S. counterparts.
INL will continue the development of ILEA San Salvador. As part of this effort, funds will be used to construct an administrative/academic building on land donated by the Salvadoran government. Similar to the other regional ILEA curricula, the ILEA San Salvador will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking the most salient crime threats in the region, including drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, gang proliferation, money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial crimes and accountability in government, as well as enhancing the ability of law enforcement to anticipate and respond to terrorist threats. These courses will be designed to conform to regional nuances of these criminal activities as identified by ILEA needs assessment mechanisms.
INL will continue taking steps to develop the ILEA Regional Training Center located in Peru, to augment the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America. This center will concentrate on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions.
|International Law Enforcement Academy|
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Roswell, New Mexico||5,500||-||5,000||4,900|
|San Salvador, Latin America||2,500||-||3,350||2,800|
|San Salvador -Const new admin/classroom facilities||-||-||300||200|
|Total||16,500 ||-||18,846 ||17,000 |
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
The international organizations account supports the counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts of the following international organizations: the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), and the Organization of American States’ (OAS) Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). U.S. multilateral support to these organizations not only complements our bilateral programs, but also generates increased buy-in from other countries for our overall counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts. Funds through the international organizations account also provide for a senior policy advisor for anti-crime and counter-drug issues to be placed at the US Mission to the European Union (USEU).
UN Office on Drugs and Crime – Drug and Crime Program
Utilize resources through the international organizations account to enable the UN Office on Drugs and Crime to develop and implement counternarcotics and crime-control projects in countries where ongoing criminal activities, the production and transit of illicit narcotics, and illegally-diverted precursor chemicals threaten U.S. interests. Project aims include:
Promoting implementation of the 1988 UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances:
Strengthen criminal justice infrastructure through upgrading essential legislation, justice system training, improvement of judicial cooperation, and on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services. UNODC will also continue to advise on the drafting, adoption and application of all necessary legislation, strengthen the technical and operational skills of professionals in States that have adopted such legislation, and provide practical tools to help them undertake their day-to-day work.Enhancing precursor chemical controls used in the production of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine type stimulants, notably methamphetamine:
Maintain, through the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), the practical application of a databank for preventing diversion of precursor chemicals and provide support to the intergovernmental, international operations known as “Project Prism” and “Project Cohesion”. Through these operations, the INCB assists governments with real-time prevention of diversion of precursor chemicals by monitoring international shipments for suspicious transactions.Inhibit international organized crime and its impact on society and individuals through increased implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplemental Protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling:
Strengthen the legal framework and law enforcement capacity to prevent, investigate, prosecute and adjudicate organized crime. The UNODC will continue to facilitate the assessment and revision of national legislation, including through the development of model laws, ensure compliance with the Convention and its Protocols; collect, assess and disseminate best practices in combating organized crime; facilitate international cooperation; and strengthen the institutional and operational capacity of law enforcement and judicial bodies to investigate, prosecute and adjudicate organized crime related offences.Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
Strengthen counternarcotics capacity and performance by countries in the Western Hemisphere:
Encourage support of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), a peer review system created as part of the Summit of the Americas process, which identifies gaps and weaknesses in the anti-drug efforts of the 34 OAS Member States and provides them substantive recommendations to address shortcomings in country anti-drug programs. The findings from the MEM rounds also provide guidance to CICAD’s Executive Secretariat in prioritizing its assistance and training resources, and permits the OAS to measure progress being made by individual countries and by the Hemisphere as a whole. Endorse CICAD’s Inter-American Observatory on Drugs (OID), which strengthens the National Observatories on Drugs in the Member States, and develops standardized methodologies to produce high quality information on drug demand and supply, in addition to other key areas of research that are important to developing drug programs and policies.
Increase counternarcotics collaboration among OAS Member States:
Promote active and practical cooperation among the countries of the Western Hemisphere against drug production, trafficking (cross-border and maritime smuggling), money laundering (including terrorist financing), arms trafficking, chemical diversion, and youth gangs by actively participating in the regular thematic experts working group meetings. Ensure that Member States are equipped with appropriate modern legal tools to confront drug-related crime and to share common legal definitions and standards to be able to work effectively together by producing and periodically updating hemispheric model regulations and best practices guides. Encourage Member States to have robust demand reduction programs and to prioritize prevention in national drug plans.
Continue progress in the inter-American region to curb money laundering, terrorist financing, and chemical diversion:
Execute technical assistance training programs to improve and enhance implementation of money laundering and chemical control legislation, to strengthen investigative and prosecutorial procedures in these two areas, and to increase countries’ institutional capability to interdict narcotics and precursors produced within or transiting through the Western Hemisphere.
Transformational DiplomacyThe FY 2009 international organizations account advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding projects that counternarcotics, international crime and terrorism around the globe. By actively supporting the work of these international organizations, assistance is provided that not only helps to build societies that respect the rule of law and promote good governance, but the United States also engages with its partners in a collaborative, multilateral setting. There are limits to what bilateral initiatives can achieve. In some cases, operations carried out by just one or two countries will be overwhelmed by expanded trafficking elsewhere if other countries are not brought into the effort. A failure to consider broader multilateral approaches results in missed opportunities to pool resources and information that could result in more cost effective and successful operations. The keys to success will continue to be ensuring that countries have both the ability and will to confront the most critical, and politically challenging, targets.
Program JustificationUN Office on Drugs and Crime – Drug and Crime Program
Located in Vienna, Austria, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the major multilateral organization providing assistance to combat drugs and crime on a global scale. It enhances countries’ bilateral programs worldwide and also implements projects that are politically infeasible on a bilateral basis. U.S. support to UNODC complements INL bilateral programs and leverages U.S. funds by promoting increased buy-in and support from a broader array of donor countries. UNODC is the only multilateral institution providing technical assistance on a global basis for the development of modern law enforcement, financial regulatory and judicial institutions and practices. It has a unique role in assisting states in ratifying and implementing international conventions including the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC), the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), the three UN anti-drug conventions as well as the universal instruments against terrorism. It is also the only multilateral organization that maintains the global reach and credibility necessary to deliver technical assistance in relation to these aforementioned instruments. The United States will remain a strong advocate of these important international documents in bilateral dialogues and offer direct USG assistance to promote implementation where appropriate. The organization is a steadfast ally in support of strict enforcement efforts against illicit drugs, organized crime, and terrorism, as required under international law.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the drug control arm of the Organization of American States (OAS), is the premier counterdrug forum for the Western Hemisphere. It is also one of the most effective entities within the OAS. CICAD combines a policy-level Commission that meets twice a year with a technical Executive Secretariat that supports the Commission and conducts programs and training throughout the year. CICAD’s technical sub-groups facilitate valuable exchanges of information and experience among national experts on topics ranging from money laundering to drug abuse treatment and prevention and lay the basis for action plans. The Secretariat provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, training and technical support, legal standards, national experiences and research. The Secretariat, using funds from INL and other donors, provide a wide array of technical assistance to Member States, some on an individual basis (e.g., national drug strategies) but most often in sub-regional groupings (e.g., Central America, the English-speaking Caribbean, the Andes). With INL funding, CICAD has been a useful and effective forum to address emerging threats in the counternaroctics area like internet-based drug sales and methamphetamine trafficking. CICAD has been instrumental in developing hemispheric solidarity on the drug issue and ended finger pointing between “supplier” and “consumer” nations, and has encouraged member states that have been identified as “producer” countries to realize that they too are becoming “consumer” states and that drug use is also increasing in their own countries. Hemispheric efforts are guided by the Summit of the Americas-mandated “Anti-Drug Strategy in the Americas.”
Much of CICAD’s success has been due to sustained U.S. foreign policy efforts to promote a strong anti-drug coalition and sense of shared responsibility among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. Active participation by the U.S. interagency community in specialized CICAD activities has been critical to achieving high standards of performance as well as keeping CICAD’s efforts relevant to U.S. counterdrug agencies. In fact, at the most recent Regular Session meeting in November 2007, the U.S. delegation announced that the U.S. will run for the CICAD Vice Chairmanship in the fall Regular Session in 2008. That would automatically make the U.S. the CICAD Chairman for the 2009-2010 fiscal year, a position never held by the United States.
UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Funding from the international organizations account supports priority UNODC technical assistance and legal reform projects, particularly those focused on precursor chemical control and implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
In 2007, UNODC implemented chemical control projects in South Asia and Southeast Asia, a major drug transit region for precursor chemicals intended for illicit drug production. U.S. funding supported the International Narcotics Control Board’s (INCB) Database for Precursor Chemical Control, which plays a vital role in the INCB’s two projects that focus on precursor chemicals. In 2006, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) passed a U.S.-sponsored resolution requesting that States provide the INCB with their legitimate requirements for precursor chemicals used to make synthetic drugs, as well as the pharmaceutical preparations containing these precursor chemicals. U.S. financial support for the INCB helped continue to support implementation of this resolution. The data collected pursuant to this resolution serves as a baseline for authorities in importing and exporting countries, facilitating quick “reality checks” on the chemicals and the quantities proposed in commercial transactions and to determine whether importation is warranted.
During 2007, the INCB achieved particular success in identifying new methods and routes of diversion being employed by traffickers to circumvent existing controls in the major manufacturing and exporting countries. In particular, the INCB launched a time-bound operation called “Crystal Flow”, which targeted shipments of ephedrines destined to Africa, the Americas and West Asia. The initiative made use of the INCB online system for pre-export notifications (PEN Online), which was used for the real-time exchange of information on precursor shipments between exporter and importer governments. Under the operation, the INCB monitored 1,399 individual shipments in international trade, which were destined to 119 countries/territories and involved 153.43 tons of ephedrine and 652 tons of pseudoephedrine. Of those consignments, INCB launched inquiries into the legitimacy of 187 shipments with the governments of 54 countries, which led to the identification of 35 suspicious transactions. Shipments of 53 tonnes of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were either stopped or seized. Those quantities of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine prevented from diversion were capable of producing approximately 48 tonnes of methamphetamine. The operation resulted in at least 3 controlled deliveries, the identification of Mexican trafficking organizations operating in Africa and the Middle East, and 14 arrests.
In addition, operational activities continued under the INCB’s “Project Cohesion” focusing on acetic anhydride and potassium permanganate used in the production of heroin and cocaine, respectively. During 2007, 413 shipments, involving 77,690 tonnes of acetic anhydride and 617 individual shipments, involving 15,319 tonnes of potassium permanganate were reported to INCB and monitored. The INCB stopped one shipment of 80 tons of acetic anhydride.
Since September of 2003, UNODC has performed a crucial role in promoting the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplementary Protocols to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. In 2007, the UNODC project charged with promoting implementation of the UNTOC continued its intensive focus on witness protection. Following up on regional expert group meetings held between 2005 and 2006, the UNODC finalized its Good Practices Manual on Witness Protection and released it in late 2007. The manual covers procedural protections as well as information regarding the establishment of covert witness protection units. UNODC also finalized a model witness protection law for Latin America and drafted a model agreement on international cooperation in the area of witness protection. In addition, UNODC continued its capacity building efforts by holding multiple seminars throughout Latin America for practitioner training, including one regional train the trainer’s course on counter-kidnapping.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
While CICAD has been well known in anti-drug circles for years, it rose to presidential attention at the Santiago and Quebec Summits through its development of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). The MEM is considered one of the most successful programs of the OAS in general. Mandated by the Heads of State and Government of the Hemisphere, it has become a diagnostic tool in all drug-related matters in most countries of the Hemisphere. The MEM serves as a tool to guide policy and programs. CICAD’s Executive Secretariat has increasingly used MEM Recommendations as a determining factor when deciding on the technical and financial assistance given to countries. The MEM process has matured in its evaluative component over its four evaluation rounds. CICAD published the report entitled The Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism Achievements, 1997-2007 that assesses the MEM’s performance through the first three evaluation rounds, both on a country-by-country and regional basis. CICAD assisted the UNODC with how to incorporate evaluative information from regional organizations into the United Nations’ own statistical information process.
CICAD provides technical support on epidemiological surveillance, research, and drug prevention and treatment for OAS Member States. CICAD developed and supervised drug use prevalence studies, through its standardized methodology, in multiple member states and coordinated this research with UNODC. Through this, it has been possible to measure drug consumption in the Americas, and using the standardizing methodology it is possible to analyze trends over time, and compare consumption behaviors across the countries of the Hemisphere. In November 2007, CICAD inaugurated an online country profile data bank of drug information on all 34 Member States. CICAD also launched an online certificate program on substance abuse prevention and treatment aimed at the English-speaking Caribbean. CICAD has encouraged the introduction of Life Skills and Culture of Lawfulness curricula for school-based drug prevention, following the Hemispheric Guidelines for School-based Prevention approved by the CICAD Commission.
Through the Supply Reduction and Anti-Money Laundering programs, drug law enforcement officers throughout the Americas have been trained in diverse techniques to control drug shipments, money laundering, and related crimes. In 2007, 37 regional or national training seminars for nearly 1,000 law enforcement and customs officers covering a range of subjects such as the control of chemicals, officer safety, maritime cooperation, profiling of suspicious containers and passengers, port security and vessel inspection. In addition, CICAD conducted a training program to involve private sector participation in port and airport security. CICAD has also trained judges and prosecutors to try money laundering cases, and instructed bankers and regulators in techniques to prevent and detect money laundering schemes. In conjunction with the Inter-American Development Bank, CICAD undertook the program to create and strengthen, as necessary, Financial Intelligence Units to control money-laundering activities in South American countries. Given the success of this program in South America, it was extended to include the countries of Central America and the Dominican Republic in 2007-2008. In December 2007, CICAD launched a specialized on-line database of money laundering typologies that will pool and catalog information from the entire hemisphere.
Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering and arms trafficking control, CICAD has emerged as an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS’ Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing. CICAD has also become increasingly active in law enforcement policy development and institution building. CICAD’s supply reduction and control activities are aimed at helping member states improve their capacity to reduce the production, distribution and availability of illicit drugs and the diversion of chemical products used in the manufacture of drugs. CICAD has also been a leader in developing chemical control regimes (laws, regulatory bodies, investigations). In response to the growing use of the Internet for illicit sales of controlled substances (both legitimate and counterfeit), CICAD partnered with Microsoft in 2007 to deliver a series of five seminars on the tools, resources and techniques needed to investigate the sale of drugs over the Internet.
CICAD also seeks to support member states in carrying out development projects to reduce, eliminate or prevent the illicit cultivation of coca, poppy and cannabis. In November 2007, the CICAD-supported Andean Countries Cocoa Export Support Opportunity (ACCESO) program, aimed at promoting improvement in the quality, quantity and marketing of cacao production in traditional coca-growing areas, completed its first year of operations in Peru. At 34 farmer field schools, 796 producers were trained, 65 of whom were certified as trainers. The ACCESO program is a public-private partnership among World Cocoa Foundation (private business interests), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Inter-American Institute for Agricultural Cooperation (IICA) and CICAD. CICAD also launched the Alternative Development Knowledge Network (ADKN) both in English and Spanish, an on-line knowledge-sharing and communication tool for people working in rural development, especially drug-crop producing highland areas. ADKN is an interactive means for sharing development information, allowing users to contribute their own knowledge via simple but powerful tools for uploading documents, making announcements, having discussions and making their own web pages.
CICAD works closely with a number of international organizations, and has gained prestige in forging partnerships in order to build a strong and united front against the constantly evolving trends in substance abuse and international drug markets.
FY 2009 ProgramUN Office on Drugs and Crime
In FY 2009, funding will be provided to the following longstanding programs of the UNODC that support strict enforcement of drug control and anti-crime policies:
Precursor Chemical Control: Funds will be used to continue support for INCB activities, including its global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs, as well as support for its “Project Prism” and “Project Cohesion” operations. In addition, funding will allow the INCB to support implementation of the U.S.-sponsored resolution that requests countries to provide their legitimate needs with regard to those precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of synthetic drugs, including methamphetamine.
Implementation of the UNTOC: This project provides assistance in the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplementary protocols. Funds will be used to expand and deepen the activities related to witness protection and joint investigative techniques. Overall activities will include the development and implementation of a witness protection project for African states, development and implementation of modules on special investigative techniques for prosecutors, creation of informal and formal networks of witness protection authorities, and mentoring in witness protection and in other areas related to countering organized crime.
General Purpose Fund: Funding will be provided to the UNODC’s General Purpose Fund, which in part supports the field office infrastructure necessary to implement U.S.-funded projects. The Fund also allows UNODC to maintain its drug control center of excellence that has developed through its core programs based out of its Headquarters in Vienna. Such programs focus on implementation of the three UN Drug Control Conventions and involve strengthening criminal justice infrastructure through upgrading essential legislation, justice system training, improvement of judicial cooperation, and on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services.
US Mission to the European Union
Counternarcotics and Anti-Crime Policy Position: Funding will also provide for a senior counternarcotics and anti-crime policy officer to be stationed at the U.S. Mission to the European Union. This officer will work to promote the rapidly expanding law enforcement cooperation between the United States and the European Union (EU) in the areas of counternarcotics, justice and security. The officer leverages EU support for U.S. policy and foreign assistance objectives, particularly related to counternarcotics assistance provided in Afghanistan and Latin America, and serves as the front line of communication and coordination with the EU on drug and crime issues.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission
In FY 2009, sustained funding to CICAD is needed to advance the objectives of the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere, and will be used for CICAD projects, training and technical assistance. CICAD programs complement INL’s bilateral programs and fill gaps in multinational support efforts. INL has encouraged close collaboration between CICAD technical staff and U.S. Embassy program managers. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following priority areas:
Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): The MEM is a peer review system that provides governments with recommendations on how to strengthen their anti-drug efforts (staff, travel, and processing costs) with follow-on training and technical support. In 2008, the MEM will begin its fifth round of evaluation with a newly streamlined review process adopted by an inter-governmental group that reduced costs of the mechanism to permit more funding to be directed towards implementing recommendations.
Legal development: INL will continue to support the updating of a regional model legislation (money laundering and chemicals), orientation for legislators and judges; communications systems to facilitate regional exchange of information and cooperation; and programs relating to the control of money laundering and chemical diversion; training for regulators (financial and chemical) and investigators. CICAD will provide advanced training for specialized technology-based law enforcement investigations for illegal internet drug sales to augment the basic training offered in 2007. Funds in FY 2009 will also allow for the creation of a regional money laundering training center in South America and to offer an online graduate program on the investigation and prosecution of money laundering.
Supply Reduction Efforts: This program intensifies/expands work in promoting maritime and port security, customs controls, and cooperation/communication among law enforcement entities throughout the Americas through training, technical assistance, best practices guidelines, building public-private partnerships.
Demand reduction and youth programs: CICAD assists Member States to build effective national drug awareness/education programs, conduct epidemiological surveillance (according to hemispheric standards), and upgrade the skills of counselors and support staff at non-governmental drug abuse treatment centers and juvenile detention centers (through unprecedented certification programs). This program will continue to work with countries on a sub-regional basis to develop comprehensive national plans for addressing youth gangs. In parallel, CICAD is pursuing a partnership with the National Strategy Information Center (NSIC) to promote “Culture of Lawfulness” as a regional “best practice.” This approach seeks to stimulate young people to be good citizens and work to promote a corruption/crime/drug-free society. CICAD also plans to expand its demand-side programs to include workplace prevention by initiating a two-year effort to draft hemispheric guidelines on substance abuse prevention it the workplace, similar to the school-based prevention guidelines that CICAD approved in 2005.
Maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system: Continued support will be provided for CICAD’s Hemispheric Observatory on Drugs, the hemispheric statistical systems (demand and supply side) to maintain a centralized, dependable source of statistics to track progress in hemispheric anti-drug programs. The unit has developed and is training governments in a standardized approach to estimating social and economic costs of the drug problem to assist decision makers in determining budget priorities and to better inform the public, legislatures and media about the impact of drugs on a society and its economy.
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Total||5,400 ||-||3,967 ||4,500 |
Interregional Aviation SupportBudget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2009 Request
Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Interregional Aviation Support budget provides coordinated core-level services necessary to operate the Air Wing’s fleet of 165 fixed and rotary-wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities worldwide. This base of support is essential to sustain logistics, depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. Centrally administered oversight includes: setting, implementing and monitoring uniform safety and training standards consistent with aviation industry practices; compliance with standard operational procedures; a logistics support system for acquiring, storing and shipping critical aviation parts and components worldwide; fleet-wide maintenance management; management of the Critical Flight Safety Program; and administration of the aviation support contract. INL aircraft are employed in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Guatemala, Afghanistan, and Pakistan and are also available, as needed, to support other temporary deployment locations. This budget is augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local Embassy and cooperating host government missions.
In FY 2009, INL will continue to assist the Government of Colombia in conducting an aggressive aerial eradication program to reduce coca cultivation to minimum levels, as well as support the Colombian Army in its counternarcotics aviation operations.
In cooperation with the Government of Colombia, areas of coca cultivation in Colombia will be aerially sprayed with herbicide, and cocaine production will be reduced as a result of this eradication.
Successful interdiction missions will be conducted against narco-terrorists and their infrastructure.
The Governments of Peru and Bolivia (with INL provided air transportation support to move people and materials) will continue to conduct manual eradication efforts in outlying areas of their respective countries.
In Bolivia, coca cultivation will be reduced and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare region (subject to the cooperation of the host government).
In Peru, coca cultivation will be reduced as evidenced by the eradication/ abandonment of remaining coca fields (subject to the cooperation of the host government). Opium poppy field surveillance will be increased.
INL will support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counternarcotics military personnel by air in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Guatemala, and other countries for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking activities to the extent possible using current assets.
The number of interdiction and eradication missions flown in Peru will continue at a high level using the helicopter fleet which has been upgraded to Huey-II configuration and expanded to 23 aircraft. Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops and production facilities, and verify eradication program results.
Drug production areas and facilities will be successfully identified and mapped year-round in Colombia and on an as-needed basis in other countries.
Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism.
Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistani border security aviation program will result in more frequent and effective surveillance and interdiction missions.
The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will be performed to the highest standards of safety and efficiency with due regard for increased security risks.
Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.
Afghanistan illicit poppy cultivation figures continue to be daunting. Afghanistan tops the world in opium production. INL will continue to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2008, and will continue into FY 2009.
The interregional aviation program supports transformational diplomacy by providing centralized professional aviation services to counternarcotics programs overseas. This activity supports both eradication and interdiction program elements in the counternarcotics program area of the Department’s peace and security objective. INL’s efforts support the Department’s objectives in the rebuilding countries of Colombia and Afghanistan by combating illicit drug enterprises that pose a threat to U.S. and global security and undermine good governance and economic growth. Similarly, aviation support to counternarcotics activities in Peru, Guatemala and Pakistan, as well as border security in Pakistan, bolster efforts to improve peace and security, good governance and economic growth in those developing nations. In Bolivia, the Air Wing has been instrumental in developing viable host nation institutional capabilities for counternarcotics operations and will continue to support sustainment of peace and security in that transforming country.
Program JustificationThe INL aviation program is the backbone of our counternarcotics objectives in the key source countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. INL assists these governments and others to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, protect borders, and develop internal institutional counternarcotics aviation capabilities. FY 2009 funding will provide for continuation of core activities with the existing fleet.
The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. In Colombia, the program conducts aerial eradication in hostile, remote and increasingly scattered regions. In Peru and Bolivia, the program supports transportation for manual eradication. Airplanes and helicopters transport law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, and unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible, as well as provide medical evacuation capability for eradicators and law enforcement personnel when needed. Air reconnaissance assets are essential in locating, identifying, and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results. In Guatemala, the INL Air Wing is establishing a new air interdiction capability consisting of four Huey-II helicopters, available to conduct operations against drug trafficking in the transit zone.
Afghanistan represents a tremendous challenge in the international fight against drugs. Aviation support to eradication and interdiction efforts is absolutely essential in conducting operations in this large, rugged country with poor road networks and widely dispersed areas of cultivation, production and trafficking.
In all assisted countries, the assets are also employed for interdiction efforts. In Colombia they are also used to conduct operations against narco-terrorists under expanded authorities. In Pakistan, the assets are used for the monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and technology transfer, INL supports the operational goal of enhancing political determination to combat illegal drug production and trafficking. This builds long-lasting institutions that have the trained personnel and demonstrated abilities to assume increased responsibility for counternarcotics air activities.
In 2007, INL-owned aircraft flew 52,174 flight hours (13,854 fixed-wing and 38,320 rotary-wing), an average of approximately 1,003 flight hours per week.Colombia – Eradication
The Interregional Aviation Support program has made possible the conduct of aerial eradication in Colombia that, along with alternative development, has been the backbone of that country’s counternarcotics strategy. INL and the Colombian National Police (CNP) have collaborated in mounting an effective campaign using T-65 Turbo Thrush, OV-10D Bronco, and AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate coca cultivation. In 2007, over 153,000 hectares of coca were sprayed. From 2001 to 2007, we have sprayed over 917,000 hectares of coca that would have produced 3,650 metric tons of cocaine. INL has assisted the CNP with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) and Gyrocam equipment mounted on Cessna C-208 Caravans for targeting and verifying eradication of coca. In 2007, INL Air Wing aircraft supporting aerial eradication and the Colombian Army (COLAR) helicopter program sustained 196 hits from hostile ground fire which, up from181 hits in 2006, causing downtime due to extensive maintenance repairs.
Colombia – COLAR
Besides supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and helps sustain the Colombian Army (COLAR) Aviation Brigade that provides rotary wing air mobility to the Counter Drug Brigade (CD Brigade). Most of the aviation support and maintenance for the Colombian Army Aviation Program, also known as the “Plan Colombia Helicopter Program” (PCHP), is part of a contract administered by INL Air Wing. The Air Wing’s contractor provides pilots, maintenance technicians, trainers, and logistics support to the PCHP, since the Government of Colombia is not yet able to provide all the resources necessary to support these operations. The current PCHP helicopter fleet consists of 21 Huey-II helicopters, 18 UH-1N helicopters, and 13 UH-60L “Blackhawk” helicopters. The result of this effort, a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air mobile operations, is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. That unit has flown 162,946 hours since its inception, including over 1,000 medical evacuations. PCHP assets have been instrumental in the takedown of a number of major narco-terrorist targets.
Peru and Bolivia
INL aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL-owned Huey-II helicopters and fixed wing aircraft (C-208 and B-1900D) continue to transport manual eradication teams and Peruvian counternarcotics police in order to implement far-reaching counternarcotics operations using a mobile-basing strategy. In Bolivia, INL helicopters have enabled the government to project authority over vast areas where drug traffickers previously operated with impunity, and to establish mobile, forward operating bases. During times of violent attacks against eradicators and law enforcement personnel, the air assets have conducted life-saving medical evacuations. The significant eradication of coca in the Chapare region of Bolivia would not have been possible without the helicopter support provided through the INL aviation program. INL provided aviation technical support and training, and logistical support was an essential ingredient of the success enjoyed by host nation personnel operating these helicopters. The aviation program has also continued to make progress in establishing self-sufficiency in host nation counternarcotics aviation organizations.
INL established in 2002, and now supports, a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provides nine Huey-II helicopters and three C-208 Cessna Caravan airplanes to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement personnel with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Due to the receptiveness of the host nation team towards the operational and mechanic’s training program, we were able to reduce aviation mechanic contractor presence in 2003. During the past year, these aviation assets assisted the GOP in accomplishing many objectives, including aerial surveillance of opium poppy fields utilizing mounted cameras and GPS capabilities, medevac and rescue operations, and counter-terrorism activities. These aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day and night, including use of night vision goggles (NVGs). These aircraft make up the only NVG aviation interdiction force in Pakistan, and due to its unique capability and past performance, this unit is considered to be the premier interdiction force. The aircraft provide surveillance along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border area. The unit participates in the interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, as well as in assisting in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts.
INL effectively employs ten Huey-II helicopters and several leased fixed and rotary wing aircraft in Afghanistan to support manual eradication and interdiction efforts. This support is critical to progress in eradicating poppy and interdicting production and trafficking activities as well as movement of police training program personnel due to security conditions and poor roads in Afghanistan.
INL continues to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow us to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at these locations.
INL has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of its programs. INL has continued to modify its aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art, satellite-guided spray systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews while delivering herbicide precisely. The aviation program continues to improve and expand the use of a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation, known as the Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS).
FY 2009 Program
In FY 2009, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core-level services necessary to operate the current fleet of 165 fixed and rotary wing aircraft. The IAS program will: continue to provide substantial aerial eradication and COLAR aviation support in Colombia while continuing hand-off of responsibility and equipment to the host government; continue to provide logistical and technical support and training to successful, mature aviation programs in Peru and Bolivia; provide critical aviation support to counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan and border security efforts in Pakistan; and will initiate a four helicopter air interdiction program in Guatemala directed against drug trafficking in the transit zone. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local U.S. Embassy and cooperating host government missions.
A primary concern will be the continued aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy. Further successes in the coca and poppy campaigns are expected to reduce the target population of the illicit crops. The program is expected to be conducted in a hostile environment as narco-terrorists fight back against our spray and support aircraft. Funding in FY 2009 does not cover replacement of destroyed assets.
Bolivia, Peru, and Pakistan
In Bolivia, INL will continue to support (with continuing GOB cooperation) the Red Devil Task Force (RDTF) efforts to eliminate residual coca and prevent new plantings in the Chapare region. INL aviation assets will also support interdiction operations along Bolivia’s borders. In Peru, we will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and support interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL will continue to refine operational procedures and provide logistical support for the helicopters and fixed wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.
INL deployed (with the cooperation of the GOG) four Huey II helicopters in FY 2008 using reprogrammed funds. In 2009 we will continue to support the training of host nation personnel to support counternarcotics aviation activities in country.
In FY 2009, INL will continue to employ aviation assets in Afghanistan to support movement of personnel and cargo for eradication and other counternarcotics missions. INL aircraft are essential for reaching distant areas without roads and infrastructure, and provide security, reconnaissance, medevac, command and control, logistics, and other capabilities that are invaluable to programs in the country.
The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counternarcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority. In 2009, we will operate with the minimum number of contractor and INL Air Wing staff in Bolivia, Peru and Guatemala required, effectively monitoring, and assisting as necessary, the daily operations and maintenance activities of the RDTF and the Peruvian National Police. In Colombia, we expect to begin to see results in this area with the COLAR aviation program, as personnel we have trained gain experience and maturity, allowing the gradual reduction of contractor presence. We expect that these advances will begin to permit greater host nation management of the assets. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.
The Interregional Aviation Support program, augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counternarcotics and border security programs worldwide.
|Interregional Aviation Support|
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Aviation Support Services Contract||50,260 ||-||42,360 ||42,050 |
|Eradication||44,080 ||-||37,149 ||36,877 |
|Interdiction||6,180 ||-||5,211 ||5,173 |
|Maintenance and Overhaul||2,000 ||-||1,900 ||2,000 |
|Salaries and Benefits||7,000 ||-||7,000 ||7,500|
|Field Travel||350 ||-||450 ||450|
|Administrative Services and Program|
|Support||1,400 ||-||1,144 ||1,300|
|GSA Warehouse Lease||850 ||850 ||850|
|ICASS Support||550 ||650 ||650|
|Base Support at Patrick AFB||590 ||-||300 ||300|
|Sub Total ||10,740 ||-||10,394 ||11,050 |
|TOTAL ||63,000 ||-||54,654 ||55,100 |
Global Peace Operations InitiativeBudget Summary ($000)
|FY 2007 Actual||FY 2008 Estimate||FY 2009 Request|
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators
The overall FY 2009 program objective is to support the Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (COESPU), an international training center located in Vicenza, Italy. COESPU was created in response to the 2004 Sea Island G8 Action Plan for Expanding Global Capability for Peace Support Operations, and is also part of the U.S. Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). COESPU uses a “train the trainer” approach to substantially increase the number of trained and interoperable stability police units (SPU) or formed police units (FPU) available for peace operations activities around the world. COESPU also acts as a hub for best practices and international standards development for FPUs.
These funds would primarily be used to support training expenses at COESPU, including costs related to lecturers, teachers, or trainers; the travel, per diem, and other related costs of third country students attending COESPU; and equipment used by COESPU students while attending COESPU training. Some funding may also be used for mobile training teams (MTTs) to provide direct training for FPUs deploying to a peace support operation.
These funds support the objective of peace and security, program area of stabilization operations and security sector reform, law enforcement reform, restructuring and operations.
U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2009 and beyond. INL will support the increased capacity of governments that seek to participate in UN peacekeeping missions by deploying police contingents to post-conflict regions around the world.
To date, U.S. State Department support to COESPU has been provided solely through $15M appropriated in Fiscal Year 2005 through the Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) account as part of the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). In FY 2005, those funds were appropriated with the proper authorities necessary to provide police training; in subsequent years, no PKO funds were appropriated with that authority. FY 2009 funds are being requested for COESPU support through the INCLE account, which has the necessary authorities for police training.
As of December 31, 2007, COESPU has trained 1,045 graduates from 25 countries, including:
- 986 participants through the high-level and middle management courses from 11 countries (Morocco, Senegal, Nigeria, Cameroon, Kenya, Jordan, Serbia, Ukraine, Pakistan, India, and Indonesia).
- 59 participants in a Command Leadership Development Seminar from 21 countries (Canada, US, UK, France, Germany, Portugal, Senegal, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Ukraine, Jordan, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China, Philippines, Australia, and Indonesia.
FY 2009 Program
The FY 2009 GPOI program sustains USG development of Formed Police Units (FPU), which provide an important element of security for peacekeeping missions. FPUs are an exciting and relatively new concept in the world of international peacekeeping, allowing the UN and other peacekeeping missions to control violence, conduct high-risk arrests, and in the case of Darfur, protect internally displaced persons, without using military assets and risking an escalation of civilian conflict. In Darfur, the UN anticipates needing 19 such units since FPUs, as opposed to the introduction of a foreign military presence, which may incite nationalism and greater violence or unarmed police, which are unable to control militia violence, provide a specialized response to the security gap. In order to achieve this objective, FPU’s must be developed to a professional standard.
|Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative|
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative||-||-||-||4,000|
Program Development and Support
Budget Summary ($000)
FY 2007 Actual
FY 2008 Estimate
FY 2008 Request
Program JustificationThe Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is charged with developing strategies and programs to achieve international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign-policy objectives. INL maintains a cadre of both domestic and overseas program and technical experts to carry out a wide range of initiatives. Washington personnel functions include, but are not limited to: international narcotics control and law enforcement policy formulation and implementation; coordination of policies and programs with other USG agencies and with other governments and international organizations; budget and financial management activities; program administration and analysis including development, implementation, oversight and evaluation of overseas programs; contract, procurement and information systems support; field assistance visits to Embassy Narcotics Affairs Sections and Law Enforcement Sections to review, analyze and make recommendations on programs, funds control and procurement; sponsoring regional policy and program management conferences and seminars; and, developing and providing training programs both domestically and overseas for embassy and INL personnel.
The Program Development and Support (PD&S) account funds the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff. The vast majority of the PD&S budget request is programmed for salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire (USDH) employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel.
Field travel for the INL personnel based in Washington is funded from the PD&S account. This is an essential component of the bureau’s program, needed for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are utilized to maintain a reliable and secure information resource management system and operating infrastructure to enable bureau employees to pursue policy objectives and complete work requirements effectively and efficiently. In addition, funding for the following expenses ensure an adequate level of administrative support to allow the bureau to function effectively: office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services (Information Management non-personal services contractor personnel, INL office renovation expenses, etc.), materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings and equipment.
FY 2009 Program
The PD&S request will cover the annual, government-wide cost of living increase, in-grade step increases and promotions that occur during that fiscal year. It will also cover the annualized portion of wage increase for positions that INL plans to fill during FY 2009 to improve program oversight and expanded programs. In addition, funds will cover costs for field travel and transportation costs; equipment rentals, communications and utility expenses; printing and reproduction; miscellaneous contractual services; and furniture and furnishings.
|Program Development and Support|
|FY 2007||FY 2007|
|FY 2008||FY 2009|
|Field Travel and Transportation||768||-||782||818|
|Equipment Rentals, Communications|
|and Utility Expenses||281||-||286||299|
|Printing and Reproduction||254||-||259||271|
|Miscellaneous Contractual Services||2,627||-||2,674||2,797|
|Materials and Supplies||103||-||105||110|
|Furniture, Furnishings and Equipment||41||-||41||43|