Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 13, 2008


Burkina Faso

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

100

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program will strengthen the law enforcement capability of Burkina Faso to combat drug trafficking, including the trafficking of Latin American cocaine. Such assistance will help Burkina Faso’s drug enforcement authorities to be effective and reliable partners with U.S., West African and other international law enforcement partners.

Progress will be measured by (a) the number of personnel and units trained in counternarcotics investigative and interdiction skills, (b) the increase in interdiction activities, including arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers, and (c) the degree of enhanced ability to plan and cooperate with other partners in combating drug trafficking.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2009 INCLE counternarcotics assistance to Burkina Faso will bolster efforts of the Government of Burkina Faso to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

The United States in its relations with Burkina Faso has an interest in promoting democratic governance and human rights, regional stability and security, and economic growth and development. Combating drug trafficking, while respecting human rights and the rule of law, is an important part of the role of civilian law enforcement agencies. An INCLE assistance program can help to foster professionalism in law enforcement, including respect for human rights and rule of law in a democratic society. Burkina Faso has received some funding from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Burkina Faso has a very low capacity to conduct interdiction at airports, ports and land borders to identify drug carriers, search suspicious luggage or containers, and preserve seized drugs for chemical testing and evidence in criminal charges.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 will be the first year of funding for Burkina Faso. The modalities of final program implementation have not yet been finalized.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 INCLE program funds for Burkina Faso will assist the Government of Burkina Faso to enhance its law enforcement counternarcotics capabilities to interdict drug trafficking, including of Latin American cocaine transiting through West Africa to European and other destinations. This assistance will supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance. Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of the Burkina Faso authorities to investigate, arrest and prosecute those involved with drug trafficking. Assistance may include basic police investigative skills, drug related money-laundering and corruption training.

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Burkina Faso
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Counternarcotics
-
-
-
100
Total

---100


Cape Verde

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

496

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program will strengthen the law enforcement capability of Cape Verde to combat drug trafficking, in particular the trafficking of Latin American cocaine. Assistance will help Cape Verde’s drug enforcement authorities to be effective and reliable partners with U.S., West African and other international law enforcement partners.

Progress will be measured by (a) the number of personnel and units trained in counternarcotics investigative and interdiction skills, (b) the increase in interdiction activities, including arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers, and (c) the degree of enhanced ability to plan and cooperate with other partners in combating drug trafficking.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2009 INCLE counternarcotics assistance to Cape Verde will bolster efforts of the Government of Cape Verde to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

The United States has excellent relations with Cape Verde, a democracy with strong historical ties to the United States and Western Europe. The group of islands constituting Cape Verde, a nation of about a half million people, lies 300 miles off the coast of West Africa and is strategically located in relation to North and South America, Europe and Africa. Because of its geographic location between Latin America and Europe, its expansive territorial waters and many isolated inlets and landing sites, its lack of ability to police such a large territory and its weak judicial system, Cape Verde is very vulnerable to transnational crime, particularly the trafficking of cocaine from Latin America to Europe. Drug trafficking, drug corruption and related crimes have the potential to undermine the progress that Cape Verde has made as a democracy and a free market economy.

The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has a multi-year law enforcement assistance program with Cape Verde that is primarily supported by the EU and some of its key members, including Portugal and Spain. The European Union is in the process of establishing a Special Partnership with Cape Verde that includes closer ties across a broad range of common interests, including combating narcotics trafficking and illegal immigration. U.S. counternarcotics assistance will bolster the efforts of Cape Verde and of the other international partners to combat the trafficking of narcotics through Cape Verde.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific INCLE funding for Cape Verde was requested for the first time in FY 2008. The modalities of the final program implementation have not yet been finalized.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 INCLE program funds for Cape Verde will assist the Government of Cape Verde to enhance its law enforcement counternarcotics capabilities to interdict drug trafficking, particularly of Latin American cocaine. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, notably by the European Union and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities of Cape Verde to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers. Assistance may include basic police investigative skills, anti-corruption, and money laundering training.

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Cape Verde
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Counternarcotics
-
-
450
500
Program Development and Support
-
-
-
-

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

ICASS Costs
-
-
-
-

Program Support
-
-
46
-

Sub-Total
-
-
46
-
Total

--496 500



Democratic Republic of Congo

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

1,488

1,700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To build the capacity of law enforcement services in the Democratic Republic of Congo to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes, as well as provide security in urban areas.

Assistance will emphasize skills-based training, but also may include technical assistance, and equipment delivery. Police academy development and training on general police skills will improve the capacity of DRC police to prevent crime and use developed techniques in criminal investigations. INL assistance will also focus on developing capacities in border control, customs, and related policing efforts that are complementary and reinforcing to efforts by other donors.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in the DRC will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement services in the DRC.

Transformational Diplomacy

Developing policing capabilities in the DRC advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security Objective through supporting and building law enforcement and border control services capable of improving security in the DRC, assisting the emergence of the DRC from conflict and transition into a democratic and stable state.

Program Justification

The DRC is emerging from a brutal and complex conflict, which severely impaired, among other things, any capability to foster the rule of law. The DRC is a resource rich country, but widespread insecurity has impeded its development. A 2002 peace agreement improved security and provided space for a transitional government, which held elections in late 2006 and early 2007. It is imperative to support the new government’s ability to provide security and rule of law, especially as the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) peacekeeping force begins to draw down its presence.

Developing the capacity of DRC law enforcement to provide security, deter and investigate crime, and provide modern training for its officers will greatly improve the DRC ability to fill the security gap that MONUC may leave behind.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 funds represent the first year for INL assistance to the DRC. INL assistance in DRC is set to begin in summer 2008, which will include collection of general baseline data and the development of law enforcement training plan to be implemented with FY 2008 and FY 2009 INCLE resources. All activities will be closely coordinated with the host government and other international donors.

FY 2009 Program

INL funds will be used to continue sustainable improvements in the capacity of DRC law enforcement institutions. The program will focus on training and may include training for general policing skills, border guards, as well as police academy development, and specialized training courses. The program may also include technical assistance and equipment procurement.

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Democratic Republic of Congo
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Request

Crime Control

Civilian Police
-
-
1,300
1,500

Sub-Total
-
-
1,300
1,500
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

ICASS Costs
-
-
-
-

Program Support
-
-
188
200

Sub-Total
-
-
188
200
Total

-
-
1,488
1,700



Djibouti

Budget Summary ($000)


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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

298

300


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program for Djibouti will strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector to investigate and arrest criminals engaged in trafficking-in-persons crimes, and to assist victims of trafficking.

Progress will be measured by: steps taken toward enforcing the trafficking-in-persons legislation; the number of host government-civil society partnerships implementing cooperative anti-trafficking programs as a result of U.S. Government efforts; and the number of government and NGO personnel who receive training on trafficking-in-persons related issues.

Transformational Diplomacy

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a growing transnational crime that undermines peace and security and the goal of transformational diplomacy. Through force, fraud, and coercion, TIP deprives people of their most basic human rights; people are bought and sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. High profits subvert the rule of law by corrupting government officials and weakening police and criminal justice institutions. Human trafficking is a global problem that has country-specific, regional, and transnational elements.

Program Justification

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is an egregious abuse of human rights that is also a public health menace and a global threat to the rule of law. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, and takes many forms. Around the world, people are sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. The U.S. Government estimates that hundreds of thousands of persons are trafficked across international borders each year for labor and sexual exploitation.

The lead government advocate on the issue is the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP) at the Department of State, established in October 2001 pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. This office is responsible for developing, monitoring and overseeing USG anti-trafficking policy and programs; compiling the largest government-produced annual Trafficking in Persons Report (the TIP Report); and advancing public awareness and advocacy involving practical solutions to governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, Djibouti national authorities, and the media, toward the goal of eradicating this form of modern-day slavery.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific funding for Djibouti was requested for the first time in FY 2008. The modalities of the final program implementation have not been decided.

FY 2009 Program

Djibouti was included in the annual TIP report for the first time in 2006, and was ranked in the Tier 2 Watch List. The 2007 TIP report continued to place Djibouti on the Tier 2 Watch List for failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to comply fully with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. The 2007 TIP report indicated that Government of Djibouti should further its anti-trafficking efforts by (a) passing, enacting and enforcing a comprehensive anti-trafficking statute; (b) improving documentation of cases of detained minors; (c) educating further all levels of government and the general public on the issue of trafficking in persons; and (d) establishing, in partnership with local NGOs, a mechanism for providing protective services to trafficking victims. In late 2007, Djibouti passed a trafficking-in-persons statute.

Due to its location between Ethiopia, Yemen, and Somalia, Djibouti is particularly vulnerable to both labor and sex trafficking. The levels of INCLE assistance in FY08 and FY09 were recommended for Djibouti for the purpose of enforcing the anti-trafficking statute, encouraging prosecutions, and increasing awareness of the TIP issue among government and law enforcement officials, and the general public. To date, the Djiboutian Government has shown minimal understanding of TIP, but recent actions demonstrate that interest in the issue is forming. The recent passage of a trafficking-in-persons statute is a positive development. The government also provided the Embassy with statistics for inclusion in the 2007 TIP report and published an editorial piece about child prostitution in a national newspaper. Our INCLE assistance in 2009 will continue to support this growing recognition of TIP realities by funding capacity-building activities.

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Djibouti
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Trafficking in Persons
-
-
280
300
Program Development and Support
-
-
18
-
Total

--298300


Ethiopia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the criminal justice sector of Ethiopia to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. will be strengthened. Programs will enhance capacities to improve border security and deny money laundering.

Skills-based training will be emphasized; specialized law enforcement and border security units will receive training and implement modern procedures and training methods; increased numbers of criminal and financial investigations conducted by trained units; improved capability of border security to deny use of borders and points of entry for illicit activity with a focus on narcotics trafficking.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Ethiopia will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of select law enforcement and border guard units.

Increased numbers trained at training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select training facilities.

Transformational Diplomacy

Denying funds and cross border movements to international criminal organizations advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by mediating the negative effect of transnational crime on Ethiopia’s development and controlling threats to Ethiopia’s population, the second largest in Africa.

Program Justification

Nearly half of Ethiopia’s the population lives in poverty (45%). Literacy is low (42%) infrastructure is inadequate, and there is high infant mortality, widespread food insecurity, and minimal access to healthcare. The on-going tensions stemming from the still-unresolved Ethiopia-Eritrea border conflict, several domestic insurgencies, and continuing instability in Somalia all negatively impact economic development in Ethiopia. All these factors make Ethiopia’s population vulnerable to transnational crimes such as trafficking in small arms or in persons.

At the same time, the capital, Addis Ababa is a modernizing city of increasing financial importance in the region. Unregulated financial and cash courier networks in Addis and elsewhere in Ethiopia are vulnerable to abuse by criminal and terrorist organizations looking to launder money and transfer funds.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 will represent the first year of funding for this program.

FY 2009 Program

INL funds will be used to achieve sustainable improvements in the capacity of select Ethiopian law enforcement and border institutions to interdict narcotics trafficking, through training and assistance in narcotics risk assessment profiling and selection, passenger examination, surveillance and intelligence, investigations, dog handling (where appropriate), and drug testing kits. Programs will also provide assistance to enhance Ethiopia’s efforts to combat illegal migration and trafficking in people and other illegal contraband; and to promote human rights.

The FY 2009 program will provide much needed training and technical assistance to law enforcement agents and prosecutors in applying and enforcing existing anti-money laundering laws. Training will focus on investigative techniques, collection of information, and information sharing.

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Ethiopia
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2008
FY 2009
Border Control Development
-
-
350
Anti-Money Laundering
-
-
100
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
-
-

ICASS Costs
-
-
-

Program Support
-
-
50

Sub-Total
-
-
50
Total

--500


Ghana

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

496

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program for Ghana will focus on the implementation of a police training program with particular emphasis on Ghanaian agencies involved in counternarcotics activities.

Previous police training programs, including community policing initiatives, have been positively received. Continued training will encourage the further implementation of policing reforms and expand training to respond to increasing threats to the rule of law, including the threats posed by narcotics trafficking, drug related corruption and money laundering.

Progress will be measured by the number of law enforcement units and personnel trained in counternarcotics investigations, and by the degree of cooperation across law enforcement agencies and with prosecutors.

Transformational Diplomacy

Embassy Accra is the fourth largest U.S. Mission in Sub-Saharan Africa. FY 2009 assistance is designed to continue support for establishing and sustaining effective, professional and accountable law enforcement services bolstering democracy under rule of law.

Such assistance will help to combat narcotics trafficking through training to improve coordination and enhance drug and crime interdiction capabilities. INL programs will bolster efforts of the Government of Ghana to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

Ghana is a stable, pro-U.S., market-oriented democracy that has been playing an increasingly important regional leadership role, as a two-time chair of ECOWAS, as the world’s fourth largest contributor of UN peacekeeping forces, and as a recent non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Ghanaian President Kufuor also recently finished a term as President of the African Union. Ghana is committed to democracy, civilian control of the military and rule of law, with a lively media and an independent judiciary and Electoral Commission. Ghana has been a strong partner for the United States in the Global War on Terrorism and could serve as an anchor of stability and democracy in West Africa.

Meanwhile, Ghana’s security challenges are growing. Ghana has a rising and significant problem with transnational crime, including drug trafficking, trafficking in persons and financial crime.

Program Accomplishments

Previous police training and community policing initiatives have been accepted and adopted by the Ghana Police Service. Continued training will encourage the further implementation of reforms and expand training to respond to increasing threats to the rule of law, namely narcotics trafficking, corruption and related financial crimes.

In recent years, INL funds have helped to increase the capacity of the Ghana Narcotics Control Board to participate in increased narcotics seizures. INL funds have been used to support a successful 14- week basic police training course as well as intermittent 8-week police courses run by ICITAP. This training had the strong backing of the Inspector General of Police and the course was subsequently replicated by Ghana independently.

INL funded the establishment of a bicycle patrol program in Accra, Ghana to advance the concept of community policing. After the launch of the program in Accra in 2002,a similar initiative was undertaken to duplicate the bicycle patrol concept in Kumasi, a regional capital in the southern part of Ghana. In August 2004, 40 patrol bicycles were donated to the Ghana Police Service (GPS) to create a new community policing patrol unit in Kumasi. The Ghanaians have also incorporated into their police training programs the “train the trainers” concept used by INL-funded ICITAP police trainers.

In July 2005, ICITAP instructors presented a comprehensive 18-week train-the-trainer program to thirty members of the Ghanaian Police Force. The instructors successfully used Problem Based Learning (PBL) techniques, which have proved to be extremely effective throughout Africa. The instructors worked with the students to tailor a Basic Recruit Training (BRT) curriculum to meet the needs of the Ghanaian police. Topics included: First Responder, Gender/Sex Crime Issues, Force Protection and Civil Disorder Management. The tailored curriculum was created in order to be institutionalized into the police academy.

The BRT training has reportedly had a positive impact on the investigative capabilities of the GPS. In October 2005, the GPS requested that two officers who were participating in the INL training report to Headquarters to investigate a politically sensitive crime committed against a foreign-national female by a Ghanaian citizen. The GPS leadership has reported that the training the officers received in crisis intervention and techniques of interviewing victims of sexual assault has been critical in solving serious incidents and in conducting professional criminal investigations.

FY 2009 Program

The FY 2009 program will focus on continuing assistance for the implementation of a modern police training program with particular focus on providing training for various Ghanaian agencies on counternarcotics measures.

Counternarcotics

The program will provide training and advice to support the efforts of the Government of Ghana to institutionalize a modern police training program that includes strong counternarcotics efforts. Training may focus on air and sea port interdiction, international control deliveries, conspiracy investigations, and operational planning. Some training may also include participation by other states in the region to encourage regional cooperation. The program may also include targeted training for mid-level narcotics enforcement supervisors to increase the management and supervisory skills of mid-level supervisors in law enforcement agencies in Ghana. Assistance may also include more specialized training on police investigations, including drug related corruption, financial crimes and money laundering. There may also be assistance for developing a public awareness campaign involving law enforcement and civil society.

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Ghana
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Law Enforcement Development
-
-
450
-
Counternarcotics
-
-
-
500
Program Development and Support
-
-
46
-
Total

--496 500


Guinea

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

100

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program will strengthen the law enforcement capability of Guinea to combat drug trafficking, including the trafficking of Latin American cocaine. Such assistance will help Cape Verde’s drug enforcement authorities to be more effective and reliable partners with U.S., West African and other international law enforcement partners.

Progress will be measured by (a) the number of personnel and units trained in counternarcotics investigative, interdiction, and anti-corruption skills, (b) the increase in interdiction activities, including arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers, and (c) the degree of enhanced ability to plan and cooperate with other partners in combating drug trafficking.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2009 INCLE counternarcotics assistance to Guinea will bolster efforts of the Government of Guinea to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

Located in West Africa adjacent to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau, Guinea is strategically important to the stability of the region. The United States wants to encourage democratic progress in Guinea and discourage backsliding into authoritarian rule. We seek to encourage a more democratic Guinea to join its neighbors in playing an effective and helpful role in the region across a range of issues. Combating drug trafficking, while respecting human rights and the rule of law, is an important part of the role of civilian law enforcement agencies. An INCLE assistance program can help to foster professionalism in law enforcement, including addressing the major problem of public corruption.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific INCLE funding for Guinea was requested for the first time in FY 2009. The modalities of final program implementation have not yet been finalized.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 INCLE program funds for Guinea will assist the Government of Guinea enhance its law enforcement counternarcotics and drug related anti-corruption capabilities including the transiting of Latin American cocaine through West Africa to European and other destinations. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, such as from the European Union and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities of Guinea to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers. Assistance may include basic police investigative skills, anti-corruption and money-laundering training.

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Guinea
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Counternarcotics
-
-
-
100
Total

-
-
-
100



Guinea-Bissau

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

100

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program will strengthen the law enforcement capability of Guinea-Bissau to combat drug trafficking, in particular the trafficking of Latin American cocaine. Such assistance will help Guinea-Bissau’s drug enforcement authorities to be more effective and reliable partners with U.S., West African and other international law enforcement partners.

Progress will be measured by (a) the number of personnel and units trained in counternarcotics investigative, interdiction, and anti-corruption skills, (b) the increase in interdiction activities, including arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers, and (c) the degree of enhanced ability to plan and cooperate with other partners in combating drug trafficking.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2009 INCLE counternarcotics assistance to Guinea-Bissau will bolster efforts of the Government of Guinea-Bissau to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

The United States has good relations with Guinea-Bissau but there is currently no U.S. Embassy in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. The U.S. Ambassador to Senegal is also accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Embassy Dakar covers our relations with Guinea-Bissau. There is a decades-old history of armed conflict associated with the war for independence and post-independence that has devastated the country’s economic and social infrastructure and left Guinea-Bissau among the poorest countries in the world. Geographically located on the west coast of Africa, Guinea-Bissau also consists of an off-shore archipelago of 90 islands that adds substantially to the challenge of controlling its borders. Poverty, weak institutions of government and corruption create an environment particularly conducive to exploitation by transnational criminal elements. Trafficking of cocaine from Latin America through Guinea-Bissau to European destinations is a major problem that has captured the attention of the international community. Drug trafficking, drug-corruption and related crimes pose a serious challenge to the capability of Guinea-Bissau to progress on a path of democracy and legitimate free market development.

The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has a 5-year, 2-phased justice sector and prison reform assistance program with Guinea-Bissau (planned budget of $20 million) that has received some initial financing in the first phase for the assignment of an anti-narcotics consultant and a law enforcement adviser to Guinea-Bissau. On February 12, 2008, the Council of the European Union (EU) established an EU mission in support of security sector reform in Guinea-Bissau. With more than $8.0 million in funding, the EU mission will consist of approximately 15 military and civilian (including police and justice) advisers. Objectives for the 12-month mission include: (a) supporting the development of plans for reorganization of the police, including “mainstreaming the counternarcotics efforts”), (b) advising on an effective criminal investigations capacity, (c) advising on the Interpol National Central Bureau in Bissau, and (d) assisting in planning for the organization of short-term training activities for the Judicial Police.

U.S. counternarcotics assistance will bolster the efforts of Guinea-Bissau and of the other international partners to combat the trafficking of narcotics through Guinea-Bissau to West African, European and other destinations.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 is the first year in which INCLE funding for Guinea-Bissau has been requested. The detailed modalities of program implementation have not yet been finalized.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 INCLE program funds for Guinea-Bissau will assist the Government of Guinea-Bissau to enhance its counternarcotics capabilities, particularly the interdiction of Latin American cocaine transiting through West Africa to Europe, and other destinations. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, notably from the European Union and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities of Guinea-Bissau to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers. Assistance may include basic police investigative skills, anti-corruption and drug-related money-laundering training. INL may program its FY 2009 INCLE assistance for Guinea-Bissau through the UNODC.

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Guinea-Bissau
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Counternarcotics
-
-
-
100
Total

---100


Kenya

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

100


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program for Kenya will strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector to investigate and arrest criminals engaged in trafficking-in-persons crimes and to assist victims of trafficking.

Progress will be measured by steps taken toward enforcing and strengthening trafficking-in-persons legislation, particularly legislation against labor trafficking; an increase in the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of human trafficking; an increase in public awareness about the extent and severity of human trafficking promoted through television and radio; trained law enforcement, social services, and diplomatic staff to recognize and document trafficking cases; and, an increase in penalties for public officials or law enforcement authorities who are complicit with trafficking or hamper efforts to bring traffickers to justice.

Transformational Diplomacy

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a growing transnational crime that undermines peace and security and the goal of transformational diplomacy. Through force, fraud, and coercion, TIP deprives people of their most basic human rights; people are bought and sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. High profits subvert the rule of law by corrupting government officials and weakening police and criminal justice institutions. Human trafficking is a global problem that has country-specific, regional, and transnational elements.

Program Justification

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is an egregious abuse of human rights that is also a public health menace and a global threat to the rule of law. The U.S. Government estimates that hundreds of thousands of persons are trafficked across international borders each year for labor and sexual exploitation. Kenya is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Kenyan children are trafficked within the country for domestic servitude, street vending, agricultural labor, and commercial sexual exploitation, including involvement in the coastal sex tourism industry.

The Government of Kenya does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. In the 2007 Trafficking in Persons Report, Kenya was placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for a second consecutive year, due to the lack of evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking over the last year. The Kenya Police Service’s Human Trafficking Unit conducted no investigations into trafficking cases during the reporting period. There were no trafficking prosecutions or convictions
reported over the prior year.

In Kenya, corruption among law enforcement authorities and other public officials hampers efforts to bring traffickers to justice. In August 2006, two police officers in Trans-Nzoia were suspended from duty for complicity in trafficking, but were reinstated without further disciplinary action.

Kenya also lacks laws against labor trafficking. Currently, the Attorney General’s Office is reviewing a draft comprehensive anti-trafficking bill but more efforts must be taken to ensure that proposed legislation is enforced and traffickers brought to justice.

Program Accomplishments

No country-specific funding was allocated for Kenya in FY 2008.

FY 2009 Program

The lead government advocate on the issue is the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP) at the Department of State. This office is responsible for developing, monitoring and overseeing USG anti-trafficking policy and programs; compiling the largest government-produced annual Trafficking in Persons Report (the TIP Report); and advancing public awareness and advocacy involving practical solutions to governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, Congress, and the media, toward the goal of eradicating this form of modern-day slavery.

FY 2009 INL funds will help sensitize law enforcement officials to trafficking crimes by pushing for greater numbers of investigations and prosecutions of traffickers. In particular, Kenya needs assistance in passing, implementing, and enforcing comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation, while pushing for stricter penalties for public officials that are complicit or hamper investigations and prosecutions of trafficking cases. Special attention will be paid to expanding efforts to address child sex tourism in the coastal regions and instituting trafficking awareness training for Kenyan diplomats posted overseas.

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Kenya
INL BUDGET
($000)



FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Trafficking in Persons
-
-
-
100
Total

-
-
-
100


Liberia

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

1,000

4,096

4,130

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

U.S. police advisors provide training and technical assistance to the Liberian National Police (LNP) to continue the development of the LNP as a professional police service. Non-lethal equipment for carrying out their policing duties is procured and donated to the LNP. Support is also given to strengthening the LNP’s physical plant. $2.0 million is requested to support these activities.

U.S. justice advisors, including prosecutors, a public defender, court administrators, and a corrections specialist, provide technical training and support to the justice sector in Liberia. In addition, equipment for carrying out their justice roles is procured and donated to the various justice sector organizations. Support is also given to strengthening the justice sector’s physical infrastructure. $2.13 million is requested to support these activities.

Transformational Diplomacy

The Civilian Police (CivPol) project advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective, specifically Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform, by funding U.S. police advisors to the LNP. Rule of law is a keystone for the continued stability, security, and future development of Liberia. As one of the primary guarantors of rule of law in Liberia, the LNP’s successful transformation is crucial to ensuring the country’s overall future. Continued technical and material support, through providing U.S. advisors, donating equipment, and developing the LNP’s infrastructure, will strengthen the LNP and thereby contribute to Liberia’s peace and security.

The Justice Sector Support Liberia (JSSL) project advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Governing Justly and Democratically objective, specifically Rule of Law and Human Rights, by funding justice sector advisors, training activities, and developing and strengthening its infrastructure. This support is focused not only on the judicial system, but also the Ministry of Justice, the corrections system and other organizations contributing to the justice sector and rule of law in Liberia. Without a properly functioning judicial system, prosecutors, able defenders, and trained corrections personnel, the goals of rule of law and respect for human rights cannot be achieved in Liberia. All the JSSL activities go directly to improving the quality of justice and observance of human rights in Liberia.

Program Justification

After more than two decades of conflict and instability, Liberia's ability to enforce its own laws and maintain the peace remains tenuous. The November 2005 election of Ellen Johnson –Sirleaf as President of Liberia, the first female president on the African continent, brought a new sense of hope to the Liberian people. Maintaining peace and stability by ensuring enforcement of Liberian laws is a top priority of the new President. LNP infrastructure and capabilities remain weak, posing significant challenges to effective law enforcement. Additional challenges include rising domestic violence and trafficking in women and children. The Liberian public views the LNP with skepticism and mistrust. Strengthening the ability of the new Liberian government to address these and other law enforcement problems is a key program priority.

Since December 2003, the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) has been providing security and maintaining the peace with a UN Police component of approximately 1,015 officers from 37 different nations. The U.S. contribution to UNMIL, which reached a high of 76 officers in early 2004, is critical to U.S. interests in maximizing effectiveness of UNMIL. There are 14 U.S. civilian police officers currently assigned to UNMIL. UNMIL delivered a draw-down plan to the Security Council in early 2006 linked to the security situation, an evaluation of progress on developing Liberian police and armed forces, and a forward-look assessment of Liberian capabilities to establish and maintain the rule of law. The UN is expected to remain in Liberia until at least mid-2008.

Program Accomplishments

With the assistance of U.S. police provided to UNMIL, training of the Liberian police continues. There are approximately 750 trainees at the police academy, 500 trainees undergoing in-field training, 2,300 graduates from the academy in total, and an additional 250 LNP employees who underwent in-service training. U.S. police advisors are continuing to provide technical advice and support to the LNP. Uniforms and other basic supplies for the planned 3,500 strong LNP force were donated to them in the spring of 2007.

Training of justice sector personnel continues. Aside from the improved quality of their Liberian counterparts’ work, concrete successes include the creation of the first public defender program in Liberia’s history, renovations to the main judicial building in Monrovia, the Temple of Justice, creation of a case-numbering system that will eventually be replicated nationally, the donation of two buses to the Temple of Justice, training of the prosecutor’s office, and fostering ties between the LNP and the prosecutor’s office.

FY 2009 Program

The FY 2009 CivPol program will provide several high-level U.S. police officers to serve as technical advisers to the LNP. These officers will continue mentoring, advising and monitoring the LNP to encourage better police-community relations and discourage human rights violations. Police experts in the areas of community policing, anti-trafficking and domestic violence will train LNP officers in the most up-to-date police techniques in order to increase the capacity of the LNP in these high-priority areas. Program funds will also be used to purchase non-lethal equipment. The donation of basic equipment and rehabilitation of physical infrastructure will also continue.

The FY 2009 JSSL program will continue to provide justice sector personnel to serve as technical advisers to the various organs of the Liberian justice sector. These advisers will mentor, advise, and monitor their counterparts to encourage a more consistent and smoothly functioning Liberian justice process. Various activities will be undertaken to train, equip, and improve the physical infrastructure of all aspects of the justice sector, including the courts, prosecutors’ and defenders’ offices, and corrections facilities.

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Liberia
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Crime Control

Civilian Police
1,000
-
1,650
1,500
Police Development and Reform
-
-
350
500
Criminal Justice Development

Justice Reform
-
-
2,096
2,130

Sub-Total
1,000
-
4,096
4,130
Total

1,000
-
4,096
4,130


Mauritania

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

300

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program for Mauritania will help to develop the capacity of law enforcement personnel and units to cooperate and coordinate efforts in addressing terrorism affecting the country and the region.

Progress will be measured by increased collaboration among various law enforcement entities as well as by increased counter-terrorism investigations, arrests, and prosecutions.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2009 funds will build on previous Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Anti-Terrorism Assistance (DS/ATA) assessments and Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) programs and will provide technical assistance and training to develop the capability for counter-terrorism planning and coordination. INL programs will help Mauritania effectively establish the conditions and capacity for achieving peace, security, and stability and for responding effectively against rising threats to national and international security and stability.

Program Justification

It remains vital for the United States to maintain our good relations with Mauritania, a country with an almost exclusively Muslim population that is a partner in the Global War on Terrorism. The government's capacity for action remains limited, however, and we need to continue our efforts to strengthen it.

Program Accomplishments

This is the first year of INL funding in Mauritania.

FY 2009 Program

INL funds will build on previous DS/ATA assessments and TSCTP programs and provide technical assistance and training for law enforcement personnel and units to strengthen their capacity to address terrorism affecting Mauritania and the region.

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Mauritania
INL BUDGET
($000)



FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Counterterrorism
-
-
-
300
Total



-
-
-

300



Mozambique

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

300

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improved border control at land border and seaports of entry.

A strategic plan for border control is implemented; improved detection techniques and training lead to a reduction in illegal migrants and human trafficking leaving and entering Mozambique; increased seizures of drugs and other contraband; increased customs revenue collection; and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Transformational Diplomacy

Mozambique is a potential transit country for terrorists due to porous borders, corruption, and weak law enforcement. The INL program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding a border security project designed to improve the capacity of customs and border security forces at points of entry. Well-equipped and trained law enforcement personnel will contribute to the country’s ability to secure its borders and prevent criminal activities, thereby strengthening the rule of law.

Program Justification

East and Southern Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including: trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; financial crime; and terrorist attacks.

Mozambique is the southern African “middleman,” providing a vital outlet for landlocked countries such as Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and the Congo. Although South Africa boasts the longest coastline of any country on the continent, it also relies heavily on Mozambican ports because—for many of these countries—the ports in Mozambique are the closest and easiest for transshipment of goods.

A major challenge at ports of entry (POE) in Mozambique is the circumvention by immigrants of the designated official crossing points. The use of Mozambique as a thoroughfare for illegal aliens from the Horn of Africa and the Indian Sub-continent, who continue to South Africa (Mozambique and South Africa signed a bilateral agreement to lift visa requirements in early 2005) and further destinations, is detrimental to security and stability in the region.

Program Accomplishments

Programs to promote institutional law enforcement development in Mozambique have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. A Border Security Program started in 2005 continued to progress. Specifically, INL funding was being used to enhance the capability of point of entry-based immigration, customs, and law enforcement units to interdict criminal elements, and to quickly and accurately share information with relevant agencies. Under this program, a comprehensive port assessment of all the land borders in the country identified areas that would benefit from additional assistance. In addition, the Government of Mozambique recently formed the Institution of Sea and Borders to create a collaborative effort to secure its borders.

The Academy of Police Sciences (ACIPOL) in Mozambique was established in 2000 in order to train a class of new leaders to carry-on the anti-corruption efforts of the police. INL introduced several courses in instructor development and criminal investigations to ACIPOL cadets, select members of the Mozambican law enforcement community, and a handful of prosecutors, engendering greater cooperation between police and prosecutors. INL continued to provide training for police officers in basic skills and community policing for officer candidates at the Academy during the year.

A Community Policing Program expanded upon previous INL-funded activities, incorporating additional actors in Mozambique’s law enforcement community. As a result of the success of this program—specifically the bicycle patrol program—the Government is looking to expand the community policing program nationwide. The community-policing program allowed the police to begin gathering criminal intelligence and has assuaged some of the mistrust felt between the police and the community in which they serve.

Past INL funds were also used for an anti-corruption program to improve the performance of the recently restructured Central Office for the Combat of Corruption, formerly the Anti-Corruption Unit, in the Attorney General's office. INL funded training for prosecutors in investigative and case management skills. INL funds also supported a scholarship program for degree training in law and auditing for Attorney General personnel.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 funding continue to support Mozambique’s efforts to improve its capacity to control its borders. Equipment and training will strengthen Mozambique’s virtually nonexistent ability to patrol its extended coastline, making Mozambique a less inviting country for clandestine movement across borders of people and contraband. Fighting trafficking in persons is a key objective for the government, who has identified actors, both within and outside the government, to fight human trafficking and increase arrests. Technical assistance will be directed at Mozambican customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land ports of entry. Funds will provide for train-the-trainer courses and seminars covering issues such as integrity, interdiction, and document fraud. Continued improvements to border security at these outlying posts will help make Mozambique a more difficult operating environment for cross-border crime, as well as bring it closer to international standards for border controls.

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Mozambique
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Border Security
-
-
-
300
Total

-
-
-
300


Nigeria

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

400

1,190

1,200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The objectives for INL’s program in Nigeria are to 1) strengthen Nigeria’s law enforcement capacity in drug interdiction and counternarcotics skills; 2) help Nigerian drug enforcement authorities become effective and reliable partners with the U.S. and other West African law enforcement agencies; and 3) train law enforcement authorities in new interdiction skills to increase the number of drug traffickers detected and arrested at entry points, including airports.

Performance indicators for the Nigerian program are: a) The Nigerian Police Force (NPF) conducts financial crimes and money laundering investigations; b) Nigerians have restored public faith in their law enforcement and cooperate with the security services; c) the NPF maintains an electronic database of police records; and d) there is an increase in arrests and prosecutions in financial crimes cases.
Transformational Diplomacy

INL programs in Nigeria are designed around the Department of State’s Transformational Diplomacy objectives of Peace and Security and Governing Justly and Democratically. As the most populous country on the continent, a prosperous and democratic Nigeria is vital to Africa’s growth and stability and to U.S. interests in the region. The USG in its development partnership with Nigeria seeks to address pervasive corruption and ineffective governance, while promoting social stability through strengthening transparent and accountable governance in Nigeria. This partnership will help further political, economic, and social progress as Nigeria continues to embark on a meaningful democratic transition.

Program Justification

Nigeria is our most important strategic partner in Africa – an African leader in peacekeeping and conflict resolution. The U.S. has a strategic interest in ensuring a stable, democratic and prosperous Nigeria. Instability would lead to profound repercussions in the region and globally.

Following seriously flawed elections in 2007, Nigeria's new leadership faces a crisis of legitimacy. Nigeria is in great need of programs that are aimed at advancing good governance and anti-corruption reforms, strengthening civil society, increasing economic productivity, and stimulating investment and job growth. The corrosive impact of corruption in Nigeria is evident at every level of government and limits what government can achieve. Worse still, many individuals seek government office either with the objective of maintaining their personnel access, or the access of their group, to this system of corruption. Years of military rule and economic decline also contributed to the expansion of narcotics trafficking and criminality in Nigeria. Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting narcotics to markets in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Africa. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled through Nigeria amounts to a significant portion of the heroin smuggled into the U.S., resulting in Nigeria being placed on the U.S. list of major drug producing and drug-transit countries.

At least 5% of Nigeria's export output is regularly stolen and sold on the black market. This illicit trade underscores Nigeria's most serious problem -- corruption -- and helps explain why 70% of its population lives on less than a dollar a day. Severe unemployment and widespread corruption punctuate the incentives and the means for Nigerian criminal organizations to make Nigeria a major transit point in the international narcotics trade.

Some of these criminal organizations are engaged in money laundering and other forms of financial crime that defraud U.S. citizens and businesses. Professionalism and reform of the security services are critical components of INL’s partnership with Nigeria, along with providing support to institutions involved in counternarcotics work. Success in this effort is critical to strengthening democratic institutions in Nigeria.

Program Accomplishments

Since its return to democratic government, Nigeria has demonstrated its commitment to cooperating with the U.S. in combating international crime emanating from Nigeria, including narcotics trafficking and financial fraud. With the continued assistance of the U.S., the GON is also focusing on combating public corruption, money laundering and terrorist financing.

Nigeria earned full certification in the past five years for its counternarcotics efforts. Under the direction of its new chairman, the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) has undergone a re-organization in an attempt to eliminate corruption and promote a core system of values within the agency. The NDLEA has reconstituted the Joint Task Force and has expressed a renewed commitment to cooperation. The DEA country attaché maintains daily communication with the NDLEA Chairman and the INL Narcotics and Law Enforcement Advisor in Abuja consults with key NDLEA officials weekly. In addition, INL donated equipment to the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). EFCC has been used to maintain EFCC records and track cases, resulting in a higher percentage of arrests and prosecutions of financial fraud.

In addition, the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) conducted investigations involving 14 governors, several National Assembly members and at least three current and former cabinet ministers. Since May 2005, an Intermittent Legal Advisor (ILA) has had an office at the ICPC. The ILA has been advising and providing training to the prosecutors of the ICPC, the EFCC, and the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP). In July 2005, the ILA organized a public corruption training program for over 50 prosecutors in Lagos and over 60 prosecutors in Abuja. The prosecutors were representative of five different law enforcement agencies in Nigeria: the ICPC, EFCC, NAPTIP, the NDLEA, and the Government of Nigeria’s Ministry of Justice. The program concluded with a mock trial in which all the prosecutors participated. Training and technical assistance continued in 2006 and 2007

In 2004, an INL-funded technical advisor continued to provide assistance working with the civilian oversight body, the Police Service Commission (PSC), in Abuja to enforce its mandate to oversee the recruitment, promotion, and discipline of members of the NPF. The advisor assisted the PSC in drafting standard operating procedures and advised them on developing a working relationship with the NPF. The advisor assisted the Commission in developing a code of conduct, mission statement, a code of ethics, civilian complaint forms, a system for classifying complaints, guidelines for investigative staff, rules of evidence collection and storage, and procedures for filing complaints. A two-week Basic Criminal Investigation Course was also offered in Abuja to selected members of the PSC’s Department of Investigations, representatives from all other departments within the PSC, and the Commissioner and chairman of the PSC.

FY 2009 Program

INL program objectives include strengthening democratic governance in Nigeria, particularly in the criminal justice sector, and protecting the U.S. against international crime. FY 2009 programs will build the capacity of the Government of Nigeria to continue its anti-corruption programs, increase the use of community-based policing, investigate and monitor financial crimes and money laundering, and interdict and investigate drug trafficking. Programs will also focus on building capacity of key Nigerian law enforcement agencies, such as the Nigerian Police Force, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, and the Nigerian Drug and Law Enforcement Agency, through training, technical advising and equipment.

INL is working with the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) to promote and enforce the rule of law by depriving corrupt individuals and institutions of the financial proceeds of their crimes. Many Nigerians are growing increasingly intolerant of the corrosive effects corruption has had on Nigeria’s ability to govern itself.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, travel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the narcotics and law enforcement affairs programs.

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Nigeria
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009


Law Enforcement Support

Counternarcotics Support
-
-
200
300

Police Modernization
-
-
200
-

Financial Fraud
-
-
200
300

Sub-Total
-
-
600
600
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
150
-
290
300

Non-U.S. Personnel
25
-
100
100

ICASS Costs
200
-
-
-

Program Support
25
-
200
200

Sub-Total
400
-
590
600
Total

400
-
1,190
1,200


Sierra Leone

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

250

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 INCLE program will strengthen the law enforcement capability of Sierra Leone to combat drug trafficking, including the trafficking of Latin American cocaine. U.S. assistance will help Sierra Leone’s drug enforcement authorities to be effective and reliable partners with U.S., West African and other international law enforcement partners.

Progress will be measured by (a) the number of personnel and units trained in counternarcotics investigative, interdiction and anti-corruption skills, (b) the increase in interdiction activities, including arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers, and (c) the degree of enhanced ability to plan and cooperate with other partners in combating drug trafficking.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2009 INCLE counternarcotics assistance to Sierra Leone will bolster efforts of the Government of Sierra Leone to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

The United States in its relations with Sierra Leone has an interest in promoting democratic governance and human rights, regional stability and security, and economic growth and development. Combating drug trafficking, while respecting human rights and the rule of law, is an important part of the role of civilian law enforcement agencies. INCLE assistance will help to foster professionalism in law enforcement, including respect for human rights and rule of law in a democratic society.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 will be the first year of funding for Sierra Leone to combat drug trafficking.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 INCLE program funds for Sierra Leone will assist the Government of Sierra Leone to enhance its law enforcement counternarcotics capabilities to interdict drug trafficking, particularly South American cocaine transiting through West Africa to Europe. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, such as by the European Union and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities of Sierra Leone to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers. Assistance may also include basic police investigative skills, anti-corruption and money laundering training.

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Sierra Leone
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Counternarcotics
-
-
-
250
Total

-
-
-
250


Sudan

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

9,800

13,578

24,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL assistance in Sudan is aimed at two program objectives; the comprehensive development of criminal justice sector institutions in Southern Sudan, and support for the implementation and operation of policing missions (CIVPOL) in the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) and the UN/African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).

The bilateral criminal justice development program for the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) is augmented through increased support for police, justice, and corrections components. International technical experts and trainers are deployed and assist the GOSS in building a democratic police force, developing and implementing strategies for police and criminal justice reform, and training and equipping police and criminal justice sector personnel.

A cadre of GOSS high ranking police officials will continue implementation of a strategy for police including planning for officer and recruit training, records management and the absorption of ex-combatants. U.S. technical experts advise on ongoing police and criminal justice reform and anti-corruption activities, monitor the creation and use of a records management and accountability system in the police and prisons, and provide training and equipment support to criminal justice sector institutions in up to five pilot areas. GOSS further develops a legal framework for governing criminal justice, including a legislative and policy framework that is widely understood and available throughout the South, and includes associated training programs for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel on new laws and procedures.

The CIVPOL program provides multilateral assistance that advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding U.S. police advisors to work under the command of UNMIS. The U.S. currently provides integrated support to UNMIS, including 11 police officers, who are helping Sudan transform its police into a credible and competent service that respects human rights and the rule of law, and 4 judicial and corrections advisors, who mentor and monitor counterparts to develop a more consistent and smoothly functioning Sudanese justice process. U.S. police deployed with UNMIS demonstrate U.S. support for UNMIS and the CPA. The deployment of U.S. officers to UNMIS supports the UN’s efforts in developing rule of law throughout Sudan.

The U.S. has also begun providing support to the AU-UN Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID). INL intends to deploy up to 10 U.S. police advisors to advise, mentor and monitor Sudanese police in Darfur. Support is also being contemplated to help train and equip the police of contributing countries to Darfur.

In addition to its traditional programs, INL is working closely with the Department of State’s Bureau for Political-Military Affairs (PM ) to support the deployment of Formed Police Units (FPU) to Darfur, a critical precursor to the safe and secure establishment of the UN-AU mission. INL may leverage its funding toward the deployment of COESPU Mobile Training Teams (MTTs), which first train and evaluate FPUs prior to the donation of equipment.

Transformational Diplomacy

Like other rebuilding and developing countries, Sudan faces critical barriers to transformational diplomacy goals due to instability and a lack of governance. INL FY 2009 programs advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy objective of improving Peace and Security by supporting the capabilities of UNMIS, UNAMID and Southern Sudanese criminal justice institutions to foster the rule of law and improve security in the Sudan. Furthermore, INL FY 2009 assistance supports the Governing Justly and Democratically objective by providing capacity building assistance to judicial systems and facilitation for cooperation between formal and customary justice systems in Southern Sudan. INL programs seek to promote security and stability, and to provide a platform for social, economic, and political progress in Sudan, which is essential to regional stability.

Program Justification

The “North-South Conflict” in Sudan is Africa’s oldest conflict, beginning in 1956 and lasting until the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). In 2005, the UN Security Council mandated deployment of 10,000 peacekeepers and 700 civilian police to staff the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The United States, a leader in pressing for strong international action by the United Nations and its agencies in both the creation of the CPA and in the crisis in Darfur, pledged support for the CPA and UN mission.

INL programs in Sudan will support the implementation of the CPA by assisting the GOSS in developing the institutional capacities of the police and criminal justice system. Challenges to the provisions of public and personal security for the Sudanese people impede international humanitarian efforts, peaceful return of refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), reintegration of ex-combatants, and long-term development goals in Sudan. Creation of a democratic police force and transparent and accessible criminal justice system in Southern Sudan is essential to generate public confidence in the GOSS and the CPA. The INL program is critical to the U.S. and international commitments to support demilitarization and security sector reform in Sudan.

UNMIS police advisors funded through INCLE provide key resources towards the establishment of public security in Sudan. UNMIS presence further helps to mitigate localized conflict and monitor geographic flashpoints while GOSS security and rule of law capabilities are stood-up.

Rapid and effective deployment of UN police to the Mission in Darfur has taken on increased urgency and may prove a critical component of UNAMID’s success. The U.S. is committed to deploying U.S. civilian police advisors as well as assisting in pre-deployment training and equipping efforts for other Police Contributing Countries deploying to Darfur. Training and equipping of foreign FPU’s will also enhance security in the region.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 represents the third year of INCLE funding for INL in Sudan. INL received PKO funds in FY 2005 to support the assignment of one U.S. police officer to UNMIS. In FY06, INL received ESF funds to deploy 13 officers to UNMIS, of which, two judicial officers and two corrections officers were deployed, creating the first Integrated Criminal Justice Contingent. This model contingent served as a facilitator for comprehensive criminal justice sector development in Southern Sudan through the aegis of the UNMIS Policing Mission. FY 2006 ESF also funded a law enforcement development program in Southern Sudan to begin training and advising of senior GOSS law enforcement officials in election security policing and riot response.

INL also participated in an interagency criminal justice sector assessment in 2007. This report guided the development of an INL strategy for future program design and implementation in Sudan.

FY 2007 was the first year of INCLE funding for Sudan. FY 2007 and FY 2008 programs formed a comprehensive program for criminal justice sector development in Sudan, including multilateral and bilateral components. The multilateral component supported the deployment of 15 officers to UNMIS. These deployments continued to include law enforcement, judicial and corrections officers. The bilateral component deployed senior law enforcement, judicial and corrections advisors to actively assist and support development in the three tenets of the criminal justice system in Southern Sudan, with a specific focus on three target areas. INL and the GOSS signed agreements to begin assistance for quick impact projects such as the development of a law library and a project to provide training and equipment to allow the GOSS justice sector to print and disseminate important legal documents.

FY 2009 Program

The FY 2009 program has both a multilateral and bilateral component. Through support to UNMIS and UNAMID the U.S. engages in the multilateral international police effort to maintain peace and stability in Sudan. The U.S. bilateral program complements the UNMIS efforts and supports development of GOSS law enforcement and criminal justice capacities. The bilateral program, developed in consultation with the GOSS and U.S. interagency, continues to cover all three components of a functioning criminal justice system – police, courts, and corrections.

Civilian Police (CIVPOL)

INL funds will support up to 15 U.S. police officers to UNMIS. U.S. officers will provide expertise in training, mentoring, and curriculum development. Activities will include patrols and monitoring in key areas in Sudan, and providing presence to encourage and support CPA implementation.

Increased funding in FY 2009 will enable INL to increase its support for Darfur. The size of the U.S. contingent could increase to 15-20 officers, thereby increasing the opportunity to impact enhanced security in IDP camps and other locations where CIVPOL will be deployed. U.S. advisors will also help to develop and monitor rule of law in Darfur.

GOSS Police Development

INL will provide equipment, training and advisors to develop the institutional capacities of the Southern Sudanese Police Service. Programs will develop and support police training, accountability, management and the promotion of human rights. Police advisors will implement comprehensive police development projects in up to five pilot areas. Previous year INCLE funding will have assisted in the establishment of accountability and records management systems needed for significant donations of equipment. An increase in funding under this project from FY 2008 to FY 2009 will greatly enhance INL efforts to meet critical SSPS equipment shortfalls in each pilot and across the South.

Criminal Justice Reform

Coordinated closely with ongoing USG and international donor programs, INL will support justice sector reform in Southern Sudan to ensure that police are operating within the proper legal framework of a functioning criminal justice system, that the judicial system meets the basic legal needs of communities, and that the formal judicial system can function in tandem with customary legal systems to mediate conflicts and deter crime. The program will include a range of activities such as the provision of up to two legal advisors to focus on development and implementation of pertinent laws; advocacy training for prosecutors, defense counsel, and paralegals; and development of adjudicative skills for judges. Targeted infrastructure, such as refurbishment and construction of courtrooms and offices for justice personnel, and equipment support will also be provided.

INL will also provide assistance to strengthen the capacity of the Southern Sudanese criminal justice system to support secure elections in Southern Sudan. INL will facilitate election security planning and provide training and equipment to criminal justice institutions to enhance their ability to effectively contribute to safe and fair elections in 2009 and 2011.

Correctional Development

INL will support the GOSS in developing a corrections system that is secure and meets international human rights standards. Activities will include targeted equipment donations, technical advice for the GOSS on strategic development and institutional reform, as well as training for corrections administrators and guards to improve security and human rights performance. Funds will also be available for refurbishment of select facilities and procurement of essential equipment for corrections officers.

Program Development and Support

PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct-hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, management and evaluation.

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Sudan
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Request

Crime Control


Civilian Police
3,800
-
4,900
6,000
Police Development and Reform
1,850
-
4,878
12,150
Criminal Justice Development


Justice Reform
1,850
-
1,850
1,850

Correctional Services Development
1,250
-
1,450
3,000

Sub-Total
8,750
-
13,078
23,000
Program Development and Support


U.S. Personnel
250
-
150
300

Non-U.S. Personnel
200
-
100
200

ICASS Costs
-
-
-
100

Program Support
600
-
250
400

Sub-Total
1,050
-
500
1,000
Total

9,800
-
13,578
24,000


Tanzania

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

450

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Tanzania will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement groups within the region.

Increased numbers trained at select police training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

The capacity of the criminal justice sector within Tanzania to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S., such as illegal immigration and border security, will continue to be strengthened.

Skills-based training will continue to be emphasized; technical assistance, training and equipment delivered to and effectively utilized by recipients; increased numbers of criminal investigations conducted by police; improved quality of evidence used in criminal court cases; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation and information sharing.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2009 INL program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy objective of Peace and Security by developing Tanzania’s police force as it evolves into a modern, democratic, and responsive law enforcement institution. With improved internal controls against police corruption, professional development opportunities for the police force, and forensic capabilities to increase successful prosecutions, the police will be better equipped to control illicit activities and maintain stability.

Program Justification

Tanzania is a key U.S. ally in East Africa that has maintained a stable government since independence. The 1998 terrorist bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Dar es Salaam brought the governments of Tanzania and the United States into an even closer economic, political, and security alliance.

While the situation in Tanzania has improved, the threat of terrorism remains at a critical level, partly due to porous borders and the perception that terrorists can act with impunity and little risk of detection in the country. The crime environment is permissive, as indicated by the increasing frequency of criminals carrying firearms. Tanzania's long and poorly controlled border fails to prevent would-be criminals and bandits from other countries from entering it.

Tanzania is located along trafficking routes linking Latin America, the Middle East and Asia as well South Africa, Europe and, to a lesser extent, the United States. According to the 2007 INCSR, drugs like hashish, cocaine, heroin, mandrax, and opium have found their way into and through Tanzania's porous borders. Tanzanian institutions have minimal capacity to combat drug trafficking, and corruption reduces that capacity still further.

Program Accomplishments

Though fairly new and with limited funding, the law enforcement development program in Tanzania has flourished. During the past few years, the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF) has received civil disorder management training (CDM), including the development of a riot deployment strategy designed by command-level officers with the assistance of a U.S. advisor. Having institutionalized CDM training at its basic academy in Masindi, the TPF has trained an additional one thousand TPF members in CDM. In June 2006, INL funded a one-week CDM course to TPF personnel to review lessons learned from the 2005 election.

INL assistance in forensic lab development has continued with excellent results. Since 2003, INL has funded a senior forensic technical advisor to the TPF to develop a forensic laboratory. Equipment, including a superglue chamber, computer equipment for a computerized fingerprint database, firearms equipment, and a comparison microscope with a 35mm camera, has been donated. Technical procedures are at various stages of completion, and the TPF have incorporated the uses of the new instruments and equipment that have been provided. Training of laboratory personnel continued in Crime Scene Investigation, Laboratory Safety, and Quality Assurance. Government of Tanzania cooperation has been exceptional, resulting in host government-funded upgrades to existing lab space completed ahead of schedule.

FY 2009 Program

Building on prior successes, FY 2009 INL funds for Tanzania will further sustain effective, professional and accountable law enforcement services to improve the government’s capacity to protect persons, property, and democratic institutions against criminal and other extralegal elements. Assistance will help advance the Mission’s long-term strategy of modernizing Tanzania’s law enforcement system and strengthening Tanzania's border security. Specifically, INL funds will provide technical assistance and training to the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF) in various areas, such as counternarcotics, financial investigative techniques, and border security, to develop a wide range of professional skills.

In addition, FY 2009 INL assistance will continue developing the USG-sponsored forensic laboratory to better facilitate evidence-based investigations and prosecutions. Technical advisory services in the form of more expert training and lab equipment are needed in order to bring the TPF’s forensics laboratory up to par with other crime labs worldwide.

The Government of Tanzania has been receptive to INL programs in the past, as demonstrated by the replication of the basic skills training and the success of the forensic lab. Steps have been taken to incorporate INL programs into the daily operation of law enforcement institutions, and the police force in particular will benefit from additional assistance.

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Tanzania
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Police Development and Reform
-
-
450
Total

-
-

450


Uganda

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

---

350

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the Ugandan criminal justice sector to detect, investigate, and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. will continue to be strengthened, particularly in the areas of illegal migration and terrorism.

Skills-based training will continue to be emphasized; technical assistance, training and equipment delivered to and effectively utilized by recipients; increased numbers of criminal investigations conducted by police; improved quality of evidence used in criminal court cases; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation and information sharing.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Uganda will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement agencies. Training will focus on further development of community policing techniques, particularly in Northern Uganda, when feasible.

Increased numbers trained in community-based policing; development and implementation of community engagement by police; development and implementation of plans to improve law enforcement responsibility and rule of law; an increase in investigations conducted as a result of community involvement and cooperation with police; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Transformational Diplomacy

INL assistance in Uganda advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy objective of improving Peace and Security by developing Ugandan criminal justice institutions’ capabilities to maintain the rule of law and improve community security, especially with regard to northern Uganda. The biggest obstacle facing the country is recovering from the armed insurgency of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), which has killed and abducted thousands of civilians, including children. INL crime and drug programs will support the development of professional and sustainable law enforcement institutions capable of detecting and deterring criminals operating in their territories and adequately respond to such security threats.

Program Justification

Uganda, one of America's key partners in Africa, has established itself as a regional leader advancing efforts to resolve conflicts in Congo, Sudan, Burundi, Somalia and in its own northern region. Conflicts in the north have furthered Uganda’s struggle to transition into a fully representative, multiparty democracy. The needs in northern Uganda include better security, continued reintegration of ex-combatants, and increasing steps towards national reconciliation. As northern Uganda transitions from a conflict emergency to more traditional development assistance, increasing support will be needed to ensure stability. By making Uganda less attractive to criminal elements, INL programs foster the rule of law that forms the bedrock upon which the USG’s broader strategic goals of democracy, prosperity, and peace and security are established.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Sub-Saharan Africa have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. Notable among these successes has been the investment by the government of Uganda, which has maximized INL assistance by replicating USG training and methods, and funding laboratory upgrades beyond that provided by INL.

Beginning in 2004, the Ugandan government began applying the U.S.-developed training curriculum to train over 500 Ugandan Police Force (UPF) recruits. In February 2004, instructors taught a 16-week Basic Skills Development Program using a “train-the-trainer” curriculum with 24 instructors from the UPF: twelve officer and twelve basic recruit instructors. In May 2005, INL funded management training for field training officers in the UPF, which built upon the basic skills training development program conducted in 2004. Case management training took place during the year.

Forensic training for the Uganda Police Force, which began in 2004, continued during the following years. A Senior Forensic Advisor (TA) advised on the lab design during the renovation of the building to house the forensic lab. INL-funded trainers also provided training to the laboratory staff in Crime Scene Investigation, Basis and Advanced Fingerprint Examination, Digital Photography and specialized Computer Software Programs. Additionally, INL funds were used to provide equipment and advanced training in Forensic Autopsy Procedures to the forensic pathologists at Mulago Hospital, which performs autopsies for the Ugandan Police Force. The success of the forensic program is noteworthy.

Recently, a student of a 2005 INL-funded fingerprint course was called to a crime scene involving major fraud of U.S. currency. Using a specific technique (never used in Uganda) and advice offered by the TA, a fingerprint was successfully lifted and subsequently identified as belonging to a suspect who had been arrested. This was the only direct evidence that the police had obtained that linked the suspect to the package.

FY 2009 Program

Building on previous cooperation with the Ugandan police, the FY 2009 program will focus on strengthening the law enforcement sector by professionalizing the UPF and improving police-community relationships. When feasible, training will include the northern part of the country as well. Specifically, assistance will involve further development and support of a forensic laboratory to facilitate evidence-based investigations and prosecutions of criminal activity. Funds will be used to provide technical advisory services, training, and appropriate lab equipment. The forensic advisor will continue to work with the director of the UPF forensic laboratory to provide management and supervisory training, review and enhance policy manuals, and identify the most pressing technical training needs. Professionalization of the police will help improve Uganda's capacity to deter regional and internal threats and suppress crime without violating human rights or interfering with appropriate political activities.

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Uganda
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Police Modernization
-
-
-
350
Total

-
-
-
350


Africa Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

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FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

500

---

2,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Our strategic vision is to build the capacity of Trans Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) member governments to prevent and respond to terrorism.

INCLE funds will assist in the development of the capacities of governments in the pan-Sahel (Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal) to confront the challenge posed by terrorist organizations in the region and to facilitate cooperation between those countries and other Maghreb state partners in combating terrorism. Assistance will provide training, technical assistance and equipment to TSCTP member law enforcement institutions to develop their capacity in general policing skills, and possibly border security.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in TSCTP member states will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of select law enforcement and border guard units.

Performance will be measured by the numbers of law enforcement officials trained; the development and implementation of modern police curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select training facilities; and the increased capacity of law enforcement officials to detect, investigate and dismantle terrorist groups and other crimes.

Transformational Diplomacy

Developing general policing capabilities in TSCTP member states advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security Objective through supporting and building law enforcement and border control services with the capacity to investigate and dismantle criminal and terrorist groups, interdict trafficking and smuggling, manage crime scenes, and cooperate with regional and USG law enforcement agencies in investigations of complex transnational crimes.

Program Justification

The TSCTP is a multi-faceted, multi-year strategy aimed at defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region's security forces, promoting democratic governance, discrediting terrorist ideology, and reinforcing bilateral military ties with the United States.

The FY 2009 program would provide regional INCLE funds to focus on developing the capabilities of partner law enforcement institutions through training, equipment and technical assistance with the aim to help build strong foundations for ongoing and planned law enforcement training activities in counterterrorism under the TSCTP. Programming will focus on counterterrorism and seek to build a base for other TSCTP programs.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 funds represent the first year for INL assistance in TSCTP. All activities will be closely coordinated with the interagency partners, host governments and other international donors. Implementation will be coordinated with the Department of State Bureau of Diplomatic Security activities and training already underway as part of TSCTP which enhance counterterrorism focused law enforcement capabilities in the region.

FY 2009 Program

In FY 2009 INL will provide training, technical assistance and equipment to TSCTP law enforcement institutions to develop their capacity in general policing skills. Programs will be designed in coordination with Posts, interagency implementers and host governments. Assistance may include training and technical advising on investigatory techniques, surveillance, crime scene management and evidence collection. Other options include police equipment support, train and equip programs for specialized police units, police academy development, technical assistance in border control and training in general and advanced policing skills, such as anti-money laundering and counter terrorist financing.

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Africa Regional
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Request

Counterterrorism

Building government capabilities
-
-
-
2,500

Sub-Total
-
-
-
2,500
Law Enforcement Development
150
-
-
-
Forensic Laboratory Development
250
-
-
-
Counternarcotics
100
-
-
-
Total

500
-
-
2,500

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